Provided by: wodim_1.1.11-2ubuntu2_amd64 bug

NAME

       wodim - write data to optical disk media

SYNOPSIS

       wodim [options] track1...trackn

NOTE

       There  may  be  similarities and differences between this program and other disk recording
       application(s). See the CREDITS and AUTHORS sections below to learn about  the  origin  of
       wodim.

DESCRIPTION

       wodim  is  used  to record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange Book CD-Recorder or to
       write DVD media on a DVD-Recorder.

       The device is the device file or label offered by  the  operating  system  to  access  the
       recorder  with  SCSI  GENERIC (sg) interface. Note that some operating systems may provide
       separate device nodes for block-oriented and  sg  access.  For  example,  on  older  Linux
       systems,  the  sg  access was available through /dev/sg...  files while the block oriented
       access was done through associated (but not identical)  /dev/hd...   and  /dev/sr...   (or
       /dev/scd...  ) files.

       In  any  case, the user running wodim needs read and write access to the particular device
       file on a Linux system. It is recommended to be root or install the application  as  suid-
       root,  because  certain  versions of Linux (kernel) limit the set of SCSI commands allowed
       for non-root users. Even if usage without root identity is possible in  many  cases,  some
       device  drivers  still  may  fail,  show unexplainable problems and generally the problems
       become harder to debug. The risk for buffer-underruns is also increased. See  the  PROCESS
       SCHEDULING PRIORITY section below for more details.

       There  is  an  alternative  way  of  specifying  the  device,  using  the traditional SCSI
       descriptions in form of devicetype:bus/target/lun specification. However, the  success  of
       this   method  is  not  guaranteed  since  it  requires  an  adaptation  scheme  for  your
       architecture, and the numbers may vary depending on the hardware-internal numbering or  on
       the  order  of  hot-plug  device  detection.  If  your operating system does not provide a
       sufficient framework for keeping this numbers persistent, don't rely on them. See -scanbus
       and --devices options below for details.

       There  are  emulated  SCSI compatible device systems, using the SCSI protocols transported
       over various hardware/media types. The most known examples is ATAPI ("IDE burners") or USB
       storage  ("external  USB  case"). If the pseudo-SCSI b/t/l device address specification is
       used instead of the native one, you need to prepend the "devicetype:" description  to  the
       emulated "bus/target/lun" device address.

       If  a  file  /etc/wodim.conf  exists, the parameter to the dev= option may also be a drive
       name label in that file (see FILES section).

       As a special exception, the device specification can be -1 or just omitted, which  invokes
       automatic  guessing  of  an  appropriate  device for the selected operation. However, this
       guessing is not available everywhere and is not reliable; it is  only  available  for  the
       user's convenience in simple environments.

       In  Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to a single file that contains the prepared
       data for that track.  If the argument is `-', standard input is used for that track.  Only
       one  track  may  be  taken from stdin.  In the other write modes, the direct file to track
       relation may not be implemented.  In -clone mode, a single file contains all data for  the
       whole  disk.   To allow DVD writing on platforms that do not implement large file support,
       wodim concatenates all file arguments to a single track when writing to DVD media.

PROCESS SCHEDULING PRIORITY

       Wodim tries to get higher process priority using  different  methods.  This  is  important
       because  the  burn  process  is usually a realtime task, no long delays should occur while
       transmitting fresh data to the recorder. This is  especially  important  on  systems  with
       insufficient RAM where swapping can create delays of many seconds.

       A  possible  workaround  on  underpowered  systems  is  the use of the burnfree or similar
       feature, allowing the recorder to resume.

       Root permissions are usually required to get higher process scheduling priority.

       On SVr4 compliant systems, wodim uses the real time class to get  the  highest  scheduling
       priority  that is possible (higher than all kernel processes).  On systems with POSIX real
       time scheduling wodim uses real time scheduling too,  but  may  not  be  able  to  gain  a
       priority that is higher than all kernel processes.

       In order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS, run at highest priority
       and lock itself into core wodim either needs to be run as root, needs to be installed suid
       root or must be called via RBACs pfexec mechanism.

GENERAL OPTIONS

       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

       -version
              Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment  the level of general verbosity by one.  This is used e.g. to display the
              progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI  command  transport  by  one.   This
              helps  to  debug  problems  during  the  writing process, that occur in the CD/DVD-
              Recorder.  If you get incomprehensible error messages you should use this  flag  to
              get more detailed output.  -VV will show data buffer content in addition.  Using -V
              or -VV slows down the process and may be the reason for a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
              Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#) or increment the misc debug  level  by
              one  (with  -d). If you specify -dd, this equals to debug=2.  This may help to find
              problems while opening a driver for libusal as well as with sector sizes and sector
              types.   Using  -debug  slows  down  the process and may be the reason for a buffer
              underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
              Tell the usal-driver to modify the kernel  debug  value  while  SCSI  commands  are
              running.

       -silent, -s
              Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force  to  continue  on  some  errors.  Be  careful  when using this option.  wodim
              implements several checks that prevent you from doing unwanted things like damaging
              CD-RW  media  by  improper  drives. Many of the sanity checks are disabled when the
              -force option is used.

              This option also implements some tricks that will allow  you  to  blank  bad  CD-RW
              disks.

       -immed Tell    wodim    to    set    the    SCSI    IMMED   flag   in   certain   commands
              (load/eject/blank/close_track/close_session).  This can be useful on broken systems
              with  ATAPI  harddisk  and  CD/DVD writer on the same bus or with SCSI systems that
              don't use disconnect/reconnect.   These  systems  will  freeze  while  blanking  or
              fixating  a  CD/DVD  or  while  a DVD writer is filling up a session to the minimum
              amount (approx. 800 MB).  Setting the -immed  flag  will  request  the  command  to
              return  immediately  while  the  operation  proceeds  in background, making the bus
              usable for  the  other  devices  and  avoiding  the  system  freeze.   This  is  an
              experimental  feature  which  may work or not, depending on the model of the CD/DVD
              writer.  A correct solution would be to set up a correct cabling but there seem  to
              be notebooks around that have been set up the wrong way by the manufacturer.  As it
              is impossible to fix this problem in notebooks, the -immed option has been added.

              A second experimental feature of the -immed flag is to tell wodim to  try  to  wait
              short times while writing to the media. This is expected to free the IDE bus if the
              CD/DVD writer and the data source are connected to the  same  IDE  cable.  In  this
              case,  the  CD/DVD  writer would otherwise usually block the IDE bus for nearly all
              the time making it impossible to fetch data from the source drive. See also minbuf=
              and -v option.

              Use  both  features  at your own risk.  If it turns out that it would make sense to
              have a separate option for the wait feature, write to the author and convince him.

       minbuf=value
              The # minbuf= option allows to define the minimum drive buffer fill ratio  for  the
              experimental  ATAPI  wait  mode  that is intended to free the IDE bus to allow hard
              disk and CD/DVD writer to be on the same IDE cable.  As  the  wait  mode  currently
              only works when the verbose option -v has been specified, wodim implies the verbose
              option in case the -immed or minbuf= option have been specified.  Valid values  for
              minbuf= are between 25 and 95 for 25%...95% minimum drive buffer fill ratio.

