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NAME

       xdvi - DVI Previewer for the X Window System

SYNOPSIS

       xdvi  [+[page]]  [--help]  [-allowshell]  [-altfont  font]  [-bg color]
       [-browser     WWWbrowser]     [-copy]     [-cr      color]      [-debug
       bitmask|string[,string ...]]  [-display host:display] [-dvipspath path]
       [-editor command] [-expert] [-expertmode flag] [-fg color] [-findstring
       string]  [-text-encoding  encoding] [-font font] [-fullscreen ] [-gamma
       g] [-geometry geometry] [-gsalpha] [-gspalette  palette]  [-h]  [-help]
       [-hl    color]    [-anchorposition    anchor]    [-hush]   [-hushchars]
       [-hushchecksums]     [-warnpecials]      [-hushstdout]      [-hushbell]
       [-icongeometry   geometry]  [-iconic]  [-install]  [-interpreter  path]
       [-keep]  [-l]  [-license]  [-linkcolor  color]   [-linkstyle   0|1|2|3]
       [-margins  dimen]  [-mfmode  mode-def[:dpi]] [-mgs[n] size] [-mousemode
       0|1|2] [-nocolor]  [-nofork]  [-noghostscript]  [-nogrey]  [-nogssafer]
       [-noinstall]   [-nomakepk]   [-nomatchinverted]   [-noomega]  [-noscan]
       [-not1lib]  [-notempfile]  [-offsets   dimen]   [-p   pixels]   [-paper
       papertype]  [-pause]  [-pausespecial special-string] [-postscript flag]
       [-rulecolor color] [-rv] [-S density] [-s shrink] [-safer] [-sidemargin
       dimen]     [-sourceposition     line[:col][ ]filename]    [-statusline]
       [-thorough] [-topmargin dimen] [-unique] [-version]  [-visitedlinkcolor
       color]  [-warnspecials] [-watchfile secs] [-wheelunit pixels] [-xoffset
       dimen] [-yoffset dimen] [dvi_file]

DESCRIPTION

       Xdvi is a program for previewing dvi files, as  produced  e.g.  by  the
       tex(1) program, under the X window system.

       Xdvi  can show the file shrunken by various integer factors, and it has
       a ``magnifying glass'' for viewing parts of the page enlarged (see  the
       section  MAGNIFIER  below). This version of xdvi is also referred to as
       xdvik since it uses the kpathsea library to locate  and  generate  font
       files.  In addition to that, it supports the following features:

         - hyperlinks in DVI files (section HYPERLINKS),

         - direct rendering of Postscript<tm> Type1 fonts (section T1LIB),

         - source specials in the DVI file (section SOURCE SPECIALS),

         - string search in DVI files (section STRING SEARCH),

         - saving  or  printing (parts of) the DVI file (sections PRINT DIALOG
           and SAVE DIALOG).

       Xdvi can be compiled with the Motif toolkit or the Xaw (Athena) toolkit
       (and  variants  of  it), and the Motif version has a slightly different
       GUI; these differences are noted below.

       Before displaying a page of a DVI file, xdvi will check to see  if  the
       file  has changed since the last time it was displayed.  If this is the
       case, it will reload the file.  This feature allows you to preview many
       versions of the same file while running xdvi only once. Since it cannot
       read partial DVI files,  xdvik  versions  starting  from  22.74.3  will
       create  a  temporary  copy of the DVI file being viewed, to ensure that
       the file can be viewed without interruptions. (The -notempfile  can  be
       used to turn off this feature).

       Xdvi can show PostScript<tm> specials by any of three methods.  It will
       try first to use Display PostScript<tm>, then NeWS, then it will try to
       use  Ghostscript  to render the images.  All of these options depend on
       additional software to work properly; moreover, some of them may not be
       compiled into this copy of xdvi.

       For  performance  reasons,  xdvi does not render PostScript specials in
       the magnifying glass.

       If no file name has been specified on the command line, xdvi  will  try
       to  open the most recently opened file; if the file history (accessible
       via the File > Open Recent menu) is empty, or if none of the  files  in
       the  history  are  valid  DVI files, it will pop up a file selector for
       choosing a file name.  (In previous versions, which didn't have a  file
       history,  the file selector was always used; you can set the X resource
       noFileArgUseHistory to false to get back the old behaviour.)

OPTIONS

       In addition to specifying the  dvi  file  (with  or  without  the  .dvi
       extension),  xdvi  supports the following command line options.  If the
       option begins with a `+' instead of a `-', the option  is  restored  to
       its  default  value.   By  default,  these  options  can be set via the
       resource names given in parentheses in the description of each option.

       +page  Specifies the first page to show.   If  +  is  given  without  a
              number, the last page is assumed; the first page is the default.

       -allowshell
              (.allowShell) This option enables the shell escape in PostScript
              specials.  (For security reasons, shell escapes are disabled  by
              default.)   This  option should be rarely used; in particular it
              should not be used just to uncompress files:  that  function  is
              done  automatically  if  the file name ends in .Z, .gz, or .bz2.
              Shell escapes are always turned off  if  the  -safer  option  is
              used.

       -altfont font
              (.altFont)  Declares  a default font to use when the font in the
              dvi file cannot be found.  This is  useful,  for  example,  with
              PostScript <tm> fonts.

       -background color
              (.background)  Determines  the color of the background.  Same as
              -bg.

       -bg color
              (.background) Determines the color of the background.

       -browser browser
              (.wwwBrowser) Defines the web browser used for handling external
              URLs.  The  value of this option or resource has the same syntax
              as the BROWSER environment variable; see the explanation of that
              variable  in  the  section  `ENVIRONMENT'  below  for a detailed
              description.   If  neither  the  option  nor  the   X   resource
              wwwBrowser  is  specified, the environment variables BROWSER and
              WWWBROWSER (in that order) are used  to  determine  the  browser
              command.  If  these  are  not  set either, the following default
              value is used: xdg-open %s:htmlview %s:firefox  -remote  -remote
              "openURL(%s,new-window)":mozilla     -remote    "openURL(%s,new-
              window)":netscape -raise -remote  "openURL(%s,new-window)":xterm
              -e w3m %s:xterm -e lynx %s:xterm -e wget %s

       -copy  (.copy) Always use the copy operation when writing characters to
              the display.  This option may be necessary for correct operation
              on a color display, but overstrike characters will be incorrect.
              If greyscale anti-aliasing is in use, the -copy  operation  will
              disable  the  use  of  colorplanes and make overstrikes come out
              incorrectly.  See also -thorough.

       -cr color
              (.cursorColor) Determines the color of the  mouse  cursor.   The
              default is the same as the foreground color.

       -debug bitmask|string[,string ...]
              (.debugLevel)  If  nonzero,  prints  additional  information  on
              standard output.  The argument can be either a bitmask specified
              as a decimal number, or comma-separated list of strings.
              For the bitmask representation, multiple values can be specified
              by adding the numbers that represent the individual  bits;  e.g.
              to  debug  all all file searching and opening commands, use 4032
              (= 2048 + 1024 + 512 + 256 + 128  +  64).  Use  -1  to  turn  on
              debugging of everything (this will produce huge output).
              For  the  string  representation,  use the strings listed in the
              following table, with a comma to separate the  values;  e.g.  to
              debug   all   file   searching   and   opening   commands,   use
              search,expand,paths,hash,stat,open.  (The option  `kpathsea'  is
              provided  as  a shorthand for these.)  Note that such a list may
              need to be quoted to prevent the shell from interpreting  commas
              or spaces in the list.
              The individual numbers and strings have the following meanings:

               1       bitmap      Bitmap creation
               2       dvi         DVI translation
               4       pk          PK fonts
               8       batch       Batch mode: Exit after
                                   reading the DVI file
               16      event       Event handling
               32      ps          PostScript interpreter calls
               64      stat        Kpathsea stat(2) calls
               128     hash        Kpathsea hash table lookups
               256     open        Kpathsea file opening
               512     paths       Kpathsea path definitions
               1024    expand      Kpathsea path expansion
               2048    search      Kpathsea searching
               4032    kpathsea    All Kpathsea options
               4096    htex        Hypertex specials
               8192    src         Source specials
               16384   client      Client/server mode (see -unique
                                   and -sourceposition options)
               32768   t1          Type1 font library messages
               65536   t1_verbose  Verbose Type1 library messages
               131072  gui         GUI elements

              Some  of the Kpathsea debugging options are actually provided by
              Kpathsea; see the Debugging section in the Kpathsea  manual  for
              more information on these.

       -density density
              (.densityPercent)  Determines  the  density  used when shrinking
              bitmaps for fonts.  A higher value produces a lighter font.  The
              default  value  is  40.  If greyscaling is in use, this argument
              does not apply; use -gamma instead.  See also the `S' keystroke.
              Same as -S.

       -display host:display
              Specifies  the host and screen to be used for displaying the dvi
              file.  By default this is obtained from the environment variable
              DISPLAY.

       -dvipspath path
              (.dvipsPath) Use path as the dvips program to use when printing.
              The default for this is dvips.  The  program  or  script  should
              read  the DVI file from standard input, and write the Postscript
              file to standard output.

       -editor editor
              (.editor) Specifies the editor that will  be  invoked  when  the
              source-special()  action  is triggered to start a reverse search
              (by default via Ctrl-Mouse 1).  The argument to this option is a
              format string in which occurrences of ``%f'' are replaced by the
              file name, occurrences of ``%l'' are replaced by the line number
              within the file, and optional occurrences of ``%c'' are replaced
              by the column number within the line.

