Provided by: wordnet_3.0-26.1_amd64 bug


       wn - command line interface to WordNet lexical database


       wn [ searchstr ] [ -h] [ -g ] [ -a ] [ -l ] [ -o ] [ -s ] [ -n# ] [ search_option... ]


       wn()  provides  a  command  line  interface  to the WordNet database, allowing synsets and
       relations to be displayed as formatted  text.   For  each  word,  different  searches  are
       provided,  based  on  syntactic  category  and pointer types.  Although only base forms of
       words  are  usually  stored  in  WordNet,  users  may  search  for  inflected  forms.    A
       morphological  process  is applied to the search string to generate a form that is present
       in WordNet.

       The command line interface is often useful when writing  scripts  to  extract  information
       from the WordNet database.  Post-processing of the output with various scripting tools can
       reformat the results as desired.


       -h             Print help text before search results.

       -g             Display textual glosses associated with synsets.

       -a             Display lexicographer file information.

       -o             Display synset offset of each synset.

       -s             Display each word's sense numbers in synsets.

       -l             Display the WordNet copyright notice, version number, and license.

       -n#            Perform search on sense number # only.

       -over          Display overview of all senses of searchstr in all syntactic categories.

   Search Options
       Note that the last letter of search_option generally denotes the part of speech  that  the
       search  applies  to:  n  for  nouns,  v  for  verbs,  a for adjectives, and r for adverbs.
       Multiple searches may be done for searchstr with a single command by  specifying  all  the
       appropriate search options.

       -syns(n | v | a | r)
                      Display  synonyms  and immediate hypernyms of synsets containing searchstr.
                      Synsets are ordered by estimated frequency  of  use.   For  adjectives,  if
                      searchstr  is  in  a  head  synset,  the  cluster's  satellite  synsets are
                      displayed in place of hypernyms.  If searchstr is in  a  satellite  synset,
                      its head synset is also displayed.

       -simsv         Display  verb  synonyms  and  immediate  hypernyms  of  synsets  containing
                      searchstr.  Synsets are grouped by similarity of meaning.

       -ants(n | v | a | r)
                      Display synsets containing  antonyms  of  searchstr.   For  adjectives,  if
                      searchstr  is  in  a head synset, searchstr has a direct antonym.  The head
                      synset for the direct antonym is displayed along with the direct  antonym's
                      satellite synsets.  If searchstr is in a satellite synset, searchstr has an
                      indirect antonym via the head synset, which is displayed.

       -faml(n | v | a | r)
                      Display familiarity and polysemy information for searchstr.

       -hype(n | v)   Recursively display hypernym (superordinate) tree for searchstr  (searchstr
                      IS A KIND OF _____ relation).

       -hypo(n | v)   Display immediate hyponyms (subordinates) for searchstr (_____ IS A KIND OF
                      searchstr relation).

       -tree(n | v)   Display hyponym (subordinate) tree for  searchstr.   This  is  a  recursive
                      search that finds the hyponyms of each hyponym.

       -coor(n | v)   Display  the  coordinates  (sisters)  of searchstr.  This search prints the
                      immediate  hypernym  for  each  synset  that  contains  searchstr  and  the
                      hypernym's immediate hyponyms.

       -deri(n | v)   Display derivational morphology links between noun and verb forms.

       -domn(n | v | a | r)
                      Display domain that searchstr has been classified in.

       -domt(n | v | a | r)
                      Display all terms classified as members of the searchstr's domain.

       -subsn         Display substance meronyms of searchstr (HAS SUBSTANCE relation).

       -partn         Display part meronyms of searchstr (HAS PART relation).

       -membn         Display member meronyms of searchstr (HAS MEMBER relation).

       -meron         Display  all  meronyms  of  searchstr  (HAS PART, HAS MEMBER, HAS SUBSTANCE

       -hmern         Display meronyms for searchstr tree.   This  is  a  recursive  search  that
                      prints all the meronyms of searchstr and all of its hypernyms.

       -sprtn         Display part of holonyms of searchstr (PART OF relation).

       -smemn         Display member of holonyms of searchstr (MEMBER OF relation).

       -ssubn         Display substance of holonyms of searchstr (SUBSTANCE OF relation).

       -holon         Display  all  holonyms  of  searchstr  (PART  OF,  MEMBER  OF, SUBSTANCE OF

       -hholn         Display holonyms for searchstr tree.   This  is  a  recursive  search  that
                      prints all the holonyms of searchstr and all of each holonym's holonyms.

       -entav         Display entailment relations of searchstr.

       -framv         Display applicable verb sentence frames for searchstr.

       -causv         Display cause to relations of searchstr.

        -pert(a | r)  Display pertainyms of searchstr.

        -attr(n | a)  Display  adjective  values  for  noun  attribute,  or  noun  attributes  of
                      adjective values.

       -grep(n | v | a | r)
                      List compound words containing searchstr as a substring.


       The results of a search are written to the standard output.  For each search,  the  output
       consists a one line description of the search, followed by the search results.

       All searches other than -over list all senses matching the search results in the following
       general format.  Items enclosed  in  italicized  square  brackets  ([ ... ])  may  not  be

              One line listing the number of senses matching the search request.

              Each sense matching the search requested displayed as follows:

                   Sense n
                   [{synset_offset}] [<lex_filename>]  word1[#sense_number][,  word2...]

