Provided by: wmii_3.9.2+debian-3ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       wmii - Window Manager Improved²


       wmii [-a <address>] [-r <wmiirc>]

       wmii -v


       wmii is a dynamic window manager for X11. In contrast to static window management the user
       rarely has to think about how to organize windows, no matter what he is doing or how  many
       applications  are  used  at  the  same  time.   The  window  manager adapts to the current
       environment and fits to the needs of the user, rather than forcing him to  use  a  preset,
       fixed layout and trying to shoehorn all windows and applications into it.

       wmii  supports  classic  and  tiled  window  management  with  extended keyboard and mouse
       control. The classic window management arranges windows  in  a  floating  layer  in  which
       windows  can  be moved and resized freely. The tiled window management is based on columns
       which split up the screen horizontally. Each column handles arbitrary windows and arranges
       them  vertically  in a non-overlapping way. They can then be moved and resized between and
       within columns at will.

       wmii provides a virtual filesystem which represents the  internal  state  similar  to  the
       procfs  of  Unix operating systems.  Modifying this virtual filesystem results in changing
       the state of the window manager. The virtual filesystem service can  be  accessed  through
       9P-capable client programs, like wmiir(1).  This allows simple and powerful remote control
       of the core window manager.

       wmii basically consists of clients, columns, views, and the bar, which  are  described  in
       detail in the Terminology section.

   Command Line Arguments
       -a <address>
              Specifies  the  address  on  which  wmii should listen for connections. The address
              takes the form <protocol>!<address>. The default is of the form:


              which opens a unix socket per Plan 9  Port  conventions.  To  open  a  TCP  socket,
              listening at port 4332 on the loopback interface, use:


              $WMII_NAMESPACE is automatically set to this value.

       -r <wmiirc>
              Specifies  which  rc  script  to  run.  If  <wmiirc> consists of a single argument,
              $WMII_CONFPATH is searched before $PATH.  Otherwise, it is passed to the shell  for
              evaluation.  The  environment variables $WMII_ADDRESS and $WMII_CONFPATH are preset
              for the script.

              == Terminology ==

              A running X server instance consisting of input devices and screens.

       Screen A physical or virtual (Xinerama or Xnest(1)) screen  of  an  X  display.  A  screen
              displays a bar window and a view at a time.

       Window A  (rectangular)  drawable  X  object  which  is  displayed on a screen, usually an
              application window.

       Client An application window surrounded by a  frame  window  containing  a  border  and  a

       Floating layer
              A  screen layer of wmii on top of all other layers, where clients are arranged in a
              classic (floating) way.  They can be resized or moved freely.

       Managed layer
              A screen layer of wmii behind the floating layer, where clients are arranged  in  a
              non-overlapping  (managed)  way.  Here, the window manager dynamically assigns each
              client a size and position.  The managed layer consists of columns.

       Tag    Alphanumeric strings which can be assigned to a client. This provides  a  mechanism
              to  group clients with similar properties. Clients can have one tag, e.g.  work, or
              several tags, e.g.  work+mail.  Tags are separated with the + character.

       View   A set of clients containing a specific tag, quite similar to a workspace  in  other
              window managers.  It consists of the floating and managed layers.

       Column A  column  is  a screen area which arranges clients vertically in a non-overlapping
              way. Columns provide three different modes, which arrange clients with equal  size,
              stacked,  or  maximized respectively.  Clients can be moved and resized between and
              within columns freely.

       Bar    The bar at the bottom of the screen displays a label for each view and  allows  the
              creation of arbitrary user-defined labels.

       Event  An  event  is  a message which can be read from a special file in the filesystem of
              wmii, such as a mouse button press,  a  key  press,  or  a  message  written  by  a
              different 9P-client.

   Basic window management
       Running  a  raw  wmii  process without a wmiirc(1) script provides basic window management
       capabilities already.   However,  to  use  it  effectively,  remote  control  through  its
       filesystem  interface  is  necessary.   By  default  it  is  only usable with the mouse in
       conjunction with the Mod1 (Alt) modifier key. Other interactions, such as customizing  the
       style,  killing  or  retagging  clients,  and  grabbing  keys,  cannot be achieved without
       accessing the filesystem.

       The filesystem can be accessed by connecting to the address of wmii  with  any  9P-capable
       client, such as wmiir(1)

       An  action  is  a shell script in the default setup, but it can actually be any executable
       file.  It is executed usually by selecting it from the actions menu.  You can customize an
       action by copying it from the global action directory '/etc/X11/wmii' to '$HOME/.wmii' and
       then editing the copy to fit your needs.  Of course you can also create your  own  actions
       there; make sure that they are executable.