       -dummy The  CD/DVD-Recorder  will  go  through all steps of the recording process, but the
              laser is turned off during this procedure.  It is recommended to run several  tests
              before  actually writing to a Compact Disk or Digital Versatile Disk, if the timing
              and load response of the system is not known.

       -clone Tells wodim to handle images created by readom -clone.  The -clone may only be used
              in  conjunction  with  with  the  -raw96r  or with the -raw16 option.  Using -clone
              together with -raw96r is preferred as it allows to write all subchannel data.   The
              option  -raw16  should  only  be  used  with drives that do not support to write in
              -raw96r mode.

       -dao

       -sao   Set SAO (Session At Once) mode which is usually called Disk  At  Once  mode.   This
              currently  only works with MMC drives that support Session At Once mode.  Note that
              wodim needs to know the size of each track  in  advance  for  this  mode  (see  the
              genisoimage -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -tao   Set  TAO  (Track At Once) writing mode.  This is the default write mode in previous
              wodim versions.  With most drives, this write mode is required  for  multi  session
              recording.

       -raw   Set  RAW  writing  mode.   Using  this option defaults to -raw96r.  Note that wodim
              needs to know the size of each track in advance for this mode (see the  genisoimage
              -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
              Select  Set  RAW  writing  mode  with  2352  byte  sectors plus 96 bytes of raw P-W
              subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448 bytes.  This  is  the  preferred
              raw writing mode as it gives best control over the CD writing process.  If you find
              any problems with the layout of a disk or with  sub  channel  content  (e.g.  wrong
              times  on  the  display  when  playing  the CD) and your drive supports to write in
              -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should give it a try. There are several CD writers with
              bad  firmware that result in broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  Writing
              data disks in raw mode needs significantly more CPU time than other write modes. If
              your  CPU  is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.  Note that wodim needs
              to know the size of each track in  advance  for  this  mode  (see  the  genisoimage
              -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
              Select  Set  RAW  writing  mode  with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of packed P-W
              subchannel data resulting in a sector  size  of  2448  bytes.   This  is  the  less
              preferred  raw  writing  mode  as only a few recorders support it and some of these
              recorders have bugs in the firmware implementation.  Don't use this  mode  if  your
              recorder  supports  -raw96r  or  -raw16.   Writing  data  disks  in  raw mode needs
              significantly more CPU time than other write modes. If your CPU is too  slow,  this
              may  result  in  buffer  underruns.  Note that wodim needs to know the size of each
              track in advance for this mode (see the  genisoimage  -print-size  option  and  the
              EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw16 Select  Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes of P-Q subchannel
              data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.  If  a  recorder  does  not  support
              -raw96r,  this  is  the preferred raw writing mode.  It does not allow to write CD-
              Text or CD+Graphics but it is the only raw writing mode in cheap  CD  writers.   As
              these cheap writers in most cases do not support -dao mode.  Don't use this mode if
              your recorder supports -raw96r.  Writing data disks in raw mode needs significantly
              more  CPU  time than other write modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may result in
              buffer underruns.  Note that wodim needs to know the size of each track in  advance
              for  this mode (see the genisoimage -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for
              more information).

       -multi Allow multi session CDs to be made. This flag needs to be present on  all  sessions
              of  a multi session disk, except you want to create a session that will be the last
              session on the media.  The fixation will be done in a way that allows  the  CD/DVD-
              Recorder to append additional sessions later. This is done by generation a TOC with
              a link to the next program area. The so generated media is not 100%  compatible  to
              manufactured CDs (except for CDplus).  Use only for recording of multi session CDs.
              If this option is present, the default track type is CD-ROM XA mode 2  form  1  and
              the  sector  size  is  2048 bytes.  The XA sector subheaders will be created by the
              drive.  The Sony drives have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1.   You
              have  to  specify  the -data option in order to create multi session disks on these
              drives.  As long as wodim does not have a coder  for  converting  data  sectors  to
              audio  sectors,  you  need to force CD-ROM sectors by including the -data option if
              you like to record  a  multisession  disk  in  SAO  mode.   Not  all  drives  allow
              multisession CDs in SAO mode.

       -msinfo
              Retrieve  multi  session  info  in  a form suitable for genisoimage and print it to
              standard output. See msifile= option for another version.

              This option makes only sense with a CD that contains at least  one  closed  session
              and  is  appendable (not finally closed yet).  Some drives create error messages if
              you try to get the multi session info for a disk that  is  not  suitable  for  this
              operation.

       msifile=filename
              Like -msinfo option but also stores the multi session info in a file.

       -toc   Retrieve  and  print  out  the  table of content or PMA of a CD.  With this option,
              wodim will work with CD-R drives and with CD-ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve and print out the ATIP (absolute Time in  Pre-groove)  info  of  a  CD/DVD
              recordable  or  CD/DVD  re-writable  media.   With  this  option, wodim will try to
              retrieve the ATIP info. If the actual drive does not support to read the ATIP info,
              it  may  be  that  only  a  reduced  set  of information records or even nothing is
              displayed. Only a limited number of MMC compliant drives support to read  the  ATIP
              info.

              If  wodim is able to retrieve the lead-in start time for the first session, it will
              try to decode and print the manufacturer info from the media.  DVD media  does  not
              have  ATIP information but there is equivalent prerecorded information that is read
              out and printed.

       -fix   The disk will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will be  written).   This
              may  be  used,  if  for some reason the disk has been written but not fixated. This
              option currently does not work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the tracks. This may  be  used  to  create  an
              audio  disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can usually not be used on a non CD-writer
              type drive but there are audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before trying to open the SCSI
              driver.  This  allows  wodim  to  read  its  input  from  a  pipe even when writing
              additional sessions to a multi session disk.  When writing  another  session  to  a
              multi  session  disk,  genisoimage  needs  to  read the old session from the device
              before writing output.  This cannot be done if wodim opens the SCSI driver  at  the
              same time.

       -load  Load the media and exit. This only works with a tray loading mechanism but seems to
              be useful when using the Kodak disk transporter.

       -lock  Load the media, lock the door and  exit.  This  only  works  with  a  tray  loading
              mechanism but seems to be useful when using the Kodak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing  the work.  Some devices (e.g. Philips) need to eject the
              medium before creating a new disk. Doing a -dummy test and immediately  creating  a
              real disk would not work on these devices.

       speed=#
              Set  the speed factor of the writing process to #.  # is an integer, representing a
              multiple of the audio speed.  This is about 150 KB/s for CD-ROM, about 172 KB/s for
              CD-Audio  and  about 1385 kB/s for DVD media.  If no speed option is present, wodim
              will try to get a drive specific speed value from the file /etc/wodim.conf  and  if
              it  cannot  find  one,  it  will  try  to  get  the  speed value from the CDR_SPEED
              environment and later from the CDR_SPEED= entry in /etc/wodim.conf.   If  no  speed
              value  could  be found, wodim uses a drive specific default speed.  The default for
              all new (MMC compliant) drives is to use the maximum supported by  the  drive.   If
              you  use  speed=0  with  a  MMC  compliant  drive,  wodim will switch to the lowest
              possible speed for drive and medium.  If you are using an old (non MMC) drive  that
              has problems with speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.

       blank=type
              Blank  a  CD-RW  and exit or blank a CD-RW before writing. The blanking type may be
              one of:

              help        Display a list of possible blanking types.

              all         Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

              fast        Minimally blank the disk. This results in erasing the PMA, the TOC  and
                          the pregap.

              track       Blank a track.

              unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

              trtail      Blank the tail of a track.

              unclose     Unclose last session.

              session     Blank the last session.
       Not all drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary to use blank=all if a drive
       reports a specified command as being invalid.  If used together with the -force flag, this
       option  may  be  used to blank CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you
       may need to specify blank=all because some drives will not continue with certain types  of
       bad  CD-RW  disks.  Note  also  that wodim does its best if the -force flag is used but it
       finally depends on the drive's firmware whether the blanking  operation  will  succeed  or
       not.