              If neither the option nor the X resource .editor  is  specified,
              the following environment variables are checked to determine the
              editor command: XEDITOR, VISUAL, and EDITOR (in this  sequence).
              If  the  string  is  found  as the value of the VISUAL or EDITOR
              environment variables, then ``xterm -e '' is  prepended  to  the
              string;  if the editor is specified by other means, then it must
              be in the form of a shell command to pop up an X window with  an
              editor  in  it.  If  none  of  these variables is set, a warning
              message is displayed and the command ``xterm -e vi +%l  %f''  is
              used.

              If  no ``%f'' or ``%l'' occurs in the string, the missing format
              strings are appended automatically.  (This is for  compatibility
              with   other   programs   when  using  one  of  the  environment
              variables).

              A new instance of the editor is started each time  this  command
              is used; therefore it is preferable to use an editor that can be
              invoked in `client'  mode  to  load  new  files  into  the  same
              instance. Example settings are:

              emacsclient --no-wait
                     (older Emacsen)

              gnuclient -q
                     (XEmacs and newer Emacsen)

              gvim --servername xdvi --remote
                     (VIM  v6.0+;  the  `--servername  xdvi' option will cause
                     gvim to run a dedicated instance for the files opened  by
                     xdvi.)

              nc     (nedit)

              Note  that  those  strings  need to be enclosed into quotes when
              using them on the command-line to protect them from  the  shell;
              when  using  them  as  argument for the .editor resource in an X
              resource file, no quotes should be used.

              NOTE ON SECURITY: The argument of this option isn't executed  as
              a  shell command, but via exec() to prevent evil tricks with the
              contents of source specials.

       -expert
              This option is only supported for backwards compatibility; it is
              equivalent to -expertmode 0, which should be preferred.

       -expertmode flag
              (.expertMode)  With  an  argument of 0, this option switches off
              the display of  the  buttons,  scrollbars,  the  toolbar  (Motif
              only),  the statusline and the page list. These GUI elements can
              also be (de)activated separately, by combining  the  appropriate
              values  in  the  flag  argument. This acts similar to the -debug
              option: The integer flag is treated as a bitmap where  each  bit
              represents  one element. If the bit has the value 1, the element
              is switched on, if it has the value 0, the element  is  switched
              off. The meaning of the bits is as follows:

               1       statusline
               2       scrollbars
               4       Motif: pagelist, Xaw: buttons and pagelist
               8       toolbar (Motif only)
               16      menubar (Motif only)

              For  example, to turn on only the statusline and the scrollbars,
              use 3 (= 1 + 2).  See also the `x' keystroke, where the bits are
              addressed  by  their  positions, from 1 to 3 (Xaw) or 5 (Motif),
              respectively.

       If the statusline is not active, all messages that  would  normally  be
       printed  to  the  statusline  will  be  printed  to  stdout, unless the
       -hushstdout option is used.

       -fg color
              (.foreground) Determines the color of the text (foreground).

       -text-encoding encoding
              (.textEncoding) Use encoding as text encoding of the  string  in
              the  "Find"  window. Usually, this shouldn't be needed since the
              encoding is determined from the locale settings.

       -findstring string
              This option triggers  a  search  for  string  in  the  DVI  file
              mentioned  on  the  command-line, similar to forward search (see
              the description of  the  sourceposition  option):  If  there  is
              already  another instance of xdvi running on the displaying that
              DVI file, it will cause that  instance  to  perform  the  search
              instead. The search starts at the top of the current page of the
              DVI file.

       -font font
              (*font) Sets the font used in menus, buttons etc., as  described
              in  the  X(7x)  man  page. The font for child windows can be set
              separately, e.g.:

              xdvi*statusline*font: \
                 -*-helvetica-medium-r-*-*-12-*-*-*-*-*-*-*

       -foreground color
              Same as -fg.

       -fullscreen
              When this option is used, xdvi will (try to) run  in  fullscreen
              mode, with no window decorations.  This option is not guaranteed
              to work with all windowmanagers/desktops; if you're experiencing
              problems with it, please use the -geometry option instead, and a
              suitable  window  manager   setting   to   remove   the   window
              decorations.   When  using  this  option  for presentations, you
              might want to get rid of all the control widgets as well,  using
              the  -expertmode  option.  This  option  can  also be toggled at
              runtime using the fullscreen action (by default bound  to  Ctrl-
              l).

       -gamma gamma
              (.gamma)  Controls  the interpolation of colors in the greyscale
              anti-aliasing color palette.  Default value is  1.0.   For  0  <
              gamma < 1, the fonts will be lighter (more like the background),
              and for gamma > 1, the fonts  will  be  darker  (more  like  the
              foreground).   Negative  values  behave  the same way, but use a
              slightly different algorithm.  For color and grayscale displays;
              for monochrome, see -density.  See also the `S' keystroke.

       -geometry geometry
              (.geometry)  Specifies  the initial geometry of the main window,
              as described in the  X(7x)  man  page.  The  geometry  of  child
              windows can be set separately, e.g.:
              xdvi*helpwindow.geometry: 600x800

       -gsalpha
              (.gsAlpha)  Causes  Ghostscript  to  be called with the x11alpha
              driver instead of the x11 driver.  The x11alpha  driver  enables
              anti-aliasing  in  PostScript  specials, for a nicer appearance.
              It is available on newer versions of Ghostscript.   This  option
              can also be toggled with the `V' keystroke.

       -gspalette palette
              (.palette)   Specifies   the  palette  to  be  used  when  using
              Ghostscript for rendering PostScript specials.  Possible  values
              are Color, Greyscale, and Monochrome.  The default is Color.

       -h, -help, --help
              Prints  a  short  help text with an overview of the command-line
              options to standard output.

       -hl color
              (.highlight) Determines the color of the  page  border,  of  the
              ruler  in  `ruler  mode',  and  of  the  highlighting markers in
              forward search and string search.  The default is the foreground
              color.

       -anchorposition anchor
              Jump  to  anchor after opening the DVI file. This is only useful
              when invoking xdvi from other applications.

       -hush  (.Hush) Causes xdvi to suppress all suppressible warnings.

       -hushchars
              (.hushLostChars)  Causes  xdvi  to   suppress   warnings   about
              references to characters which are not defined in the font.

       -hushchecksums
              (.hushChecksums) Causes xdvi to suppress warnings about checksum
              mismatches between the dvi file and the font file.

       -hushstdout
              (.hushStdout) Suppresses printing of status messages to  stdout.
              Note  that  errors  or  warnings will still be printed to stderr
              even if this option is used.

       -hushbell
              (.hushBell) Don't sound the X bell when an error occurs.

       -icongeometry geometry
              (.iconGeometry) Specifies the initial position for the icon.

       -iconic
              (.iconic) Causes the xdvi window to start in the  iconic  state.
              The default is to start with the window open.

       -install
              (.install)  If  xdvi is running under a PseudoColor visual, then
              (by default) it will check for TrueColor visuals with more  bits
              per  pixel,  and  switch  to such a visual if one exists.  If no
              such visual exists, it will use the current visual and colormap.
              If  -install is selected, however, it will still use a TrueColor
              visual with a greater depth, if one is available; otherwise,  it
              will  install  its  own  colormap on the current visual.  If the
              current visual is not PseudoColor, then xdvi will not switch the
              visual  or  colormap,  regardless  of  its options.  The default
              value of the install  resource  is  the  special  value,  maybe.
              There  is  no  +install  option.   See  also -noinstall, and the
              GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS section.

       -interpreter filename
              (.interpreter) Use filename as the Ghostscript interpreter.   By
              default it uses gs.

       -keep  (.keepPosition)  Sets  a  flag  to indicate that xdvi should not
              move to the home position when moving to a new page.   See  also
              the  `k'  keystroke.  This flag is honored by all page switching
              actions and by up-or-previous() / down-or-next(),  although  the
              latter  only honor the horizontal postion, not the vertical one.
              This allows for a "continuous" scrolling back an forth through a
              document with a display window narrower than a page width.

       -l     (.listFonts) List the names of all fonts used.

       -license
              Prints licensing information.

       -linkcolor
              (.linkColor)  Color  used  for  unvisited hyperlinks (`Blue2' by
              default). Hyperlinks are unvisited before you click on them,  or
              after  the  DVI  file  has  been  reloaded.  The value should be
              either a valid X  color  name  (such  as  DarkGoldenrod4)  or  a
              hexadecimal    color    string    (such    as   #8b6508).Seealso
              -visitedlinkcolor and -linkstyle.

       -linkstyle
              (.LinkStyle)  Determines  the  style  in  which  hyperlinks  are
              displayed. Possible values and their meanings are:

               0       No highlighting of links
               1       Underline links with link color
               2       No underlining, color text with link color
               3       Underline and display text colored with
                       link color

              The values for link color are specified by the options/resources
              -linkcolor and -visitedlinkcolor (which see).

       -margins dimen
              (.Margin) Specifies the size of both the  top  margin  and  side
              margin.   This  determines  the  ``home''  position  of the page
              within the window as follows.  If the entire page  fits  in  the
              window,  then  the  margin settings are ignored.  If, even after
              removing the margins from the left, right, top, and bottom,  the
              page still cannot fit in the window, then the page is put in the
              window such that the  top  and  left  margins  are  hidden,  and
              presumably  the  upper  left-hand corner of the text on the page
              will be in the upper left-hand corner of the window.  Otherwise,
              the  text  is centered in the window.  The dimension should be a
              decimal number optionally followed  by  any  of  the  two-letter
              abbreviations for units accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm,
              dd, cc, or sp).  By default, the unit will be cm  (centimeters).
              See also -sidemargin, -topmargin, and the keystroke `M.'

