Provided by: wiggle_0.8-1_amd64 bug


       wiggle - apply rejected patches and perform word-wise diffs


       wiggle [function] [options] file [files]


       The  main  function  of  wiggle  is  to apply a patch to a file in a similar manner to the
       patch(1) program.

       The distinctive difference of wiggle is that it will attempt to apply a patch even if  the
       "before"  part  of the patch doesn't match the target file perfectly.  This is achieved by
       breaking the file and patch into words and finding the best alignment of words in the file
       with  words in the patch.  Once this alignment has been found, any differences (word-wise)
       in the patch are applied to the file as best as possible.

       Also, wiggle will (in some cases) detect changes that have already been applied, and  will
       ignore them.

       wiggle ensures that every change in the patch is applied to the target file somehow.  If a
       particular change cannot be made in the file, the file is  annotated  to  show  where  the
       change  should be made is a similar way to the merge(1) program.  Each annotation contains
       3 components: a portion of the original file where the change should be applied, a portion
       of  the  patch  that  couldn't  be matched precisely in the file, and the text that should
       replace that portion of the patch.  These are separated by lines  containing  precisely  7
       identical characters, either '<', '|', '=', or '>', so
            Some portion of the original file
            text to replace
            text to replace it with

       indicates that "text to replace" should be replaced by "text to replace it with" somewhere
       in the portion of the original file.  However wiggle was not able to find a place to  make
       this change.

       wiggle  can  also produce conflict reports showing only the words that are involved rather
       than showing whole lines.  In this case the output looks like:

       A typical usage of wiggle is to run patch to apply some patch, and to collect  a  list  of
       rejects  by  monitoring  the  error  messages  from patch.  Then for each file for which a
       reject was found, run
            wiggle --replace originalfile originalfile.rej

       Finally each file must be examined to resolve any unresolved conflicts, and to  make  sure
       the applied patch is semantically correct.

       The  following  options  are  understood  by  wiggle.  Some of these are explained in more
       detail in the following sections on MERGE, DIFF, and EXTRACT.

       -m, --merge
              Select the "merge" function.  This is the default function.

       -d, --diff
              Select the "diff" function.  This displays the differences between files.

       -x, --extract
              Select the "extract" function.  This extracts one branch of a patch or merge file.

       -w, --words
              Request that all operations and display be word based.  This is the default for the
              "diff" function.

       -l, --lines
              Request that all operations and display be line based.

       -p, --patch
              Treat  the  last  named  file as a patch instead of a file (with --diff) or a merge

       -r, --replace
              Normally the merged output is written  to  standard-output.   With  --replace,  the
              original file is replaced with the merge output.

       -R, --reverse
              When  used  with  the  "diff"  function,  swap  the  files  before  calculating the
              differences.  When used with  the  "merge"  function,  wiggle  attempts  to  revert
              changes rather than apply them.

       -i, --no-ignore
              Normally  wiggle with ignore changes in the patch which appear to already have been
              applied in the original.  With this flag those changes are  reported  as  conflicts
              rather than being ignored.

       -h, --help
              Print  a  simple  help  message.   If  given  after  one  of the function selectors
              (--merge, --diff, --extract) help specific to that function is displayed.

       -V, --version
              Display the version number of wiggle.

       -v, --verbose
              Enable verbose mode.  Currently this makes no difference.

       -q, --quiet
              Enable quiet mode.  This suppresses the message from the merge function when  there
              are unresolvable conflicts.

       wiggle can divide a text into lines or words when performing it's tasks.  A line is simply
       a string of characters terminated by a newline.  A word is  either  a  maximal  contiguous
       string  of  alphanumerics  (including underscore), a maximal contiguous string of space or
       tab characters, or any other single character.

       The merge function modifies a given text by finding all changes between  two  other  texts
       and imposing those changes on the given text.

       Normally  wiggle  considers  words which have changed so as to maximise the possibility of
       finding a good match in the given text for the context of a given change.  However it  can
       consider only whole lines.

       wiggle  extracts  the  three  texts  that  it needs from files listed on the command line.
       Either 1, 2, or 3 files may be listed, and any one of them may be a lone hyphen signifying

       If  one  file  is  given,  it is treated as a merge file, i.e. the output of "merge -A" or
       "wiggle".  Such a file implicitly contains three  streams  and  these  are  extracted  and

       If two files are given, then the first simply contains the primary text, and the second is
       treated as a patch file (the output of "diff -u" or  "diff -c",  or  a  ".rej"  file  from
       patch) and the two other texts are extracted from that.

       Finally  if  three  files are listed, they are taken to contain the given text and the two
       other texts, in order.

       Normally the result of the merge is written to standard-output.  However if the "-r"  flag
       is  given, the output is written to a file which replaces the original given file. In this
       case the original file is renamed to have a .porig suffix (for  "patched  original"  which
       makes  sense  if  you  first use patch to apply a patch, and then use wiggle to wiggle the
       rejects in).