              Where n is the sense number of the search word, synset_offset is the byte offset of
              the  synset  in  the  data.pos  file  corresponding  to  the  syntactic   category,
              lex_filename  is  the  name  of  the lexicographer file that the synset comes from,
              word1 is the first word in the synset (note that this is not necessarily the search
              word)  and sense_number is the WordNet sense number assigned to the preceding word.
              synset_offset, lex_filename, and sense_number are generated when the -o, -a, and -s
              options, respectively, are specified.

              The  synsets  matching  the  search requested are printed below each sense's synset
              output described above.  Each line of output is preceded by a marker (usually  =>),
              then  a synset, formatted as described above.  If a search traverses more one level
              of the tree, then successive lines are indented  by  spaces  corresponding  to  its
              level  in  the  hierarchy.   When  the  -g  option is specified, synset glosses are
              displayed in parentheses at the end of each synset.  Each synset is printed on  one

              Senses  are  generally  ordered  from  most to least frequently used, with the most
              common sense numbered 1.  Frequency of use is determined by the number of  times  a
              sense  is  tagged  in  the various semantic concordance texts.  Senses that are not
              semantically tagged follow the ordered senses.  Note that this ordering is only  an
              estimate based on usage in a small corpus.

              Verb  senses  can  be  grouped  by  similarity  of  meaning, rather than ordered by
              frequency of use.  The -simsv search prints all senses that are  close  in  meaning
              together,  with  a line of dashes indicating the end of a group.  See wngroups(7WN)
              for a discussion of how senses are grouped.

              The -over search displays an overview of all the senses of the search word  in  all
              syntactic  categories.  The results of this search are similar to the -syns search,
              however no additional (ex. hypernym) synsets are displayed, and synset glosses  are
              always  printed.   The senses are grouped by syntactic category, and each synset is
              annotated as described above with synset_offset, lex_filename, and sense_number  as
              dictated  by  the  -o,  -a, and -s options.  The overview search also indicates how
              many of the senses in each syntactic category are represented in the tagged  texts.
              This  is a way for the user to determine whether a sense's sense number is based on
              semantic tagging data, or was arbitrarily  assigned.    For  each  sense  that  has
              appeared  in such texts, the number of semantic tags to that sense are indicated in
              parentheses after the sense number.

              If a search cannot be performed on some senses of searchstr, the search results are
              headed by a string of the form:
                   X of Y senses of searchstr

              The output of the -deri search shows word forms that are morphologically related to
              searchstr. Each word form pointed to  from  searchstr  is  displayed,  preceded  by
              RELATED TO-> and the syntactic category of the link, followed, on the next line, by
              its synset.  Printed after the word form is #n where n indicates the WordNet  sense
              number of the term pointed to.

              The  -domn  and -domt searches show the domain that a synset has been classified in
              and, conversely, all of the terms that have been assigned to a specific domain.   A
              domain  is  either  a  TOPIC, REGION or USAGE, as reflected in the specific pointer
              character stored in the database, and displayed in the output.  A -domn search on a
              term  shows  the  domain,  if  any,  that each synset containing searchstr has been
              classified in.  The output display shows the domain type (TOPIC, REGION or  USAGE),
              followed  by  the  syntactic  category  of  the  domain synset and the terms in the
              synset.  Each term is followed by #n where n indicates the WordNet sense number  of
              the  term.   The  converse  search,  -domt, shows all of the synsets that have been
              placed into the domain searchstr, with analogous markers.

              When -framv is specified, sample illustrative sentences and generic sentence frames
              are  displayed.   If  a  sample  sentence  is  found,  the  base  form of search is
              substituted into the sentence, and it is printed below the  synset,  preceded  with
              the  EX:  marker.   When no sample sentences are found, the generic sentence frames
              are displayed.  Sentence frames that are acceptable for all words in a  synset  are
              preceded  by  the marker *>.  If a frame is acceptable for the search word only, it
              is preceded by the marker =>.

              Search results for adjectives are slightly different from those for other parts  of
              speech.   When  an adjective is printed, its direct antonym, if it has one, is also
              printed in parentheses.  When searchstr is in  a  head  synset,  all  of  the  head
              synset's  satellites  are also displayed.  The position of an adjective in relation
              to the noun may  be  restricted  to  the  prenominal,  postnominal  or  predicative
              position.  Where present, these restrictions are noted in parentheses.

              When  an  adjective  is  a  participle of a verb, the output indicates the verb and
              displays its synset.

              When an adverb is derived from an adjective, the specific adjectival sense on which
              it is based is indicated.

              The  morphological  transformations performed by the search code may result in more
              than one word to search for.  WordNet automatically performs the  requested  search
              on  all  of  the strings and returns the results grouped by word.  For example, the
              verb saw is both the present tense of saw and the past tense of see.   When  passed
              searchstr  saw,  WordNet  performs the desired search first on saw and next on see,
              returning the list of saw senses and search results, followed by those for see.


       wn() normally exits with the number of senses displayed.  If searchword is  not  found  in
       WordNet, it exits with 0.

       If  the  WordNet  database cannot be opened, an error messages is displayed and wn() exits
       with -1.


       WNHOME              Base directory for WordNet.  Default is /usr/local/WordNet-3.0.

       WNSEARCHDIR         Directory in which the WordNet database has been  installed.   Default
                           is WNHOME/dict.


                           Base directory for WordNet.  Default is C:\Program Files\WordNet\3.0.


       index.pos           database index files

       data.pos            database data files

       *.vrb               files of sentences illustrating the use of verbs

       pos.exc             morphology exception lists


       wnintro(1WN),    wnb(1WN),    wnintro(3WN),    lexnames(5WN),   senseidx(5WN)   wndb(5WN),
       wninput(5WN), morphy(7WN), wngloss(7WN), wngroups(7WN).


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