       -mfmode mode-def
              (.mfMode)  Specifies  a  mode-def  string,  which can be used in
              searching for fonts (see ENVIRONMENT, below).   Generally,  when
              changing  the  mode-def, it is also necessary to change the font
              size to the appropriate value for that mode.  This  is  done  by
              adding  a  colon  and  the  value in dots per inch; for example,
              -mfmode ljfour:600.  This method overrides any  value  given  by
              the pixelsPerInch resource or the -p command-line argument.  The
              metafont mode  is  also  passed  to  metafont  during  automatic
              creation of fonts.  By default, it is unspecified.

       -mgs size
              Same as -mgs1.

       -mgs[n] size
              (.magnifierSize[n])  Specifies the size of the window to be used
              for the ``magnifying glass'' for Button  n.   The  size  may  be
              given  as an integer (indicating that the magnifying glass is to
              be square), or it may be given in the  form  widthxheight.   See
              the  MOUSE  ACTIONS  section.   Defaults  are  200x150, 400x250,
              700x500, 1000x800, and 1200x1200.

       -mousemode [0|1|2]
              (.mouseMode) Specifies the default  mode  of  xdvi  at  startup:
              Magnifier  (0),  Text  Selection Mode (1) or Ruler Mode (2). See
              the section MODES, below, for more information.

       -nocolor
              (.color) Turns off the use of color specials.  This  option  can
              be  toggled with the `C' keystroke.  (Note: -nocolor corresponds
              to color:off; +nocolor to color:on.)

       -nofork
              (.fork)  With  the  -sourceposition  and  -unique  options,  the
              default  behavior  is for xdvi to put itself into the background
              (like a daemon) if there is  no  appropriate  instance  of  xdvi
              already  running.   This argument makes it run in the foreground
              instead.  This is  useful  for  debugging,  or  if  your  client
              application  cannot  deal well with a program self-backgrounding
              itself in this way -- e.g., the IPC functions in emacs are known
              to  have  problems  with this.  If no -sourceposition or -unique
              argument is given, then  this  option  has  no  effect.   (Note:
              -nofork corresponds to fork:off; +nofork to fork:on.)

       -noghostscript
              (.ghostscript)  Inhibits  the  use of Ghostscript for displaying
              PostScript<tm> specials.  (Note: -noghostscript  corresponds  to
              ghostscript:off; +noghostscript to ghostscript:on.)

       -nogrey
              (.grey)  Turns  off  the  use  of  greyscale  anti-aliasing when
              printing  shrunken  bitmaps.   (Note:  -nogrey  corresponds   to
              grey:off; +nogrey to grey:on.)  See also the `G' keystroke.

       -nogssafer
              (.gsSafer) Normally, if Ghostscript is used to render PostScript
              specials, the Ghostscript interpreter is  run  with  the  option
              -dSAFER.    The   -nogssafer  option  runs  Ghostscript  without
              -dSAFER.  The -dSAFER option in Ghostscript disables  PostScript
              operators  such  as  deletefile,  to  prevent possibly malicious
              PostScript programs from  having  any  effect.   If  the  -safer
              option  is  specified,  then  this option has no effect; in that
              case Ghostscript is always run with -dSAFER.  (Note:  -nogssafer
              corresponds to gsSafer:off; +nogssafer to gsSafer:on.)

       -noinstall
              (.install)  Inhibit  the  default  behavior  of  switching  to a
              TrueColor visual if one is available with more  bits  per  pixel
              than   the   current   visual.   (Note:  -noinstall  corresponds
              install:off; there is no +noinstall option.)  See also -install,
              and the GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS section.

       -nomakepk
              (.makePk)  Turns  off  automatic  generation  of font files that
              cannot be found by other means.  (Note: -nomakepk corresponds to
              makePk:off; +nomakepk to makePK:on.)

       -nomatchinverted
              (.matchInverted)   Don't  highlight  string  search  matches  in
              inverted color; instead, draw a  rectangle  in  highlight  color
              (see  the -hl option) around the match. This option is activated
              automatically if the display isn't running in TrueColor.  (Note:
              -nomatchinverted      corresponds      to     matchInverted:off;
              +nomatchinverted to matchInverted:on.)

       -noomega
              (.omega) This will disable the  use  of  Omega  extensions  when
              interpreting  DVI files.  By default, the additional opcodes 129
              and  134  are  recognized  by  xdvi  as  Omega  extensions   and
              interpreted  as  requests  to  set  2-byte  characters. The only
              drawback is that the  virtual  font  array  will  require  65536
              positions  instead of the default 256 positions, i.e. the memory
              requirements of xdvi will be slightly larger. If you  find  this
              unacceptable   or  encounter  another  problem  with  the  Omega
              extensions, you can switch this extension off by using  -noomega
              (but please do send a bug report if you find such problems - see
              the bug address in the AUTHORS section below).
              (Note: -noomega corresponds to omega: off;  +noomega  to  omega:
              on.)

       -noscan
              (.prescan)  By  default, xdvi does a preliminary scan of the dvi
              file to process  any  papersize  specials;  this  is  especially
              important  at  startup  since  the  paper  size may be needed to
              determine the window size.  If PostScript<tm> is  in  use,  then
              prescanning  is  also  necessary  in  order  to properly process
              header files.  In addition, prescanning is needed  to  correctly
              determine the background color of a page.  This option turns off
              such prescanning.  (Prescanning will be automatically be  turned
              back  on  if  xdvi detects any of the specials mentioned above.)
              (Note:  -noscan   corresponds   to   prescan:off;   +noscan   to
              prescan:on.)

       -not1lib
              (.t1lib)   This  will  disable  the  use  of  T1Lib  to  display
              PostScript<tm> fonts.  Use this option as a workaround when  you
              encounter  problems  with the display of T1Lib (but please don't
              forget to send a bug report in this case, to the  URL  mentioned
              in the section AUTHORS below).
              (Note: -not1lib corresponds to t1lib:off; +not1lib to t1lib:on.)

       -notempfile
              (.tempFile)  As mentioned in the section DESCRIPTION above, xdvi
              will create a temporary copy of the DVI file so that it  can  be
              accessed  without  interruptions  even  while  the file is being
              rewritten by TeX.  Since this introduces the overhead of copying
              the  file  every time it has changed, the -notempfile allows you
              to turn off this behaviour. In this case, exposing parts of  the
              window while the DVI file is being written by TeX will erase the
              current window contents until the DVI  file  can  be  completely
              reread.
              (Note:  -notempfile  corresponds to tempFile:off; +notempfile to
              tempFile:on.)

       -offsets dimen
              (.Offset) Specifies the size of both the horizontal and vertical
              offsets  of  the  output on the page.  By decree of the Stanford
              TeX Project, the default TeX page origin is always 1  inch  over
              and  down  from the top-left page corner, even when non-American
              paper sizes are used.  Therefore, the default  offsets  are  1.0
              inch.   The argument dimen should be a decimal number optionally
              followed by  any  of  the  two-letter  abbreviations  for  units
              accepted  by  TeX  (pt,  pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).  By
              default, the unit will be cm (centimeters).  See  also  -xoffset
              and -yoffset.

       -p pixels
              (.pixelsPerInch) Defines the size of the fonts to use, in pixels
              per inch.  The default value is 600.  This  option  is  provided
              only  for  backwards compatibility; the preferred  way is to set
              both the resolution and the Metafont mode via the -mfmode option
              (which see).

       -paper papertype
              (.paper)  Specifies  the  size of the printed page. Note that in
              most cases it's best to specify the paper size in the TeX  input
              file via the line

              \usepackage[dvips]{geometry}

              which  will  be  recognized by both dvips and xdvi; in that case
              the use of a `-paper' option should be unnecessary.
              The paper  size  may  be  specified  in  the  form  widthxheight
              optionally  followed  by  a  unit,  where  width  and height are
              decimal numbers giving  the  width  and  height  of  the  paper,
              respectively,   and   the   unit   is   any  of  the  two-letter
              abbreviations for units accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm,
              dd, cc, or sp).  By default, the unit is cm (centimeters).
              There  are also synonyms which may be used: us (8.5x11in), legal
              (8.5x14in), foolscap (13.5x17in),  as  well  as  the  ISO  sizes
              a1-a7,  b1-b7,  c1-c7.   Each  of  these also has a landscape or
              `rotated'   variant:   usr   (11x8.5in),   a1r-a7r,   etc.   For
              compatibility  with dvips, the formats letter (8.5x11in), ledger
              (17x11in) and tabloid (11x17in) are also supported (these  don't
              have rotated variants).
              Any  of  the  above  sizes may be preceded by a plus sign (`+');
              this causes the paper size given here to override any paper size
              given  in  the dvi file.  The default paper size is 21 x 29.7 cm
              (A4 size).

       -pause (.pause)  This  option  provides  a  simple  implementation   of
              incremental   (stepwise)   display,   which   can  be  used  for
              presentations.  When this option is used, xdvi  will  pause  the
              display  of  the  current  page whenever it encounters a special
              special-string  (xdvi:pause  by  default;  the  string  can   be
              customized  via  -pausespecial,  see below), and the cursor will
              change its shape.   The  action  unpause-or-next()  (by  default
              bound  to  the  Space  key) will display the next portion of the
              page up to the following special-string, or until the end of the
              page  is  reached.   When  the  option  is  not  used,  specials
              containing special-string will be ignored.

       -pausespecial special-string
              (.pauseSpecial) Sets the special  string  that  causes  xdvi  to
              pause  when  the  -pause  option is active. The default value of
              special-string is xdvi:pause.