       -format
              Format  a  CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW  disc.  Formatting is currently only implemented for
              DVD+RW media.  A 'maiden' DVD+RW media needs to be formatted before you  may  write
              to it.  However, as wodim autodetects the need for formatting in this case and auto
              formats the medium before it starts writing, the -format option is only  needed  if
              you like to forcibly reformat a DVD+RW medium.

       fs=#   Set  the  FIFO  (ring  buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syntax as in dd(1),
              sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the  size  is  taken  in  bytes  unless
              otherwise specified.  If a number is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m',
              `s' or `f', the size is multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.   If  the
              size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*', multiplication of the two numbers
              is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k will specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

              The size specified by the fs= argument includes the shared memory  that  is  needed
              for  administration.  This  is  at  least  one page of memory.  If no fs= option is
              present, wodim  will  try  to  get  the  FIFO  size  value  from  the  CDR_FIFOSIZE
              environment.  The default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

              The  FIFO  is  used  to  increase  buffering for the real time writing process.  It
              allows to run a pipe from genisoimage directly into wodim.  If the FIFO  is  active
              and  a  pipe  from  genisoimage into wodim is used to create a CD, wodim will abort
              prior to do any modifications on the disk if  genisoimage  dies  before  it  starts
              writing.   The  recommended  FIFO  size  is between 4 and 128 MBytes.  As a rule of
              thumb, the FIFO size should be at least equal to the size of the internal buffer of
              the  CD/DVD-Recorder  and no more than half of the physical amount of RAM available
              in the machine.  If the FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO statistics will  print  a
              FIFO empty count of zero and the FIFO min fill is not below 20%.  It is not wise to
              use too much space for the FIFO. If you need more than 8 MB to  write  a  CD  at  a
              speed  less  than 20x from an image on a local file system on an idle machine, your
              machine is either underpowered, has hardware problems or is mis-configured.  If you
              like to write DVDs or CDs at higher speed, it makes sense to use at least 16 MB for
              the FIFO.

              On old and small machines, you need to be more careful with the FIFO size.  If your
              machine  has  less  than  256 MB of physical RAM, you should not set up a FIFO size
              that is more than 32 MB.  The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2)  has  only
              MMU page table entries for 16 MBytes per process. Using more than 14 MBytes for the
              FIFO may cause the operating system in this case to spend much time  to  constantly
              reload  the  MMU  tables.  Newer  machines  from  Sun do not have this MMU hardware
              problem. I have no information on PC-hardware reflecting this problem.

              Old Linux systems for non x86 platforms have  broken  definitions  for  the  shared
              memory  size. You need to fix them and rebuild the kernel or manually tell wodim to
              use a smaller FIFO.

              If you have buffer underruns or similar problems (like  a  constantly  empty  drive
              buffer)  and  observe  a  zero  fifo  empty  count, you have hardware problems that
              prevents the data from flowing fast enough from the kernel memory to the drive. The
              FIFO size in this case is sufficient, but you should check for a working DMA setup.

       ts=#   Set  the  maximum transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.  The syntax for the
              ts= option is the same as for wodim fs=# or sdd bs=#.

              If no ts= option has been specified, wodim defaults to a transfer size of 63 kB. If
              libusal  gets  lower  values from the operating system, the value is reduced to the
              maximum value that is possible with the current operating  system.   Sometimes,  it
              may help to further reduce the transfer size or to enhance it, but note that it may
              take a long time to find a better value by experimenting with the ts= option.

       dev=target
              Sets the SCSI target for the CD/DVD-Recorder, see notes above.   A  typical  device
              specification is dev=6,0 .  A filename or virtual device name can be passed instead
              of the symbolic SCSI numbers.  The correct device/filename  in  this  case  can  be
              found  in the system specific manuals of the target operating system.  On a FreeBSD
              system  without  CAM  support,  you  need  to  use   the   control   device   (e.g.
              /dev/rcd0.ctl).    A   correct   device   specification   in   this   case  may  be
              dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

              On Linux and Windows 2000/XP, drives are accessible with their  device  (or  drive)
              names or with the symbolic SCSI numbers (not recommended, mapping is not stable and
              could be completely removed in the future).

              If no dev option is present, wodim will try to get the device from  the  CDR_DEVICE
              environment.

              If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the characters ',', '/', '@' or
              ':',  it  is  interpreted  as  an  label  name  that  may  be  found  in  the  file
              /etc/wodim.conf (see FILES section).

       gracetime=#
              Set  the  grace time before starting to write to # seconds.  Values below 2 seconds
              are not recommended to give the kernel or volume management a chance to  learn  the
              new state.

       timeout=#
              Set  the default SCSI command timeout value to # seconds.  The default SCSI command
              timeout is the minimum timeout used for sending SCSI commands.  If a  SCSI  command
              fails due to a timeout, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout above
              the timeout value of the failed command.  If the  command  runs  correctly  with  a
              raised   command   timeout,   please  report  the  better  timeout  value  and  the
              corresponding command to the author of  the  program.   If  no  timeout  option  is
              present, a default timeout of 40 seconds is used.

       driver=name
              Allows  the  user  to  manually select a driver for the device.  The reason for the
              existence of the driver=name option is to allow users to use wodim with drives that
              are  similar  to supported drives but not known directly by wodim.  All drives made
              after 1997 should be MMC standard compliant and thus supported by one  of  the  MMC
              drivers.   It  is  most  unlikely  that  wodim  is  unable to find the right driver
              automatically.  Use this option with extreme care. If a wrong driver is used for  a
              device,  the  possibility of creating corrupted disks is high.  The minimum problem
              related to a wrong driver is that the speed= or -dummy will not work.