       Here is a list of the default actions:

        quit      leave the window manager nicely
        status    periodically print date and load average to the bar
        welcome   display a welcome message that contains the wmii tutorial
        wmiirc    configure wmii

   Default Key Bindings
       All of the provided wmiirc scripts accept at least the following key bindings. They should
       also provide a showkeys action to open a key binding quick-reference.

   Moving Around
        Key           Action
        Mod-h         Move to a window to the left of the one currently focused
        Mod-l         Move to a window to the right of the one currently focused
        Mod-j         Move to the window below the one currently focused
        Mod-k         Move to a window above the one currently focused
        Mod-space     Toggle between the managed and floating layers
        Mod-t <tag>   Move to the view of the given <tag>
        Mod-[0-9]     Move to the view with the given number

   Moving Things Around
        Key                 Action
        Mod-Shift-h         Move the current window window to a column on the left
        Mod-Shift-l         Move the current window to a column on the right
        Mod-Shift-j         Move the current window below the window beneath it.
        Mod-Shift-k         Move the current window above the window above it.
        Mod-Shift-space     Toggle the current window between the managed and floating layer
        Mod-Shift-t <tag>   Move the current window to the view of the given <tag>
        Mod-Shift-[0-9]     Move the current window to the view with the given number

        Key               Action
        Mod-m             Switch the current column to max mode
        Mod-s             Switch the current column to stack mode
        Mod-d             Switch the current column to default mode
        Mod-Shift-c       Kill the selected client
        Mod-p <program>   Execute <program>
        Mod-a <action>    Execute the named <action
        Mod-Enter         Execute an x-terminal-emulator


       If you feel the need to change the default configuration,  then  customize  (as  described
       above)  the wmiirc action.  This action is executed at the end of the wmii script and does
       all the work of setting up the window manager, the key bindings, the bar labels, etc.

       Most aspects of wmii are controlled via the filesystem.  It is usually  accessed  via  the
       wmiir(1)  command,  but it can be accessed by any 9P, including plan9port's 9P[1], and can
       be mounted natively on Linux via v9fs[1], and on Inferno (which man run on top of Linux).

       The filesystem is, as are many other 9P filesystems, entirely synthetic. The  files  exist
       only  in memory, and are not written to disk. They are generally initiated on wmii startup
       via a script such as rc.wmii or wmiirc. Several files read commands, others simply act  as
       if  they were ordinary files (their contents are updated and returned exactly as written),
       though writing them has side-effects (such as changing key bindings). A description of the
       filesystem layout and control commands follows.

       /      Global control files

              Client control files

              View control files

       /lbar/, /rbar/
              Files representing the contents of the bottom bar

   The / Hierarchy
              The  colrules file contains a list of rules which affect the width of newly created
              columns.  Rules have the form:

                    /<regex>/ -> <width>[+<width>]*

              When a new column, n, is created on a view whose  name  matches  <regex>,  the  nth
              given  <width>  percentage  of the screen is given to it. If there is no nth width,
              1/ncolth of the screen is given to it.

              The tagrules file contains a list of rules similar to  the  colrules.  These  rules
              specify the tags a client is to be given when it is created.  Rules are specified:

                    /<regex>/ -> <tag>[+<tag>]*

              When  a  client's <name>:<class>:<title> matches <regex>, it is given the tagstring
              <tag>. There are two special tags. !, which is deprecated, and  identical  to  sel,
              represents the current tag. ~ represents the floating layer.

       keys   The  keys  file  contains  a  list of keys which wmii will grab. Whenever these key
              combinations are pressed, the string which represents them are written to  '/event'
              as: Key <string>

       event  The  event  file never returns EOF while wmii is running. It stays open and reports
              events as they occur. Included among them are:

               [Not]Urgent <client> [Manager|Client]
                      <client>'s urgent hint has been set or unset. The second arg is [Client] if
                      it's  been  set by the client, and [Manager] if it's been set by wmii via a
                      control message.

               [Not]UrgentTag <tag> [Manager|Client]
                      A client on <tag> has had its urgent hint set, or the  last  urgent  client
                      has had its urgent hint unset.

               Client<Click|MouseDown> <client> <button>
                      A  client's  titlebar  has either been clicked or has a button pressed over

               [Left|Right]Bar[Click|MouseDown] <button> <bar>
                      A left or right bar has been clicked or has a button pressed over it.