       -postscript flag
              (.postscript) If flag = 0, rendering of PostScript<tm>  specials
              is  disabled;  instead,  bounding  boxes  will  be displayed (if
              available). A value of 1 (the default)  switches  PostScript<tm>
              specials  on. With a value of 2, the PostScript<tm> specials are
              displayed along with their bounding boxes; this  allows  you  to
              visually check the correctness of the bounding boxes. The values
              can also be toggled at runtime with the `v'  keystroke  and  the
              corresponding numerical prefix arguments 0, 1 and 2.

       -ps2pdfpath path
              (.ps2pdfPath)  Use  path as a conversion program from Postscript
              to PDF. The program or script  should  accept  two  command-line
              arguments:  The  Postscript  file as first argument, and the PDF
              output file as second argument.

       -rulecolor color
              (.ruleColor) Determines the color of the rules used for the  the
              magnifier (default: foreground color).

       -q     (.noInitFile)  Ignore the $HOME/.xdvirc startup file (i.e. don't
              read it at startup, and don't write it at exit). This forces the
              defaults  defined  in $HOME/.Xdefaults to be used. See FILES for
              more information on $HOME/.xdvirc.

       -rv    (.reverseVideo) Causes the  page  to  be  displayed  with  white
              characters on a black background, instead of vice versa.

       -S density
              (.densityPercent) Same as -density (which see).

       -s shrink
              (.shrinkFactor)  Defines the initial shrink factor.  The default
              value is 8.  If shrink is given as 0, then  the  initial  shrink
              factor  is  computed so that the page fits within the window (as
              if the `s' keystroke were given without a number).

       -safer (.safer) This option turns on all available security options; it
              is  designed  for  use  when  xdvi  is  called by a browser that
              obtains a dvi or  TeX  file  from  another  site.   This  option
              selects +nogssafer and +allowshell.

       -sidemargin dimen
              (.sideMargin) Specifies the side margin (see -margins).

       -sourceposition line[:col][ ]filename
              This  option  makes  xdvi  search  in the dvi file for the place
              corresponding to the indicated line (and, optionally, column) in
              the .tex source file, and highlight the place found by drawing a
              rectangle in the highlight color (see the -hl option) around the
              corresponding  text.   In  addition, when run with this argument
              (and the -nofork option is not  given,  which  see),  xdvi  will
              always return immediately:  if it finds another instance of xdvi
              already showing dvi_file, then it will cause  that  instance  to
              raise  its  window  and move to the given place in the dvi file;
              otherwise it will start up its own instance in  the  background.
              If  several  instances of xdvi are displaying the respective dvi
              file, the instance which was last raised to the foreground  will
              be used.

              The  space before filename is only needed if the filename starts
              with a digit.  When the space is used, the argument needs to  be
              enclosed in quotes to prevent the shell from misinterpreting the
              space as argument separator.

              This option requires  that  dvi_file  be  prepared  with  source
              special  information.   See  the  section on SOURCE SPECIALS for
              details on how to do this.

              Here is a more detailed description of how the filename  in  the
              -sourceposition  argument  is  matched  with the filename in the
              source specials:

              1. If neither of the filenames contains a path  name  component,
                 the  filenames are compared ignoring the `.tex' extensions in
                 both filenames.

              2. Otherwise, if one  of  the  filenames  does  contain  a  path
                 component        (e.g.:        ./test.tex,       ../test.tex,
                 /my/homedir/tex/test.tex or any combination of  these),  both
                 filenames  are  expanded to a full path, with any occurrences
                 of ../ and ./ expanded, and multiple slashes removed.
                 The pathname in the -sourceposition is expanded  relative  to
                 the  current  working  directory  of the xdvi -sourceposition
                 invocation, and the pathnames  in  the  source  specials  are
                 expanded  relative  to the path of the current DVI file being
                 viewed.
                 The  path  names  are  then  compared  ignoring  the   `.tex'
                 extensions in both path names.

       -statusline
              (.statusline)  This  option  is  obsolete; use -expertmode  flag
              instead (which see).

       -thorough
              (.thorough) Xdvi will usually  try  to  ensure  that  overstrike
              characters  (e.g., \notin) are printed correctly.  On monochrome
              displays, this is always possible with  one  logical  operation,
              either and or or.  On color displays, however, this may take two
              operations, one to set the appropriate bits  and  one  to  clear
              other  bits.   If  this  is  the case, then by default xdvi will
              instead  use  the  copy  operation,  which   does   not   handle
              overstriking correctly.  The -thorough option chooses the slower
              but more correct choice.  See also -copy.

       -topmargin dimen
              (.topMargin)  Specifies  the  top  and   bottom   margins   (see
              -margins).

       -unique
              (.unique) This option will make another instance of xdvi running
              on the same  display  act  as  a  `server'.   For  example,  the
              invocation

              xdvi -unique +5 file.dvi

              will  cause  this  other  instance to load file.dvi on page 5 in
              place of the file that it is currently displaying. If  there  is
              already  another  instance  of  xdvi already displaying the file
              file.dvi, then it will just  jump  to  page  5.   If  the  other
              instance  of  xdvi  is displaying a different file, it will load
              file.dvi instead. Otherwise, if no other  instance  of  xdvi  is
              currently  running  on the display, this option instead starts a
              new instance of xdvi  in  the  background  (unless  the  -nofork
              option is specified, which see) displaying page 5 of file.dvi.
              The  filename and the +n option for the page number are the only
              options available for controlling a remote instance of xdvi like
              this; all other options are currently ignored.

       -useTeXpages
              Use  logical  TeX  pages  (the  values  of the \count0 register)
              instead of physical pages  for  the  pagelist  labels  and  when
              jumping  to  a page in a document with the `g' keystroke (or the
              goto-page() action).  This option can be  toggled  via  the  `T'
              keystroke.

       -version
              Print information on the version of xdvi.

       -visitedlinkcolor
              (.visitedLinkColor) Color used for visited hyperlinks (`Purple4'
              by default). Hyperlinks become visited once you click  on  them.
              As  for  linkColor,  the  value should be either a valid X color
              name or a hexadecimal color string.

       -warnspecials
              (.warnSpecials) Causes xdvi to  print  warnings  about  \special
              strings  that  it  cannot  process to stderr. These warnings are
              suppressed by default.

       -watchfile n
              (.watchFile) If this option is set to a  value  larger  than  0,
              xdvi will check the DVI file for changes every n seconds. If the
              DVI file has been completely written by TeX, it will be reloaded
              automatically.  Fractional values (e.g. `2.5') are possible. The
              default for this option is 0, i.e. no watching.
              Since xdvi cannot handle partial DVI  files,  it  tries  not  to
              reload  the  file  while it is being rewritten.  However, use of
              the magnifier or switching of pages requires reading (a part of)
              the  DVI  file, and if the tempfile option is switched off, this
              will erase the current contents of the window until the DVI file
              can be read entirely.

       -wheelunit pixels
              (.wheelUnit)  Sets the number of pixels that a motion of a wheel
              mouse will move the image up or down.  (See  the  wheel  action,
              below, for more information on this.)  If set to zero, the wheel
              mouse functionality is disabled.  The default value is 80.

       -xoffset dimen
              (.xOffset) Specifies the size of the horizontal  offset  of  the
              output on the page.  See -offsets.

       -yoffset dimen
              (.yOffset)  Specifies  the  size  of  the vertical offset of the
              output on the page.  See -offsets.

KEYSTROKES

       Xdvi recognizes the following keystrokes  when  typed  in  its  window.
       Each  may  optionally be preceded by a (positive or negative) number, a
       `prefix argument', whose interpretation will depend on  the  particular
       keystroke.   This  prefix  argument  can  be  discarded by pressing the
       ``Escape'' key.  If present, the ``Help'', ``Prior'' and ``Next''  keys
       are synonyms for `?', `b', and `f' keys, respectively.

       The  key  bindings  listed here are those that xdvi assigns by default.
       The names appearing in brackets at the beginning  of  the  descriptions
       are  the  names  of  the actions associated with the keys; these can be
       used to customize the key bindings, as explained in more detail in  the
       section  CUSTOMIZATION  below.  If  only a lowercase binding is listed,
       both upper- and lowercase keys will work for that binding.

       ESC key
              [discard-number()] The escape key discards the numerical  prefix
              for all actions (useful when you mistyped a number).

       Return key
              [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page
              if a number is given).  Synonyms are `n', `f' and Line Feed.

       Backspace key
              [back-pagee()] Moves to the previous page  (or  back  n  pages).
              Synonyms are `p', `b' and Ctrl-h.

       Delete key
              [up-or-previous()]  Moves  up two-thirds of a window-full, or to
              the top of the previous page if already at the top of the  page.
              With  a float argument, moves up the corresponding fraction of a
              window-full.

       Space key
              [unpause-or-next()] Moves down two-thirds of a  window-full,  or
              to the next page if already at the bottom of the page.
              When the option -pause special-string is used and the display is
              currently paused, this key will instead display the next portion
              of the page until the next special-string or the end of the page
              is encountered.  See the description of the  -pause  option  for
              details.  The  action [down-or-next()] does a similar thing, but
              without pausing; it is not bound to a key by default.

       Ctrl-Home (Xaw), Ctrl-osfBeginLine (Motif)
              [goto-page(1)] Moves to the first page of the document.

       Ctrl-End (Xaw), Ctrl-osfEndLine (Motif)
              [goto-page()] Moves to the last page of the document.

       Home (Xaw), osfBeginLine (Motif)
              [home-or-top()] Move to the ``home'' position of the page, or to
              the  top  of the page if the keep flag is set (in this case, the
              page doesn't scroll horizontally).