              The following driver names are supported:

              help   To get a list of possible drivers together with a short description.

              mmc_cd The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-ROM driver is auto-selected whenever wodim finds a
                     MMC compliant drive that does not identify itself to support writing at all,
                     or that only identifies to support media or write modes not  implemented  in
                     wodim.

              mmc_cd_dvd
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD/DVD driver is auto-selected whenever wodim finds a
                     MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant drive that seems to support more  than  one  medium
                     type  and  the  tray is open or no medium could be found to select the right
                     driver.  This driver tries to close the tray, checks the medium found in the
                     tray and then branches to the driver that matches the current medium.

              mmc_cdr
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD-R/CD-RW  driver is auto-selected whenever wodim
                     find a MMC compliant drive that only supports to write CDs or a multi system
                     drive that contains a CD as the current medium.

              mmc_cdr_sony
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD-R/CD-RW  driver is auto-selected whenever wodim
                     would otherwise select the mmc_cdr driver but the device seems to be made by
                     Sony.   The  mmc_cdr_sony  is definitely needed for the Sony CDU 928 as this
                     drive does not completely implement the MMC standard and  some  of  the  MMC
                     SCSI  commands  have  to  be replaced by Sony proprietary commands. It seems
                     that all Sony drives (even newer ones) still implement the Sony  proprietary
                     SCSI  commands so it has not yet become a problem to use this driver for all
                     Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony drive that does  not  work  with  this
                     driver, please report.

              mmc_dvd
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-2 DVD-R/DVD-RW driver is auto-selected whenever wodim
                     finds a MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant drive that supports to write  DVDs  and  an
                     appropriate  medium  is  loaded.   There  is  no  Track At Once mode for DVD
                     writers.

              mmc_dvdplus
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+R/DVD+RW driver is auto-selected  whenever  one
                     of  the  DVD+  media types that are incompatible to each other is found.  It
                     checks media and then branches  to  the  driver  that  matches  the  current
                     medium.

              mmc_dvdplusr
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+R  driver  is auto-selected whenever a DVD+R
                     medium is found in an appropriate writer.  Note that for unknown reason, the
                     DVD-Plus  alliance  does  not like that there is a simulation mode for DVD+R
                     media.  The author of wodim tries to convince manufacturers to  implement  a
                     simulation  mode  for  DVD+R and implement support.  DVD+R only supports one
                     write mode that is somewhere between Track At Once and Packet writing;  this
                     mode is selected in wodim via a the -dao/-sao option.

              mmc_dvdplusrw
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+RW driver is auto-selected whenever a DVD+RW
                     medium is found in an appropriate writer.   As  DVD+RW  media  needs  to  be
                     formatted  before  its  first  use,  wodim auto-detects this media state and
                     performs a format before it starts to write.  Note that for unknown  reason,
                     the  DVD-Plus  alliance  does not like that there is a simulation mode nor a
                     way to erase DVD+RW media.  DVD+RW only supports  one  write  mode  that  is
                     close  to Packet writing; this mode is selected in wodim via a the -dao/-sao
                     option.

              cw_7501
                     The driver for Matsushita/Panasonic  CW-7501  is  auto-selected  when  wodim
                     finds this old pre MMC drive.  wodim supports all write modes for this drive
                     type.

              kodak_pcd_600
                     The driver for Kodak PCD-600 is auto-selected when wodim finds this old  pre
                     MMC  drive  which  has  been  the first high speed (6x) CD writer for a long
                     time. This drive behaves similar to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

              philips_cdd521
                     The driver for Philips CDD-521 is auto-selected when wodim finds  a  Philips
                     CDD-521  drive  (which is the first CD writer ever made) or one of the other
                     drives that are known to behave similar to this drive.  All Philips  CDD-521
                     or similar drives (see other drivers in this list) do not support Session At
                     Once recording.

              philips_cdd521_old
                     The driver for Philips old CDD-521  is  auto-selected  when  wodim  finds  a
                     Philips CDD-521 with very old firmware which has some known limitations.

              philips_cdd522
                     The  driver  for Philips CDD-522 is auto-selected when wodim finds a Philips
                     CDD-522 which is the successor of the 521 or one of its variants with  Kodak
                     label.  wodim does not support Session At Once recording with these drives.

              philips_dumb
                     The  driver  for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assumptions is never auto-
                     selected.  It may be used by hand with drives that  behave  similar  to  the
                     Philips CDD-521.

              pioneer_dws114x
                     The driver for Pioneer DW-S114X is auto-selected when wodim finds one of the
                     old non MMC CD writers from Pioneer.

              plasmon_rf4100
                     The driver for Plasmon RF  4100  is  auto-selected  when  wodim  finds  this
                     specific variant of the Philips CDD-521.

              ricoh_ro1060c
                     The  driver for Ricoh RO-1060C is auto-selected when wodim finds this drive.
                     There is no real support for this drive yet.

              ricoh_ro1420c
                     The driver for Ricoh RO-1420C is auto-selected when wodim finds a drive with
                     this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521 command set.

              scsi2_cd
                     The generic SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver is auto-selected whenever wodim finds a pre
                     MMC drive that does not support writing or a pre  MMC  writer  that  is  not
                     supported by wodim.

              sony_cdu924
                     The  driver for Sony CDU-924 / CDU-948 is auto-selected whenever wodim finds
                     one of the old pre MMC CD writers from Sony.

              teac_cdr50
                     The driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010,  Pinnacle  RCD-5020
                     is  auto-selected  whenever  one of the drives is found that is known to the
                     non MMC command set used by TEAC and JVC.  Note that many  drives  from  JVC
                     will not work because they do not correctly implement the documented command
                     set and JVC has been unwilling to fix or document the  bugs.   There  is  no
                     support for the Session At Once write mode yet.

              tyuden_ew50
                     The  driver  for Taiyo Yuden EW-50 is auto-selected when wodim finds a drive
                     with this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521 command set.

              yamaha_cdr100
                     The driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is auto-selected  when  wodim  finds
                     one  of the old pre MMC CD writers from Yamaha.  There is no support for the
                     Session At Once write mode yet.

              cdr_simul
                     The simulation CD-R driver  allows  to  run  timing  and  speed  tests  with
                     parameters that match the behavior of CD writers.

              dvd_simul
                     The  simulation  DVD-R  driver  allows  to  run  timing and speed tests with
                     parameters that match the behavior of DVD writers.

              There are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and  dvd_simul.   These
              driver  entries  are designed to make timing tests at any speed or timing tests for
              drives that do not support the -dummy option.  The simulation drivers  implement  a
              drive  with  a  buffer  size  of 1 MB that can be changed via the CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE
              environment variable.  The simulation driver  correctly  simulates  even  a  buffer
              underrun condition.  If the -dummy option is present, the simulation is not aborted
              in case of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
              Set driver specific options. The options are specified a comma separated list.   To
              get  a  list  of  valid  options  use driveropts=help together with the -checkdrive
              option.  If you like to set driver options without running a  typical  wodim  task,
              you  need  to  use  the  -setdropts  option in addition, otherwise the command line
              parser in wodim will complain.  Currently implemented driver options are:

              burnfree
                     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing on.  This only  works  for
                     drives  that  support Buffer Underrun Free technology, which is available on
                     most drives manufactured in this millennium.   This  may  be  called:  Sanyo
                     BURN-Proof, Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

                     This  option  is deprecated and is mentioned here for documentation purposes
                     only. The BURN-Free feature is enabled by default if the drive supports  it.
                     However,  use of BURN-Free may cause decreased burning quality. Therefore it
                     can be useful to disable it for certain purposes, eg. when creating a master
                     copy for mass CD production.

              noburnfree
                     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

              varirec=value
                     Turn  on  the Plextor VariRec writing mode. The mandatory parameter value is
                     the laser power offset and currently may be selected from -2, -1, 0,  1,  2.
                     In  addition, you need to set the write speed to 4 in order to allow VariRec
                     to work.

              gigarec=value
                     Manage the Plextor GigaRec writing mode. The mandatory  parameter  value  is
                     the  disk  capacity  ratio compared to normal recording and currently may be
                     selected from 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values < 1.0 are  used,
                     then  the  effect  is  similar to the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  feature. If
                     values > 1.0 are used, then the disk capacity is increased.