       For a more comprehensive list of available events, see wmii.pdf[2]

       ctl    The ctl file takes a number of messages to change global settings such as color and
              font, which can be viewed by reading it. It also takes the following commands:

               quit   Quit wmii

               exec <prog>
                      Replace wmii with <prog>

               spawn <prog>
                      Spawn a new program, as if by the -r flag.

   The /client/ Hierarchy
       Each directory under '/client/' represents an X11 client.  Each directory is named for the
       X window id of the window the client  represents,  in  the  form  that  most  X  utilities
       recognize.   The  one  exception  is  the  special  'sel'  directory, which represents the
       currently selected client.

       ctl    When read, the 'ctl' file returns the X window id  of  the  client.  The  following
              commands may be written to it:

               kill   Close  the  client's  window. This command will likely kill the X client in
                      the future (including its other windows),  while  the  close  command  will
                      replace it.

               Urgent <on | off | toggle>
                      Set or unset the client's urgent hint.

               Fullscreen <on | off | toggle>

       label  Set or read a client's label (title).

       props  Returns a clients class and label as: <name>:<class>:<label>

       tags   Set  or  read  a client's tags. Tags are separated by + or -. Tags beginning with +
              are added, while those beginning with - are removed.  If  the  tag  string  written
              begins with + or -, the written tags are added to or removed from the client's set,
              otherwise, the set is overwritten.

   The /tag/ Hierarchy
       Each directory under '/tag/' represents a view, containing all of  the  clients  with  the
       given tag applied. The special 'sel' directory represents the currently selected tag.

       ctl    The  'ctl'  file  can  be  read  to  retrieve  the  name  of  the tag the directory
              represents, or written with the following commands:

               select Select a client: select [left|right|up|down]

               select [<row number>|sel] [<frame number>]

               select client <client>

               send   Send a client somewhere:

                       send [<client>|sel] [up|down|left|right]

                       send [<client>|sel] <area>
                              Send <client> to the nth <area>

                       send [<client>|sel] toggle
                              Toggle <client> between the floating and managed layer.

               swap   Swap a client with another. Same syntax as send.

               grow   Grow or shrink a client.

                           grow <frame> <direction> [<amount>]

               nudge  Nudge a client in a given direction.

                           grow <frame> <direction> [<amount>]

       Where the arguments are defined as follows:

               area   Selects a column or the floating area.

                           area        ::= <area_spec> | <screen_spec>:<area_spec>

                      When <screen_spec> is omitted and <area_spec> is not "sel", 0  is  assumed.
                      "sel" by itself represents the selected client no matter which screen it is

                           area_spec   ::= "~" | <number> | "sel"

                      Where "~" represents the floating area and  <number>  represents  a  column
                      index, starting at one.

                           screen_spec ::= <number>

                      Where <number> representes the 0-based Xinerama screen number.

               frame  Selects a client window.

                           frame ::= <area> <index> | <area> sel | client <window-id>

                      Where  <index> represents the nth frame of <area> or <window-id> is the X11
                      window id of the given client.

               amount The amount to grow or nudge something.

                           amount ::= <number> | <number>px

                      If "px" is given,  <number>  is  interperated  as  an  exact  pixel  count.
                      Otherwise,  it's  interperated  as  a "reasonable" amount, which is usually
                      either the height of a window's title bar,  or  its  sizing  increment  (as
                      defined by X11) in a given direction.

       index  Read for a description of the contents of a tag.

   The /rbar/, /lbar/ Hierarchy
       The  files under '/rbar/' and '/lbar/' represent the items of the bar at the bottom of the
       screen. Files under '/lbar/' appear on the  left  side  of  the  bar,  while  those  under
       '/rbar/'  appear on the right, with the leftmost item occupying all extra available space.
       The items are sorted lexicographically.

       The files may be read to obtain the colors and text of the bars.  The colors  are  at  the
       beginning  of  the string, represented as a tuple of 3 hex color codes for the foreground,
       background, and border, respectively. When writing  the  bar  files,  the  colors  may  be
       omitted if the text would not otherwise appear to contain them.


              The wmii socket file which provides a 9P service.

              Global action directory.

              User-specific action directory. Actions are first searched here.


       $HOME, $DISPLAY
              See the section FILES above.

       The following variables are set and exported within wmii and thus can be used in actions:

              The address on which wmii is listening.

              The namespace directory to use if no address is provided.


       dmenu(1), wmiir(1)



       [2] /build/buildd/wmii-3.9.2+debian/debian/wmii/usr/share/doc/wmii/wmii.pdf