       End (Xaw), osfEndLine (Motif)
              [end-or-bottom()] Move to the ``end'' position of the page  (the
              lower  right-hand  corner),  or to the bottom of the page if the
              keep flag  is  set  (in  this  case,  the  page  doesn't  scroll
              horizontally).

       Down arrow
              [down(0.015)] Scrolls page down.

       Up arrow
              [up(0.015)] Scrolls page up.

       Right arrow
              [right(0.015)] Scrolls page right.

       Left arrow
              [left(0.015)] Scrolls page left.

       Alt-Ctrl-+
              [change-density(25)]  Increase  the darkness of the fonts in the
              DVI window by adding to  the  gamma  value  (see  also  the  `S'
              keystroke).

       Alt-Ctrl--
              [change-density(-25)]  Decrease the darkness of the fonts in the
              DVI window by subtracting from the gamma value (see also the `S'
              keystroke).

       Ctrl-+ [set-shrink-factor(+)]  Increase the shrink factor (see also the
              `s' keystroke).

       Ctrl-- [set-shrink-factor(-)] Decrease the shrink factor (see also  the
              `s' keystroke).

       Ctr-[  [pagehistory-delete-backward()]  Delete  the current item in the
              page history and move to the history  item  before  the  deleted
              one.  With a prefix argument n, delete n previous history items.
              See PAGE HISTORY for details.

       [      [pagehistory-back()] Move back in the  page  history  (see  PAGE
              HISTORY  for  details).  With  a  prefix argument n, move back n
              history items.

       Ctr-]  [pagehistory-delete-forward()] Delete the current  item  in  the
              page history and move to the history item after the deleted one.
              With a prefix argument n, delete n next history items. See  PAGE
              HISTORY for details.

       ]      [pagehistory-forward()]  Move  forward  in the page history (see
              PAGE HISTORY for  details).  With  a  prefix  argument  n,  move
              forward n history items.

       ^      [home()]  Move  to  the  ``home'' position of the page.  This is
              normally the upper left-hand corner of the  page,  depending  on
              the margins as described in the -margins option, above.

       ?      [help()] Same as the h key (which see).

       B      [htex-back()]  This  key  jumps  back  to the previous hyperlink
              anchor. See the  section  HYPERLINKS  for  more  information  on
              navigating the links.

       b      [back-page()]  Moves  to  the  previous  page (or back n pages).
              Synonyms are `p', Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       C      [set-color()] This key toggles the use of color  specials.   The
              key  sequences  `0C'  and  `1C'  turn  interpretation  of  color
              specials off  and  on,  respectively.   See  also  the  -nocolor
              option.

       c      [center()]  Moves  the  page so that the point currently beneath
              the mouse cursor is moved to the middle of the window, and warps
              the mouse cursor to the same place.

       D      [toggle-grid-mode()]  This  key toggles the use of a grid on the
              displayed page.  If  no  number  is  given,  the  grid  mode  is
              switched  on  or  off.   By  prepending  a number from 1 to 3, 3
              different grid levels can be set.  The units  of  the  grid  are
              inches  or centimeters, depending on whether the paper format is
              letter (in) or a4 (cm).

       d      [down()] Moves page down two thirds of  a  window-full.  With  a
              float   argument  to  ``down'',  moves  down  the  corresponding
              fraction of a window-full.

       Ctrl-f [find()] Pop up a window to search for a string in the DVI file.
              See the section STRING SEARCH, below, for more details.

       f      [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page
              if a number is given).  Synonyms are `n', Return, and Line Feed.

       G      [set-greyscaling()] This key toggles the use of greyscale  anti-
              aliasing  for displaying shrunken bitmaps.  In addition, the key
              sequences `0G' and `1G' clear and set this  flag,  respectively.
              See also the -nogrey option.

              If  given a numeric argument that is not 0 or 1, greyscale anti-
              aliasing is turned on, and the gamma  resource  is  set  to  the
              value  divided  by 100. E.g., `150G' turns on greyscale and sets
              gamma to 1.5.

       Ctrl-g [find-next()] Find the next match string in the DVI  file;  this
              can  be used instead of pressing the `Find' button in the search
              window.

       g      [goto-page()] Moves to the page with the  given  number.  If  no
              page number is given, xdvi jumps to the last page.
              If  the  option/resource  useTeXpages  is  active,  the  numbers
              correspond  to  the  actual  page  numbers  in  the  TeX   file;
              otherwise,  absolute page numbers (starting from 1) are used. In
              the latter case, the page numbers can be changed  with  the  `P'
              keystroke,  below.   Note that with the useTeXpages option it is
              possible that the same page number  occurs  multiple  times;  in
              such a case, xdvi will use the first page number that matches.

       h      Pops  up  a  help  window  with  a short explanation of the most
              important key bindings and concepts.

       k      [set-keep-flag()] Normally when xdvi switches pages, it moves to
              the  home  position as well.  The `k' keystroke toggles a `keep-
              position' flag which, when set, will keep the same position when
              moving  between  pages.   Also  `0k' and `1k' clear and set this
              flag, respectively.  See also the -keep option.

       Ctrl-l [fullscreen(toggle)]   Toggles   fullscreen   mode   (see    the
              description  of  the  -fullscreen option for more information on
              this). This is even  more  flaky  than  using  the  command-line
              option: There is no universal standard how a window could change
              its own geometry or window decorations at run-time, so this will
              not  work with most window managers or desktops. Generally, it's
              better to use the window manager controls to change the size  or
              decorations of the xdvi window.

       l      [left()] Moves page left two thirds of a window-full.

       M      [set-margins()]  Sets  the  margins  so that the point currently
              under the mouse cursor defines the upper left-hand corner of the
              text  in  the  page.   Note  that  the command does not move the
              image, but only determines the margins for  the  page  switching
              commands.  For  details  on  how  the  margins are used, see the
              -margins option.

       m      [toggle-mark()] Toggles the mark for the  current  page  in  the
              page  list.  When a page is marked, it is displayed with a small
              star `*' next to the page number.  The marked pages can then  be
              printed or saved to a file.  A page or several pages can also be
              marked by clicking or dragging Mouse-2 in the page list.

       Ctrl-n [toggle-mark()forward-page()] Toggles the mark for  the  current
              page in the page list, and moves to the next page. This lets you
              quickly mark a series of subsequent pages.

       n      [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page
              if a number is given).  Synonyms are `f', Return, and Line Feed.

       Ctrl-o [select-dvi-file()] Read a new dvi file. A file-selection widget
              is popped up for you to choose the DVI file from.  If  a  prefix
              argument  n  is  given,  the  n th file from the file history is
              opened instead.

       P      [declare-page-number()] ``This is page number n.''  This can  be
              used  to make the `g' keystroke refer to a different page number
              than the physical page.  (If you want to use  `logical'  or  TeX
              page  numbers  instead  of  physical  pages,  consider using the
              option -useTeXpages instead.)  The argument n should be given as
              prefix to this key.

       Ctrl-p [print()]  Opens  a  popup  window for printing the DVI file, or
              parts of it.  See the section PRINT DIALOG for an explanation of
              the  options  available,  and  the  resources  to  customize the
              default behaviour.

       p      [back-page()] Moves to the previous  page  (or  back  n  pages).
              Synonyms are `b', Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       q      [quit()] Quits the program.

       Ctrl-r [forward-page(0)] Redisplays the current page.

       R      [reread-dvi-file()]  Forces  the  dvi  file  to be reread.  This
              allows you to preview many  versions  of  the  same  file  while
              running xdvi only once.

       r      [right()] Moves page right two thirds of a window-full.

       Ctrl-s [save()]  Opens a popup window for saving the DVI file, or parts
              of it. See the section SAVE DIALOG below for more information on
              this.

       S      [set-density()]   Sets  the  density  factor  to  be  used  when
              shrinking bitmaps.  This should be a number between 0  and  100;
              higher  numbers produce lighter characters.  If greyscaling mode
              is in effect, this changes the value of gamma instead.  The  new
              value  of  gamma  is  the  given number divided by 100; negative
              values are allowed.

       s      [set-shrink-factor()] Changes the shrink  factor  to  the  given
              number.   If  no number is given, the smallest factor that makes
              the entire page fit in the window will be  used.   (Margins  are
              ignored in this computation.)

       T      [use-tex-pages()]  Use  logical  TeX  pages  (the  values of the
              \count0 register) instead of physical  pages  for  the  pagelist
              labels and when jumping to a page in a document via goto-page().
              See also the -useTeXpages option.

       t      [switch-magnifier-units()]  Switches  the  units  used  for  the
              magnifier tick marks, and for reporting the distance between the
              mouse pointer and the  ruler  centre  in  ruler  mode  (see  the
              section  MODES).   The  default  value  is  specified  by  the X
              resource tickUnits (`mm' by default). The units  toggle  through
              the  following  values;  except for `px', they all correspond to
              TeX's units: mm (millimeters) pt (TeX points), in  (inches),  sp
              (scaled  points, the unit used internally by TeX) bp (big points
              or `Postscript points'), cc (cicero points), dd (didot  points),
              pc (pica), and px (screen pixels).

       Ctrl-u [back-page()toggle-mark()]  Moves  to  the  previous  page,  and
              toggles the mark for that page. This is the dual action to Ctrl-
              n.

       u      [up()]  Moves  page up two thirds of a window-full. With a float
              argument to ``up'', moves up the  corresponding  fraction  of  a
              window-full.

       Ctrl-v [show-source-specials()]  Show  bounding  boxes for every source
              special on the current page, and print the strings contained  in
              these specials to stderr. With prefix 1, show every bounding box
              on the page. This is for debugging purposes mainly.