                     Not all drives support all GigaRec values.  When a drive  uses  the  GigaRec
                     feature, the write speed is limited to 8x.

              audiomaster
                     Turn  on  the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  feature which usually should result
                     in high quality CDs that have less reading problems in  Hi-Fi  players.   As
                     this  is implemented as a variant of the Session at Once write mode, it will
                     only work if you select SAO write mode and there is no need to turn it  off.
                     The  Audio  Master  mode will work with a limited speed but may also be used
                     with data CDs. In Audio Master mode, the pits on  the  CD  will  be  written
                     larger then usual so the capacity of the medium is reduced when turning this
                     feature on.  A 74 minute CD will only have a capacity of 63 minutes if Audio
                     Master  is  active  and the capacity of a 80 minute CD will be reduced to 68
                     minutes.

              forcespeed
                     Normally, modern drives know the highest possible speed for different  media
                     and  may  reduce  the  speed  in  order  to  grant best write quality.  This
                     technology may be called: Plextor PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum
                     Write  Speed  Control  or  similar.   Some  drives  (e.g. Plextor, Ricoh and
                     Yamaha) allow to force the drive to use  the  selected  speed  even  if  the
                     medium  is  so  bad  that the write quality would be poor. This option tells
                     such a drive to force to use the selected speed  regardless  of  the  medium
                     quality.

                     Use this option with extreme care and note that the drive should know better
                     which medium will work at full speed.  The default  is  to  turn  forcespeed
                     off, regardless of the defaults of the drive.

              noforcespeed
                     Turn off the force speed feature.

              speedread
                     Some  ultra  high  speed  drives  such as 48x and faster drives from Plextor
                     limit the read speed for unknown media to e.g. 40x in order to avoid damaged
                     disks  and  drives.   Using this option tells the drive to read any media as
                     fast as possible.  Be very careful as this may cause the media to  break  in
                     the drive while reading, resulting in a damaged media and drive!

              nospeedread
                     Turn off unlimited read speed.

              singlesession
                     Turn  the  drive  into  a  single  session  only drive.  This allows to read
                     defective or  non-compliant  (illegal)  media  with  extremely  non-standard
                     additional (broken/illegal) TOC entries in the TOC from the second or higher
                     session. Some of these disks become usable if only the information from  the
                     first  session  is  used.  You need to enable Single Session mode before you
                     insert the defective disk!

              nosinglesession
                     Turn off single session mode. The drive will again behave as usual.

              hidecdr
                     Hide the fact that a medium might be a recordable medium.   This  allows  to
                     make  CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and applications believe that the media in the
                     drive is not a CD-R.

              nohidecdr
                     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

              tattooinfo
                     Use this option  together  with  -checkdrive  to  retrieve  the  image  size
                     information  for  the  Yamaha DiskT@2 feature. The images always have a line
                     length of 3744 pixel.  Line number 0 (radius 0) is mapped to the  center  of
                     the disk.  If you know the inner and outer radius you will be able to create
                     a pre distorted image that later may appear undistorted on the disk.

              tattoofile=name
                     Use this option together with -checkdrive to write an image prepared for the
                     Yamaha  DiskT@2  feature  to  the  medium.  The file must be a file with raw
                     image B&W data (one byte per pixel) in a size as  retrieved  by  a  previous
                     call  to  tattoofile=name  .   If  the  size of the image equals the maximum
                     possible size (3744 x 320 pixel), wodim will use the first part of the file.
                     This first part then will be written to the leftover space on the CD.

                     Note that the image must be mirrored to be readable from the pick up side of
                     the CD.

       -setdropts
              Set the driveropts specified by driveropts=option list, the speed of the drive  and
              the  dummy  flag and exit.  This allows wodim to set drive specific parameters that
              are not directly used by wodim  like  e.g.   single  session  mode,  hide  cdr  and
              similar.  It is needed in case that driveropts=option list should be called without
              planning to run a typical wodim task.

       -checkdrive
              Checks if a driver for the current drive is present and exit.  If the  drive  is  a
              known drive, wodim uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print  the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as obtained from mode
              page 0x2A. Values marked with kB use 1000 bytes as kilo-byte, values marked with KB
              use 1024 bytes as Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

       -scanbus
              Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry strings. This option
              may be used to find SCSI address of the CD/DVD-Recorder on a system. If some device
              types  are invisible, try using dev=ATA: or similar option to give a hint about the
              device type you are looking for.  The numbers printed out as  labels  are  computed
              by:  bus  *  100 + target.  On platforms and device systems without persistent SCSI
              number management the results  are  not  reliable.  Use  the  .B  --devices  option
              instead.

       --devices
              Look  for  useable  devices  using  the system specific functions, eg. probing with
              usual device nodes in /dev/*, and display  the  detections  using  symbolic  device
              names in OS specific syntax.

       -reset Try  to  reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This works not on all
              operating systems.

       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If you use  wodim  only,  this  should
              never  be  needed;  but  other software may leave a drive in an unusable condition.
              Calling wodim -reset may be needed if a previous write has been interrupted and the
              software did not tell the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -overburn
              Allow  wodim  to  write  more  than  the official size of a medium. This feature is
              usually called overburning and depends on the fact that most blank media  may  hold
              more space than the official size. As the official size of the lead-out area on the
              disk is 90 seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if there  are  at  least
              150  sectors  of lead out, all media may be overburned by at least 88 seconds (6600
              sectors).  Most CD recorders  only  do  overburning  in  SAO  or  RAW  mode.  Known
              exceptions  are  TEAC CD-R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.  Some drives
              do not allow to overburn as much as you might like and limit the size of  a  CD  to
              e.g.  76  minutes.  This  problem may be circumvented by writing the CD in RAW mode
              because this way the drive has no chance to find the size before starting to  burn.
              There  is no guarantee that your drive supports overburning at all.  Make a test to
              check if your drive implements the feature.

       -ignsize
              Ignore the known size of the medium. This option should be used with extreme  care,
              it  exists  only  for debugging purposes don't use it for other reasons.  It is not
              needed to write disks with more than the nominal  capacity.   This  option  implies
              -overburn.

       -useinfo
              Use  *.inf  files  to  overwrite audio options.  If this option is used, the pregap
              size information is read from the *.inf file that is associated with the file  that
              contains the audio data for a track.

              If  used together with the -audio option, wodim may be used to write audio CDs from
              a pipe from icedax if you call wodim with the *.inf files as track  parameter  list
              instead of using audio files.  The audio data is read from stdin in this case.  See
              EXAMPLES section below.  wodim first verifies that stdin  is  not  connected  to  a
              terminal  and  runs  some  heuristic consistency checks on the *.inf files and then
              sets the track lengths from the information in the *.inf files.