       If no errors occur (such as file access errors) wiggle will exit with a status of 0 if all
       changes  were successfully merged, and with an exit status of 1 and a brief message if any
       changes could not be fully merged and were instead inserted as annotations.

       The merge function can operate in three different modes with respect to lines or words.

       With the --lines option, whole lines are compared and any conflicts are reported as  whole
       lines that need to be replaced.

       With the --words option, individual words are compared and any conflicts are reported just
       covering the words affected.  This used the  <<<|||===>>>  conflict format.

       Without either of these options,  a  hybrid  approach  is  taken.   Individual  words  are
       compared  and  merged, but when a conflict is found the whole surrounding line is reported
       as being in conflict.

       wiggle will ensure that every change between the two  other  texts  is  reflected  in  the
       result  of  the  merge  somehow.   There  are  four  different  ways  that a change can be

       1      If a change converts A to B and A is found at a  suitable  place  in  the  original
              file,  it  is  replaced with B.  This includes the possibility that B is empty, but
              not that A is empty.

       2      If a change is found which simply adds B and the  text  immediately  preceding  and
              following  the  insertion  are  found  adjacent  in the original file in a suitable
              place, then B is inserted between those adjacent texts.

       3      If a change is found which changes A to B and this appears (based  on  context)  to
              align  with B in the original, then it is assumed that this change has already been
              applied, and the change is ignored.  When this happens,  a  message  reflected  the
              number  of  ignored  changes  is  printed  by  wiggle.   This  optimisation  can be
              suppressed with the -i flag.

       4      If a change is found that does not fit any  of  the  above  possibilities,  then  a
              conflict is reported as described earlier.

       The  diff function is provided primarily to allow inspection of the alignments that wiggle
       calculated between texts and that it uses for performing a merge.

       The output of the diff function is similar to the unified output of diff.   However  while
       diff does not output long stretches of common text, wiggle's diff mode outputs everything.

       When calculating a word-based alignment (the default), wiggle may need to show these word-
       based differences.  This is done using an extension to the unified-diff format.  If a line
       starts  with  a  vertical  bar,  then it may contain sections surrounded by special multi-
       character brackets.  The brackets "<<<++" and "++>>>" surround added  text  while  "<<<--"
       and "-->>>" surround removed text.

       wiggle can be given the two texts to compare in one of three ways.

       If only one file is given, then it is treated as a patch and the two branches of that diff
       are compared.  This effectively allows a patch to be refined from a line-based patch to  a
       word-based patch.

       If two files are given, then they are normally assumed to be simple texts to be compared.

       If  two  files are given along with the --patch option, then the second file is assumed to
       be a patch and either the first (with -1) or the second (with -2) branch is extracted  and
       compared with text found in the first file.

       This  last  option  causes wiggle to apply a "best-fit" algorithm for aligning patch hunks
       with the file before computing the differences.  This algorithm is  used  when  merging  a
       patch with a file, and its value can be seen by comparing the difference produced this was
       with the difference produced by first extracting one branch of a patch into  a  file,  and
       then computing the difference of that file with the main file.

       The  extract  function  of wiggle simply exposes the internal functionality for extracting
       one branch of a patch or a merge file.

       Precisely one file should be given, and it will be assumed  to  be  a  merge  file  unless
       --patch is given, in which case a patch is assumed.

       The choice of branch in made by providing one of -1, -2, or -3 with obvious meanings.


       Caution should always be exercised when applying a rejected patch with wiggle.  When patch
       rejects a patch, it does so for a good reason.  Even though wiggle may be able to  find  a
       believable  place  to  apply each textual change, there is no guarantee that the result is
       correct in any semantic sense.  The result should always be inspected to make sure  it  is


         wiggle --replace file file.rej
       This  is the normal usage of wiggle and will take any changes in file.rej that patch could
       not apply, and merge them into file.

         wiggle -dp1 file file.rej
       This will perform a word-wise comparison between the file and the  before  branch  of  the
       diff  in file.rej and display the differences.  This allows you to see where a given patch
       would apply.

          wiggle --merge --help
       Get help about the merge function of wiggle.


       The name of wiggle was inspired by the following quote, even though wiggle does not  (yet)
       have a graphical interface.

       The problem I find is that I often want to take
         (file1+patch) -> file2,
       when I don't have file1.  But merge tools want to take
         (file1|file2) -> file3.
       I haven't seen a graphical tool which helps you to wiggle a patch
       into a file.

       -- Andrew Morton - 2002


       -      wiggle  cannot  read  the  extended unified-diff output that it produces for --diff

       -      wiggle cannot read the  word-based  merge  format  that  it  produces  for  --merge


       Neil  Brown  at  Computer  Science  and  Engineering at The University of New South Wales,
       Sydney, Australia


       patch(1), diff(1), merge(1), wdiff(1), diff3(1).