       V      [set-gs-alpha()]  This  key   toggles   the   anti-aliasing   of
              PostScript<tm>  specials  when  Ghostscript is used as renderer.
              In addition the key sequences `0V' and `1V' clear and  set  this
              flag, respectively.  See also the -gsalpha option.

       v      [set-ps()]  This  key  toggles  the  rendering of PostScript<tm>
              specials between 3 states:

              - specials (like EPS graphics) are displayed;

              - specials are displayed  along  with  their  bounding  box  (if
              available);

              - only the bounding box is displayed.

              The states can also be selected directly by using `1v', `2v' and
              `0v' respectively.  See also the -postscript option.

       Ctrl-x [source-what-special()] Display  information  about  the  source
              special  next to the mouse cursor in the statusline. This is the
              same special  that  would  be  found  by  source-special(),  but
              without invoking the editor. For debugging purposes.

       x      [set-expert-mode()]   Toggles   expert   mode,   in   which  the
              statusline, the scrollbars, the menu buttons, the toolbar (Motif
              only)  and the page list are not shown.  Typing `1x' toggles the
              display of the statusline at the bottom of  the  window.  Typing
              `2x'  toggles  the  scrollbars  (if  available).  For  Xaw, `3x'
              toggles the menu buttons  and  the  page  list,  for  Motif,  it
              toggles  the  page  list. In Motif, the additional bindings `4x'
              toggle the toolbar, and `5x' the menu bar.
              Without a prefix argument, all of the mentioned GUI elements are
              either switched on (if they had been invisible before) or off.
              Toggling  the  scrollbars  may  behave  erratically with the Xaw
              widgets; e.g. the scrollbars may  reappear  after  resizing  the
              window,  and  at  certain window sizes one of the scrollbars may
              fail to disappear.
              See also the option -expertmode (the numbers above correspond to
              the bits in the argument to -expertmode).

MOUSE ACTIONS IN THE MAIN WINDOW

       The  mouse  actions  can  be  customized  by  setting  the  X  resource
       mouseTranslations.  Since there are three different  mouse  modes  (see
       the  section  MODES below), there is a special action mouse-modes which
       lists the actions for each of the  three  modes:  mouse-modes("ACTIONS-
       FOR-MODE1",  "ACTIONS-FOR-MODE2",  "ACTIONS-FOR-MODE3").   If  only one
       argument is specified, this action is used for all modes.  The  default
       bindings are as follows:

            xdvi.mouseTranslations: \
            Shift<Btn1Down>:mouse-modes("drag(+)")\n\
            Shift<Btn2Down>:mouse-modes("drag(|)")\n\
            Shift<Btn3Down>:mouse-modes("drag(-)")\n\
            Ctrl<Btn1Down>:mouse-modes("source-special()")\n\
            <Btn1Down>: mouse-modes("do-href()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
            <Btn2Down>: mouse-modes("do-href-newwindow()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
            <Btn3Down>: mouse-modes("magnifier(*3)")\n\
            <Btn4Down>: mouse-modes("wheel(-0.2)")\n\
            <Btn5Down>: mouse-modes("wheel(0.2)")\n\

       All  of these actions are described in more detail below.  Note the use
       of quote symbols around the action strings,  which  are  neccessary  to
       group  them  into  one  argument.   The  buttons 4 and 5 refer to wheel
       movements (wheel up/down) on wheel mice.

       do-href()

       do-href-newwindow()
              Usually, if a  binding  specifies  more  then  one  action,  all
              actions  are  executed in a sequence. The hyperlink bindings do-
              href() and do-href-newwindow() are special in that they are used
              as an alternative to other actions that might follow them if the
              mouse is currently located on a hyperlink.  In this  case,  none
              of the other actions will be executed; otherwise, only the other
              actions are executed.
              The action do-href() jumps to the link  target  in  the  current
              xdvi window (eventually switching to another page), and do-href-
              newwindow() opens a new instance of xdvi for  the  link  target.
              In  both  cases,  the  location  of the target is indicated by a
              small arrow drawn in the same color as a  visited  link  in  the
              left corner of the window.

       magnifier(n x m)

       magnifier(*n)
              This  action  will pop up a ``magnifying glass'' which shows the
              unshrunk image of the region  around  the  mouse  pointer.   The
              magnifier  disappears  when the mouse button is released. Moving
              the mouse cursor while holding the button  down  will  move  the
              magnifier.
              Different  mouse  buttons  produce  different  sized windows, as
              indicated by the the argument of  the  magnifier()  action.  Its
              argument  is either a string of the form widthxheight, as in the
              -mgsn command-line option, or one of the strings *1 through  *5,
              referring  to  the  value  specified  by the corresponding -mgsn
              option.

       drag(+)

       drag(|)

       drag(-)
              Drags the page with the  mouse.  This  action  should  have  one
              parameter,  the  character  ``|'',  ``-'',  or ``+'', indicating
              vertical dragging only, horizontal dragging only, or dragging in
              all directions.

       source-special()
              This  action  starts a ``reverse search'', opening the editor at
              the location in  the  TeX  file  corresponding  to  the  pointer
              location  in  the DVI file.  See the section on SOURCE SPECIALS,
              below, for more information on this.

       wheel()
              This action can be used to scroll the image with a wheel  mouse,
              where  it  is  usually  bound  to mouse button 4 (wheel up) or 5
              (wheel down).   The  action  takes  one  parameter,  giving  the
              distance  to  scroll  the  image.   If  the parameter contains a
              decimal point, the distance is given in wheel units;  otherwise,
              pixels.   A  negative value scrolls up, a positive value scrolls
              down.

       text-selection()
              This action allows you to mark a rectangular region of  text  in
              the  DVI  file.  The text is put into the X selection buffer and
              can be pasted into other applictions (e.g. text  editors).  This
              works  similar  to the Plain text option in the Save dialog; see
              the discussion there for more information on encoding issues.

       ruler()
              This action creates a cross-shaped ruler. Moving the  mouse  and
              holding  the  button  down  drags the ruler and lets you measure
              distances on the page.  See the  section  Ruler  Mode  for  more
              information on this.

UNBOUND ACTIONS

       The  following  actions  are  not  bound  to  a key by default, but are
       available for customization.

       quit-confirm()
              Pops up a confirmation window to quit xdvi. To bind  it  to  the
              `q'  key  instead  of  the  default  `quit()'  action,  put  the
              following into your ~/.Xdefaults file:

              xdvi.mainTranslations: #override\
              <Key>q: quit-confirm()\n

       down-or-next()
              Similar to unpause-or-next(): Moves down two-thirds of a window-
              full, or to the next page if already at the bottom of the page.

       shrink-to-dpi()
              This  action  takes one (required) argument.  It sets the shrink
              factor to an integer so as to approximate the use of fonts  with
              the  corresponding  number  of  dots per inch.  If xdvi is using
              fonts scaled for p dots per inch, and the argument to shrink-to-
              dpi is n, then the corresponding shrink factor is the ratio p/n,
              rounded to the nearest integer.

CUSTOMIZATION

       Key and  mouse  button  assignments  can  be  changed  by  setting  the
       mainTranslations resource to a string of translations as defined in the
       documentation for the X toolkit.  The actions should take the  form  of
       action names listed in the KEYSTROKES and MOUSE ACTIONS sections.

       An  exception  to this are the Motif keys osfPageUp (PgUp), osfPageDown
       (PgDown), osfBeginLine (Home) and osfEndLine (End) which are  currently
       not customizable in the Motif version.

       Key  actions  will  usually be without arguments; if they are passed an
       argument, it represents the optional number or `prefix argument'  typed
       prior to the action.

       Some  key  actions may take special arguments, as follows: The argument
       of goto-page may be the letter `e', indicating the action of  going  to
       the  end of the document.  The argument of set-shrink-factor may be the
       letter `a', indicating that the shrink factor  should  be  set  to  the
       smallest value such that the page will fit in the window, or one of the
       signs `+' or `-', indicating that the shrink factor should be increased
       or  decreased,  respectively.   Finally,  actions  that would perform a
       toggle, such as set-keep-flag, may receive an argument `t',  indicating
       that  the  action  should  toggle  regardless  of  the  current  prefix
       argument.

       Mouse  actions  should  refer  only  to   ButtonPress   events   (e.g.,
       <Btn1Down>:magnifier(*1)).  The corresponding motion and release events
       will be handled internally.  A key action  may  be  bound  to  a  mouse
       event, but not vice versa.

       Usually  the  string  of  translations should begin with ``#override'',
       indicating that the default key and mouse button assignments should not
       be discarded.

       When  keys or mouse buttons involving modifiers (such as Ctrl or Shift)
       are  customized  together  with  their  non-modified  equivalents,  the
       modified keys should come first, for example:

            xdvi.mainTranslations: #override \
            Shift<Key>s: select-dvi-file()\n\
            Ctrl<Key>s: save()\n\
            <Key>s: find()\n

       Because  xdvi needs to capture pointer motion events, and because the X
       Toolkit translations mechanism cannot accommodate  both  motion  events
       and double-click events at the same time, it is not possible to specify
       double-click actions in xdvi customizations.  For information  on  this
       and  other  aspects  of  translations,  see  the  X  Toolkit Intrinsics
       documentation.

       There is no command-line option to set the  mainTranslations  resource,
       since  changing  this resource on the command line would be cumbersome.
       To set the resource for testing purposes,  use  the  -xrm  command-line
       option   provided   by   the   X   toolkit.   For  example,  xdvi  -xrm
       'XDvi.mainTranslations:  #override  "z":quit()'  ...   or   xdvi   -xrm
       'XDvi.mainTranslations:  #override  <Key>z:quit()'  ...  will cause the
       key `z' to quit xdvi.