              If you like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is called with a large enough
              FIFO  size,  reduce  the  write speed to a value below the read speed of the source
              drive and switch the burn-free option for the recording drive on.

       defpregap=#
              Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track  number  1.   This  option
              currently  only  makes  sense with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once disks
              without the 2 second silence before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

       -packet
              Set Packet writing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       pktsize=#
              Set the packet size to #, forces  fixed  packet  mode.   This  is  an  experimental
              interface.

       -noclose
              Do  not  close the current track, useful only when in packet writing mode.  This is
              an experimental interface.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
              Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write CD-Text information based on information taken  from  a  file  that  contains
              ascii  information  for the text strings.  wodim supports CD-Text information based
              on the content of the *.inf files created by icedax and CD-Text  information  based
              on  the  content  from a CUE sheet file.  If a CUE sheet file contains both (binary
              CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then the information  based  on  the
              CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

              You  need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell wodim to read the
              *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to tell wodim to read a CUE sheet file  in
              addition.   If you like to write your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf files
              or the CUE sheet file with a text editor and change the fields  that  are  relevant
              for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
              Write  CD-Text  based  on information found in the binary file filename.  This file
              must contain information in a data format defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard  and
              in  the Red Book. The four byte size header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
              optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less  ambiguous.   This
              is  the  best option to be used to copy CD-Text data from existing CDs that already
              carry CD-Text information. To get data in a format suitable  for  this  option  use
              wodim  -vv  -toc  to extract the information from disk.  If both, textfile=filename
              and CD-Text information from *.inf or *.cue files  are  present,  textfile=filename
              will overwrite the other information.

       cuefile=filename
              Take  all recording related information from a CDRWIN compliant CUE sheet file.  No
              track files are allowed when  this  option  is  present  and  the  option  -dao  is
              currently needed in addition.

TRACK OPTIONS

       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       isrc=ISRC_number
              Set the International Standard Recording Number for the next track to ISRC_number.

       index=list
              Sets  an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma separated list of
              numbers that are counting from index 1. The first entry in this list must contain a
              0,  the  following  numbers  must be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75
              seconds) that represent the start of the  indices.  An  index  list  in  the  form:
              0,7500,15000  sets  index 1 to the start of the track, index 2 100 seconds from the
              start of the track and index 3 200 seconds from the start of the track.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-DA (similar to Red
              Book)  audio  format.   The  file  with data for this tracks should contain stereo,
              16-bit digital audio with 44100 samples/s.  The byte order should be the following:
              MSB left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and so on. The track should be a
              multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to put the  master  image  of  an  audio
              track  on a raw disk because data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during the
              recording process.

              If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a  structured  audio
              data  file.   wodim  assumes  that  the  file in this case is a Sun audio file or a
              Microsoft .WAV file and extracts the audio data from the files by skipping over the
              non-audio  header  information.  In all other cases, wodim will only work correctly
              if the audio data stream does not have any header.  Because many  structured  audio
              files  do  not  have  an integral number of blocks (1/75th second) in length, it is
              often necessary to specify the -pad option as well.  wodim  recognizes  that  audio
              data  in  a  .WAV  file  is  stored  in  Intel (little-endian) byte order, and will
              automatically byte-swap the data if  the  CD  recorder  requires  big-endian  data.
              wodim  will  reject any audio file that does not match the Red Book requirements of
              16-bit stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

              Using other structured audio data formats as input to wodim will  usually  work  if
              the  structure  of  the data is the structure described above (raw pcm data in big-
              endian byte order).  However, if the data format includes a header, you will hear a
              click at the start of a track.

              If  neither  -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim defaults to -audio for all
              filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data for all other files.

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is  assumed  to  be  in  byte-swapped  (little-
              endian)  order.   Some types of CD-Writers e.g. Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc
              drives require audio data to be  presented  in  little-endian  order,  while  other
              writers  require  audio data to be presented in the big-endian (network) byte order
              normally used by the SCSI protocol.  wodim knows if a CD-Recorder needs audio  data
              in  big-  or little-endian order, and corrects the byte order of the data stream to
              match the needs of the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data  stream
              is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

              Note  that  the  verbose  output of wodim will show you if swapping is necessary to
              make the byte order of the input data fit the required byte order of the  recorder.
              wodim will not show you if the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow
              Book) format. The data size is a multiple of 2048 bytes.  The file with track  data
              should contain an ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge filesystem image (see genisoimage for more
              details). If the track data is an ufs filesystem image, fragment size should be set
              to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives with 2 KB sector size to be used for reading.

              -data  is  the default, if no other flag is present and the file does not appear to
              be of one of the well known audio file types.

              If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim defaults to -audio  for  all
              filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data for all other files.

       -mode2 If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM mode 2 format.
              The data size is a multiple of 2336 bytes.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form
              1  format.  The  data  size is a multiple of 2048 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers
              will be created by the drive.  With this option, the write mode is the same as with
              the -multi option.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form
              1 format. The data size is a multiple of 2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers are
              part  of the user data and have to be supplied by the application that prepares the
              data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form
              2  format. The data is a multiple of 2324 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers will be
              created by the drive.

       -xamix If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in a way that  allows  a
              mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1/2 format. The data size is a multiple of 2332 bytes.
              The XA sector sub headers are part of the user data and have to be supplied by  the
              application  that  prepares  the  data  to  be written.  The CRC and the P/Q parity
              ECC/EDC information (depending on the sector type)  have  to  be  supplied  by  the
              application that prepares the data to be written.

       -cdi   If  this flag is present, the TOC type for the disk is set to CDI.  This only makes
              sense with XA disks.

       -isosize
              Use the ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the next track.   This  option  is
              needed  if  you  want  wodim  to directly read the image of a track from a raw disk
              partition or from a TAO master CD. In the first case the option -isosize is  needed
              to  limit the size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second case
              the option -isosize is needed to prevent wodim from reading the two run out  blocks
              that  are  appended  by  each  CD-recorder in track at once mode. These two run out
              blocks cannot be read and  would  cause  a  buffer  underrun  that  would  cause  a
              defective copy.  Do not use this option on files created by genisoimage and in case
              wodim reads the track data from stdin.  In the first case, you would prevent  wodim
              from writing the amount of padding that has been appended by genisoimage and in the
              latter case, it will not work because stdin is not seekable.

              If -isosize is used for a track, wodim will  automatically  add  padding  for  this
              track  as  if  the  -pad option has been used but the amount of padding may be less
              than the padding written by genisoimage.  Note that if you use -isosize on a  track
              that contains Sparc boot information, the boot information will be lost.

              Note also that this option cannot be used to determine the size of a file system if
              the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will be added to the end of
              this  and  each subsequent data track.  In this case, the -pad option is superseded
              by the padsize= option. It will remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.   If
              the  -pad  option  refers  to an audio track, wodim will pad the audio data to be a
              multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data padding is done with binary zeroes which is
              equal to absolute silence.