       Some resources are provided to allow customization of the  geometry  of
       the  Xaw  command buttons.  Again, they are not changeable via command-
       line options, other than via the -xrm option.  All of  these  resources
       take integer values.

       buttonSideSpacing
              The number of pixels to be placed on either side of the buttons.
              The default value is 6.

       buttonTopSpacing
              The number of pixels between the top button and the top  of  the
              window.  The default value is 50.

       buttonBetweenSpacing
              The  number of pixels between the buttons.  The default value is
              20.

       buttonBetweenExtra
              The number of pixels of additional space to be inserted  if  the
              buttonTranslations  resource  string  contains  an extra newline
              character.  The default value is 50.

       buttonBorderWidth
              The border width of the button windows.  The default value is 1.

PAGE LIST

       The scrollable page list on the right of the main window allows you  to
       jump directly to a page in the DVI file.

       Mouse-1
              Jumps to the page the mouse is located on.

       Mouse-2
              [toggle-mark()]  Toggle  the mark of the current page. The marks
              are used by the `Print' and `Save to  file'  dialogs  to  select
              only marked pages from the DVI file.

       When  the  mouse  pointer  is  inside  the  page  list, the mouse wheel
       switches to the next or previous page.

SCROLLBARS

       The scrollbars (if present) behave in the standard way:  pushing Button
       2  in  a  scrollbar moves the top or left edge of the scrollbar to that
       point and optionally drags it; pushing Button 1 moves the image  up  or
       right  by  an amount equal to the distance from the button press to the
       upper left-hand corner of the window; pushing Button 3 moves the  image
       down or left by the same amount.

       The scrollbars can be removed via the -expertmode flag/keystroke (which
       see).

MAGNIFIER

       By default, the mouse buttons 1 to 5 will pop up a ``magnifying glass''
       that  shows  an  unshrunken  image  of  the  page (i.e. an image at the
       resolution determined by the option/X resource  pixels  or  mfmode)  at
       varying sizes. When the magnifier is moved, small ruler-like tick marks
       are displayed at the edges of the  magnifier  (unless  the  X  resource
       delayRulers  is  set to false, in which case the tick marks will always
       be displayed).  The unit of the marks is determined by the  X  resource
       tickUnits  (mm by default). This unit can be changed at runtime via the
       action switch-magnifier-units(), by default bound to the keystroke  `t'
       (see  the  description of that key, and of switch-magnifier-units() for
       more details on the units available).
       The length of the  tick  marks  can  be  changed  via  the  X  resource
       tickLength (4 by default). A zero or negative value suppresses the tick
       marks.

PAGE HISTORY

       Xdvi keeps a history of viewed pages, and  you  can  move  through  the
       history  and  delete  items  using  the  keys [ (pagehistory-back()), ]
       (pagehistory-forward()),  Ctr-[   (pagehistory-delete-backward())   and
       Ctr-] (pagehistory-delete-forward()).

       When one of the history commands is used, the page history is displayed
       in the status line at the bottom of the window, with the  current  list
       item marked by square brackets `[', `]' and a left and right context of
       at most 10 items. File boundaries are marked by `#'.

       The size  of  the  history  can  be  customized  with  the  X  resource
       pageHistorySize (the default size is 1000 items). If the size is set to
       0, the history commands are disabled.

HYPERLINKS

       The actions do-href() and  do-href-newwindow()  (by  default  bound  to
       Mouse-1 and Mouse-2 if the pointer is currently located on a hyperlink)
       can be used to open the link target in the same window  (do-href())  or
       in a new window (do-href-newwindow()).

       If  the  link  target  is  not  a file on the local disk, xdvi tries to
       launch a web browser (as specified by the -browser command line option,
       the  BROWSER environment variable or the wwwBrowser X resource, in this
       order) to retrieve the document. See the  description  of  the  BROWSER
       environment variable, below, for an example setting.

       If  the  file  is  a local file, xdvi tries to determine if it is a DVI
       file. If it is, xdvi will try to display the file;  otherwise  it  will
       try  to  determine  the  MIME  type  of  the  file,  and  from  that an
       application suitable for opening the file.  This is done by parsing the
       files specified by the environment variable EXTENSIONMAPS for a mapping
       of filename extensions to MIME types, and the files determined  by  the
       environment   variable   MAILCAPS  for  a  mapping  of  MIME  types  to
       application programs.  See the descriptions of these variables  in  the
       section  ENVIRONMENT,  below,  for  a more detailed description and the
       default values of these variables. If no suitable files  are  found,  a
       set of built-in default MIME types and applications is used.

       Xdvi  currently  uses  no  heuristics apart from the filename suffix to
       determine the mime type of a file. If a filename  has  no  suffix,  the
       value  of  the resource noMimeSuffix is used (by default application/x-
       unknown).   If  the  suffix  doesn't  match  any  of  the  suffixes  in
       mime.types,  the  value  of  the resource unknownMimeSuffix is used (by
       default application/x-unknown).  If the mailcap entries do not  list  a
       viewer  for  a  given mime type, xdvi will show a warning popup. If you
       want to avoid this warning, and for example  want  to  always  use  the
       netscape  browser  for  unknown MIME types, you could add the following
       line to your ~/.mailcap file:

           application/xdvi-unknown; \
               netscape -raise -remote 'openURL(%s,new-window)'

STRING SEARCH

       The keystroke Ctrl-f or the  menu  entry  File  >  Find  ...   (or  the
       `Binoculars' symbol in the toolbar, for Motif) opens a dialog window to
       search for a text string or a regular expression in the DVI file.   The
       keystroke  Ctrl-g  jumps  to  the  next match (like pressing the `Find'
       button in the search window).

       By default, the matches are highlighted  in  inverted  color.   If  the
       display   isn't   running   in   TrueColor,   or   if  the  X  resource
       matchHighlightInverted is set  to  false  or  the  command-line  option
       -nomatchinverted  is  used,  xdvi  will  instead  draw  a  rectangle in
       highlight color (see the -hl option) around the match.

       If a match crosses a page boundary, only the part on the first page  is
       highlighted.   Xdvi  will  scan up to 2 adjacent pages to match strings
       crossing page boundaries; but note that  header  or  footer  lines,  or
       intervening  float  pages will be treated as parts of the scanned text.
       Such text will usually cause multi-page matching to fail.

       This emphasizes the fact that searching in the formatted text (the  DVI
       output)  works differently from searching in the source text: Searching
       in the DVI file makes it easier to skip  formatting  instructions,  and
       makes it possible to search for e.g.  hyphenation and equation numbers;
       but sometimes the formatting results can also get in the way,  e.g.  in
       the  case of footnotes. In these cases it's better to search in the TeX
       source instead. The use of source specials will make switching  between
       the  xdvi  display  and  the editor with the TeX source easier; see the
       section SOURCE SPECIALS below for more information on this.

       The text extracted from the DVI file is in encoded in  UTF-8  (you  can
       view  that  text by saving the file in UTF-8 format via the File > Save
       as  ...   menu  item).   If  xdvi  has  been  compiled   with   locale,
       nl_langinfo()  and iconv support, the search term is converted from the
       character set specified by the current  locale  into  UTF-8.  (See  the
       output  of  locale  -a  for a list of locale settings available on your
       system).  If nl_langinfo() is not available,  but  iconv  is,  you  can
       specify  the  input  encoding for iconv via the X resource textEncoding
       (see the output of iconv -l for a list of valid  encodings).  If  iconv
       support  is  not available, only the encodings ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8 are
       supported (these names are case-insensitive).

       Ideographic characters from CJKV fonts are treated specially: All white
       space (spaces and newlines) before and after such characters is ignored
       in the search string and in the DVI file.

       To match a newline character, use \n in the search string; to match the
       string \n, use \\n.

       If  the checkbox Regular Expression is activated, the string is treated
       as a regular expression in extended POSIX syntax,  with  the  following
       properties:

         - a? matches a zero or one times.

         - a* matches a zero or more times.

         - a+ matches a one or more times.  Note that * and + are greedy, i.e.
           they match the longest possible substring.

         - The pattern . matches any character except  for  newline.  To  also
           match a newline, use `(.|\n)'.

         - a{n} matches a exactly n times.

         - a{n,m} matches a at least n and no more than m times.

         - a|b  matches  a  or  b.  Brackets  can  be used for grouping, e.g.:
           (a|b)|c.

         - The string matched by the nth group can be referenced by  \n,  e.g.
           \1 refers to the first match.

         - The  characters  ^ and $ match the beginning and the end of a line,
           respectively.

         - [abc] matches any of the letters a, b, c,  and  [a-z]  matches  all
           characters from a to z.

         - Each  item in a regular expression can also be one of the following
           POSIX character classes:
           [[:alnum:]] [[:alpha:]] [[:blank:]] [[:cntrl:]] [[:digit:]]
           [[:graph:]] [[:lower:]] [[:print:]] [[:space:]] [[:upper:]]

           These can be negated by  inserting  a  ^  symbol  after  the  first
           bracket: [^[:alpha:]]

           For  more  details  on POSIX regular expressions, see e.g. the IEEE
           Std 1003.1 standard definition available online from:

           http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/007904975/basedefs/xbd_chap09.html

         - As a non-standard extension, the following Perl-like  abbreviations
           can be used instead of the POSIX classes:

           Symbol   Meaning                       POSIX Class

               \w   an alphanumeric character     [[:alnum:]]
               \W   a non-alphanumeric character  [^[:alnum:]]
               \d   a digit character             [[:digit:]]
               \D   a non-digit character         [^[:digit:]]
               \s   a whitespace character        [[:space:]]
               \S   a non-whitespace character    [^[:space:]]

         - The  following  characters  are  special  symbols;  they need to be
           escaped with \ in order to match them literally:  ( ) [ ] . * ? + ^
           $ \.