              -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

       padsize=#
              Set  the  amount of data to be appended as padding to the next track to #.  Opposed
              to the behavior of the -pad option, the value for padsize= is  reset  to  zero  for
              each new track.  wodim assumes a sector size of 2048 bytes for the padsize= option,
              independent from the real sector size and independent from  the  write  mode.   The
              megabytes  mentioned  in  the  verbose  mode output however are counting the output
              sector size which is e.g. 2448 bytes when  writing  in  RAW/RAW96  mode.   See  fs=
              option  for  possible  arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 minutes on a CD, you
              may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this option if your CD-drive is not able to  read
              the  last  sectors  of  a track or if you want to be able to read the CD on a Linux
              system with the ISO-9660 filesystem read ahead bug.  If an empty file is  used  for
              track  data,  this  option  may  be  used to create a disk that is entirely made of
              padding.  This may e.g. be used to find out how much overburning is possible with a
              specific media.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

       -shorttrack
              Allow  all  subsequent  tracks  to violate the Red Book track length standard which
              requires a minimum track length of 4 seconds.  This option is only useful when used
              in SAO or RAW mode.  Not all drives support this feature. The drive must accept the
              resulting CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -noshorttrack
              Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at least 4 seconds.

       pregap=#
              Set the  pre-gap size for the next track.  This option currently only  makes  sense
              with  the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once disks without the 2 second silence
              before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

       -preemp
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks will  indicate
              that  the  audio data has been sampled with 50/15 microsec pre-emphasis.  The data,
              however is not modified during the process of transferring from file to disk.  This
              option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nopreemp
              If  this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks will indicate
              that the audio data has been mastered with linear data - this is the default.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all  TOC  entries  for  subsequent  audio  tracks  of  the
              resulting  CD will indicate that the audio data has permission to be copied without
              limit.  This option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nocopy
              If this flag is present, all  TOC  entries  for  subsequent  audio  tracks  of  the
              resulting  CD  will  indicate  that the audio data has permission to be copied only
              once for personal use - this is the default.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all  TOC  entries  for  subsequent  audio  tracks  of  the
              resulting  CD  will  indicate  that  the  audio data has no permission to be copied
              anymore.

       tsize=#
              If the master image for the next track has been stored on  a  raw  disk,  use  this
              option  to  specify the valid amount of data on this disk. If the image of the next
              track is stored in a regular file, the size of that file is taken to determine  the
              length  of  this track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem image use the
              -isosize option to determine the length of that filesystem image.
              In Disk at Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC programming  interface,
              even  in  Track  at  Once  mode,  wodim needs to know the size of each track before
              starting to write the disk.  wodim now checks this and aborts  before  starting  to
              write.  If this happens you will need to run genisoimage -print-size before and use
              the output (with `s' appended) as an argument to the tsize= option of  wodim  (e.g.
              tsize=250000s).
              See fs= option for possible arguments.

EXAMPLES

       For  all  examples  below, it will be assumed that the CD/DVD-Recorder is connected to the
       primary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI target id is set to 2.

       To record a pure CD-ROM at double speed, using data from the file cdimage.raw:

           wodim -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To create an image for a ISO 9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge extensions:

           genisoimage -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Solaris:

           mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       On Linux:

           mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
           ls -lR /mnt
           umount /mnt

       If the overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of  the  filesystem  is
       not  too  complex,  wodim  will  run without creating an image of the ISO 9660 filesystem.
       Simply run the pipeline:

           genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The recommended minimum FIFO size for running this pipeline is 4 MBytes.  As  the  default
       FIFO  size  is  4  MB, the fs= option needs only be present if you want to use a different
       FIFO size.  If your system is loaded, you should run genisoimage in the  real  time  class
       too.  To raise the priority of genisoimage replace the command

           genisoimage -R /master/tree
       by
           priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

           nice --18 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on systems that don't have UNIX International compliant real-time scheduling.

       wodim  runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run genisoimage at no more than priority
       58. On other systems, you should run genisoimage at no less than nice --18.

       Creating a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested  on  a  Sparcstation-2
       with  a  Yamaha  CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed when the machine was not loaded.  A
       faster machine may be able to handle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each track contained in a file  named
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

           wodim -v speed=1 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check if it will be ok to use double speed for the example above.  Use the dummy write
       option:

           wodim -v -dummy speed=2 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw on the first track,
       the other tracks being audio tracks from the files track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

           wodim -v dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting to write, first run

           genisoimage -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

           genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of genisoimage.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

           icedax dev=/dev/cdrom -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then run

           wodim dev=/dev/cdrw -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This  will  try to copy track indices and to read CD-Text information from disk.  If there
       is no CD-Text information, icedax will try to get the information from freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio CD from a pipe (without intermediate files), first run

           icedax dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then run

           icedax dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
           wodim dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This will get all information (including track size info) from the *.inf  files  and  then
       read the audio data from stdin.

       If  you  like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is called with a large enough FIFO
       size (e.g.  fs=128m), reduce the write speed to a value below the read speed of the source
       drive  (e.g.   speed=12),  and  get  a  CD/DVD  drive  with BURN-Free feature if it is not
       available yet.

       To set drive options without writing a CD (e.g. to switch a drive to single session mode),
       run

           wodim dev=1,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no CD is in the drive, call

           wodim dev=1,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

           readom dev=b,t,l -clone f=somefile

       or (in case the CD contains many sectors that are unreadable by intention) by calling:

           readom dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       will create the files somefile and somefile.toc.  Then write the CD using:

           wodim dev=1,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

ENVIRONMENT

       CDR_DEVICE
              This  may  either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the open call of the
              SCSI transport library or a label in the file /etc/wodim.conf.

       CDR_SPEED
              Sets the default speed value for writing (see also speed= option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
              Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
              If this environment variable is set, wodim will allow you to write at the full  RAW
              encoding  speed  a  single CPU supports.  This will create high potential of buffer
              underruns. Use with care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
              If this environment variable is set, wodim will allow you to write at the full  DMA
              speed the system supports.  There is no DMA reserve for reading the data that is to
              be written from disk.  This will create high potential  of  buffer  underruns.  Use
              with care.

       RSH    If  the  RSH  environment is present, the remote connection will not be created via
              rcmd(3) but by calling the program pointed to by RSH.  Use  e.g.   RSH=/usr/bin/ssh
              to create a secure shell connection.

              Note  that  this  forces wodim to create a pipe to the rsh(1) program and disallows
              wodim to directly access the network socket to the remote server.   This  makes  it
              impossible  to set up performance parameters and slows down the connection compared
              to a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will not be the program
              /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the program pointed to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote
              SCSI server program name will be ignored if you log in using an  account  that  has
              been created with a remote SCSI server program as login shell.

FILES

       /etc/wodim.conf
              Default  values  can  be  set  for  the  following options in /etc/wodim.conf.  For
              example: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or CDR_SPEED=2

              CDR_DEVICE
                     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the  open  call
                     of  the  SCSI  transport library or a label in the file /etc/wodim.conf that
                     allows to identify a specific drive on the system.

              CDR_SPEED
                     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also speed= option).

              CDR_FIFOSIZE
                     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
                     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              Any other keyword (label) is an identifier (symbolic name) for a specific drive
                     on the system.  Such an identifier may not contain the characters ',',  '/',
                     '@' or ':'.

                     Each  line  that  follows  a  label  contains a whitespace separated list of
                     items.   Currently,  four  items  are   recognized:   the   drive's   target
                     specification,  the  default  speed  that should be used for this drive, the
                     default FIFO size that should be used for  this  drive  and  drive  specific
                     options. The values for speed and fifosize may be set to -1 to tell wodim to
                     use the global defaults.  target can be -1 to use the auto-guessing  of  the
                     drive (see above).

                     The  value  for  driveropts may be omitted or set to "" if no driveropts are
                     used.  A typical line may look this way:

                     plex760= 0,5,0 12   50m  varirec=1

                     pioneer= /dev/hdd   -1   -1

                     This tells wodim that a drive named plex760 is at scsibus 0, target 5, lun 0
                     and should be used with speed 12 and a FIFO size of 50 MB. It also uses some
                     device specific parameter.  A second drive may is accessible via the  device
                     file /dev/hdd and uses the default speed and the default FIFO size.

SEE ALSO

       icedax(1), readom(1), genisoimage(1), ssh(1).

NOTES

       On  Solaris  you  need to stop the volume management if you like to use the USCSI fallback
       SCSI transport code. Even  things  like  wodim  -scanbus  will  not  work  if  the  volume
       management is running.

       Disks  made  in Track At Once mode are not suitable as a master for direct mass production
       by CD manufacturers.  You will need  the  disk  at  once  option  to  record  such  disks.
       Nevertheless the disks made in Track At Once will normally be read in all CD players. Some
       old audio CD players however may produce a two second click between two audio tracks.

       The minimal size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write smaller tracks,  the
       CD-Recorder  will  add  dummy  blocks.  This  is  not an error, even though the SCSI-error
       message looks this way.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming drives are supported  in  single  and
       multi-session.

       You  should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with the -dummy option
       turned on if you are using wodim on an  unknown  system.  Writing  a  CD  is  a  real-time
       process.   NFS,  CIFS  and  other network file systems won't always deliver constantly the
       needed data rates.  If you want to use wodim with CD-images that  are  located  on  a  NFS
       mounted  filesystem,  be  sure that the FIFO size is big enough.  If you want to make sure
       that buffer underruns are not caused by your source disk, you may use the command

           wodim -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.

       There are also cases where you either need to be root or  install  wodim  executable  with
       suid-root  permissions.  First,  if  you are using a device manufactured before 1999 which
       requires a non-MMC driver, you should run wodim in dummy mode before writing data. If  you
       find a problem doing this, please report it to the cdrkit maintainers (see below).

       Second,  certain  functionality may be unusable because of Linux's SCSI command filtering.
       When using wodim for anything except of pure  data  writing,  you  should  also  test  the
       process in dummy mode and report trouble to the contact address below.

       If  you  still want to run wodim with root permissions, you can set the permissions of the
       executable to suid-root. See the additional notes of your system/program  distribution  or
       README.suidroot which is part of the cdrkit source.

       You  should  not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/reconnect to either the
       SCSI bus that is connected to the CD-Recorder or the source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and data tracks,  the  data  should  be  on  track  1
       otherwise  you  should  create  a CDplus disk which is a multi session disk with the first
       session containing the audio tracks and the following session containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more than a single data track, or need special
       software to do so.

       If   you  have  more  information  or  SCSI  command  manuals  for  currently  unsupported
       CD/DVD/BR/HD-DVD-Recorders, please contact the cdrkit maintainers (see below).

       Many CD recorders have bugs and often require a firmware update to work correctly. If  you
       experience  problems  which  cannot be solved or explained by the notes above, please look
       for instructions on the homepage of the particular manufacturer.

       Some bugs will force you to power cycle the device or to reboot the machine.

       The FIFO percent output is computed just after a block of data has  been  written  to  the
       CD/DVD-Recorder.  For this reason, there will never be 100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO
       is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS

       You have 4 seconds to abort wodim start after you see the message:

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.  In most  shells  you  can  do
       that by pressing Ctrl-C.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

              wodim: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The  first  line gives information about the transport of the command.  The text after the
       first colon gives the error text for the system call from  the  view  of  the  kernel.  It
       usually  is:  I/O  error  unless  other  problems  happen.  The next words contain a short
       description for the SCSI command that fails. The rest of the line tells you if there  were
       any  problems  for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.  fatal error means that
       it was not possible to transport the command (i.e. no device present at the requested SCSI
       address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed command.

       The  third  line gives information on the SCSI status code returned by the command, if the
       transport of the command succeeds.  This is error information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for the command.

       The fifth line is the error text for the sense key if available, followed by  the  segment
       number  that  is only valid if the command was a copy command. If the error message is not
       directly related to the current command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense qualifier if  available.
       If  the type of the device is known, the sense data is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .
       The text is followed by the error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that is related to the failed  command  and  text
       for several error flags. The block number may not be valid.

       The  eight  line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time that the command
       really needed to complete.

       The following message is not an error:

              Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
              wodim: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum size has  been  expanded
       to 300 sectors.

BUGS

       netscsid  does  not  work  properly  and  is  generally  unmaintained.  It is probably not
       compatible with rscsi from cdrtools either. Good bugfixes  are  welcome,  talk  to  Cdrkit
       maintainers.

       cuefile  support  is very limited, only one file is allowed. For volunteers, see TODO file
       in the source.

       Specifying an audio file multiple times causes corruption of the second track (effectively
       no data plus minimum padding).

       Some  of  the  bugs may be fixed in Joerg Schilling's cdrtools. See there for details, URL
       attached below.

CREDITS

       Joerg Schilling (schilling@fokus.fhg.de)
                      For writing cdrecord and libscg which represent the most parts  of  wodim's
                      code.

       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
                      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
                      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
                      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
                      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
                      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
                      For   creating   the   experimental   packet  writing  support,  the  first
                      implementation of CD-RW blanking support, the first .wav file  decoder  and
                      many nice discussions on cdrecord.

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
                      For the first implementation of a BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
                      For creating the first parallel port transport implementation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
                      for  providing  the  CAM  port  for  FreeBSD  together  with  Michael Smith
                      (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
                      for making libedc_ecc available (needed to write RAW data sectors).

MAILING LISTS

       If you want to actively take part on the development of wodim, you may join the  developer
       mailing list via this URL:

       https://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006

       The mail address of the list is: debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

AUTHORS

       wodim is currently maintained as part of the cdrkit project by its developers. Most of the
       code and this manual page was originally written by:

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       This application is derived from "cdrecord"  as  included  in  the  cdrtools  package  [1]
       created  by  Joerg Schilling, who deserves most of the credit for its success. However, he
       is not involved into the development of this spinoff and therefore he shall  not  be  held
       responsible for any problems caused by it. Do not refer to this application as "cdrecord",
       do not try to get support for wodim by contacting the original authors.

       Additional information can be found on:
       https://alioth.debian.org/projects/debburn/

       If you have support questions, send them to

       debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

       If you have definitely found a bug, send a mail to this list or to

       submit@bugs.debian.org

       writing at least a short description into the Subject and "Package: cdrkit" in  the  first
       line of the mail body.

SOURCES

       [1] Cdrtools 2.01.01a08 from May 2006, http://cdrecord.berlios.de

                                           Version 2.0                                   wodim(1)