         - Matches of length zero are silently skipped.

       The dialog also provides checkboxes to:

         - search backwards;

         - match  in  a  case-sensitive manner (the default is to ignore case,
           i.e. a search string Test will match both the strings test and TEST
           in the DVI file);

         - ignore  line  breaks  and  hyphens: This removes all hyphens at the
           ends of lines and the following newline  characters,  and  replaces
           all  remaining  newline  characters  by white spaces. So hyphenated
           words will appear as one word to the search, and a search  for  two
           words with a space in between will also match the words if they are
           separated by a linebreak.
           Note that the hyphen removal may cause unwanted  side  effects  for
           compound  words  containing  hyphens  that  are  wrapped  after the
           hyphen, and that replacing the newlines affects the  interpretation
           of  regular  expressions  as follows: The . pattern will also match
           newlines, and ^ and $ won't match begin and end of lines any  more.
           (Since  currently there is no option for turning off the greediness
           of * and +, turning on this option will usually result  in  matches
           that are longer than desired.)

       The current checkbox settings are saved in the ~/.xdvirc file.

PRINT DIALOG

       The  print  dialog  window  allows you to print all pages, marked pages
       (click or drag Mouse-2 in the page list to mark them), or  a  range  of
       pages. Note that the page numbers always refer to physical pages, so if
       you're using the option `use TeX pages', you may want to disable it  to
       make  it  easier  to  determine the correct page numbers (or avoid this
       problem altogether by marking the pages to be printed).

       The value of the Printer text filed is passed  to  dvips  via  the  -o!
       mechanism,  as a single argument after the `!'. Any arguments listed in
       the Dvips options field are segmented  at  whitespaces  and  passed  as
       separate  arguments to dvips.  If you e.g. want to print the file 2-up,
       you should enter the following string into the Printer field:

                psnup -2 -q | lpr -Plp

       There are several resources  for  customizing  the  behaviour  and  the
       default entries of the print dialog:

       dvipsPrinterString

       dvipsOptionsString
              These can be used to provide default entries for the Printer and
              the Dvips options text fields, respectively. If no paper size is
              specified in the DVI file (via e.g. \usepackage[dvips]{geometry}
              - this is the preferred method), the input field is  initialized
              with  the  current  value  of the command line option/X resource
              paper.  E.g., the option -paper a4r is translated into the dvips
              options  -t  a4  -t  landscape.  Note that no check is performed
              whether dvips actually understands these options (it will ignore
              them  if  it  can't); currently not all options used by xdvi are
              also covered by dvips.

       dvipsHangTime

       dvipsFailHangTime
              These specify the  time  (in  milliseconds)  that  the  printing
              progress  window  will  stay  open  after  the dvips process has
              terminated. The value of dvipsHangTime is used  if  the  process
              terminates   successfully;   dvipsFailHangTime  is  used  if  it
              terminates with an error. The  default  values  are  1.5  and  5
              seconds,  respectively.  If both values are negative, the window
              will stay open until it is closed by the user.

SAVE DIALOG

       This dialog allows you to save all  or  selected/marked  pages  in  the
       current DVI file. You can save in one of the following formats:

         - Postscript  (uses  dvips  to  convert  the DVI file to a Postscript
           file, just like when printing to a Postscript file).

         - PDF (first uses dvips to convert the DVI file to a Postscript file,
           then uses ps2pdf to convert the Postscript file to PDF).

         - Plain  text  in  ISO-8859-1  or  UTF-8  encoding.  The  latter will
           preserve  more  of  the  special   LaTeX   characters   e.g.   from
           mathematical  mode.  Note  however  that  e.g.  only few of LaTeX's
           mathematical symbols can be rendered correctly  as  text;  so  this
           funcionality  works  best for plain text documents.  If a character
           cannot be displayed in the selected charset, it is replaced by  `\'
           followed  by the hexadecimal character code.  If a character is not
           recognized at all, it is replaced by `?'.

       The programs for Postscript and PDF conversion can  be  customized  via
       the  command  line  options  or  X  resources -dvipspath/.dvipsPath and
       -ps2pdfpath/.ps2pdfPath, respectively; see  the  explanation  of  these
       options above for more details.

MODES

       The  keystroke  Ctrl-m [switch-mode()] switches between three different
       mouse bindings, which can also be activated  via  the  Modes  menu  (in
       Motif,  this  is a submenu of the Options menu called Mouse Mode).  The
       default mode at startup can be customized via the X resource  mouseMode
       or  the  command-line  option  -mousemode.  The default startup mode is
       Magnifier Mode.

       Note: The modes are implemented by  changing  the  magnifier()  action.
       Switching  the  mode will not work if Mouse-1 has been customized to an
       action sequence that does not contain the magnifier() action.

       Magnifier Mode
              In this mode, the mouse buttons 1 to 5  pop  up  a  ``magnifying
              glass''  that  shows  an  unshrunken  image of the page (i.e. an
              image at the resolution  determined  by  the  option/X  resource
              pixels or mfmode) at varying sizes. When the magnifier is moved,
              small ruler-like tick marks are displayed at the  edges  of  the
              magnifier (unless the X resource delayRulers is set to false, in
              which case the tick marks are always displayed).   The  unit  of
              the  marks  is  determined  by  the  X resource tickUnits (mm by
              default). This unit can be changed at  runtime  via  the  action
              switch-magnifier-units(),  by default bound to the keystroke `t'
              (see the description  of  that  key,  and  of  switch-magnifier-
              units() for more details on the units available).
              The  length  of the tick marks can be changed via the X resource
              tickLength (4 by default). A zero or negative  value  suppresses
              the tick marks.

       Text Selection Mode
              This  mode  allows you to select a rectangular region of text in
              the DVI file by holding down Mouse-1 and moving the  mouse.  The
              text  is  put  into  the  X  primary selection so that it can be
              pasted into other X applications with Mouse-2 as usual.
              If xdvi has been compiled with locale, nl_langinfo()  and  iconv
              support,  the  selected text is converted into the character set
              of the current locale (see the output of locale -a for a list of
              locale  settings available on your system).  If nl_langinfo() is
              not available, but iconv is, you can specify the input  encoding
              for  iconv  via  the  X resource textEncoding (see the output of
              iconv -l for a list of valid encodings). If iconv support is not
              available, only the encodings ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8 are supported
              (these names are case-insensitive).
              Note that UTF-8  is  the  only  encoding  that  can  render  all
              characters  (e.g.  mathematical  symbols)  of  a  DVI  file.  If
              ISO-8859-1 is active, characters that cannot  be  displayed  are
              replaced by `\' followed by the hexadecimal character code.  For
              other  encodings,  such  characters  may  trigger  iconv   error
              messages.   If  a  character  is  not  recognized  at all, it is
              replaced by `?'.
              To extract larger portions of text, you can  alternatively  save
              selected  pages or the entire file in text format via the File >
              Save as ...  menu.

       Ruler Mode
              This mode provides a simple way of measuring  distances  on  the
              page.
              When  this  mode  is  activated, the mouse cursor changes into a
              thin cross, and a larger, cross-shaped ruler  is  drawn  in  the
              highlight  color  at  the mouse location. The ruler doesn't have
              units attached to it; instead, the current distance between  the
              ruler  and  the  mouse  cursor  is  continuously  printed to the
              statusline.
              When activating Ruler Mode, the ruler is at  first  attached  to
              the  mouse and can be moved around. It can then be positioned at
              a fixed place by clicking Mouse-1.  After that, the mouse cursor
              can  be  moved to measure the horizontal (dx), vertical (dy) and
              direct (shortest) (dr) distance between the ruler  center  point
              and the mouse.
              Clicking  Mouse-1 again will move the ruler to the current mouse
              position, and holding down Mouse-1 will drag the ruler around.
              In Ruler Mode,  the  following  special  keybindings  extend  or
              replace the default bindings:

              o      [ruler-snap-origin()]  Snap  the ruler back to the origin
                     coordinate (0,0).

              t      [overrides   switch-magnifier-units()]   Toggle   between
                     various  ruler  units,  which  can  be specified by the X
                     resource tickUnits (`mm' by default).

              P      [overrides  declare-page-number()]  Print  the  distances
                     shown in the statusline to standard output.

TOOLBAR (Motif only)

       The  Motif  toolbar  can  also be customized. The XPM file used for the
       toolbar icons can be  specified  via  the  resource  toolbarPixmapFile,
       which   should  contain  a  filename  that  can  be  found  in  one  of
       XFILESEARCHPATH or XDVIINPUTS (see the section FILE SEARCHING below for
       more  information  on  these  variables).   Xdvi will try to split this
       pixmap horizontally into n pieces, where each piece is as wide  as  the
       pixmap  is  high and is treated as an image for toolbar button n.  This
       means that each icon should be a square, and  that  the  entire  pixmap
       should have width n x h if h is the height of the pixmap.

       The  resource  toolbarTranslations  can be used to map icons/buttons to
       specific actions.  The resource should contain a  string  separated  by
       newline  characters,  similar  to  the  resources  mainTranslations and
       menuTranslations.  Every line must contain either a spacer  definition,
       or an icon definition:

       A  spacer  definition  is  a string SPACER(n), where n is the number of
       pixels inserted as separator to the following button.

       An icon definition is a colon-separated list containing  the  following
       elements:

         - the index of an icon in the pixmap file (starting from zero);

         - a long tooltip string, displayed in the status area;

         - a short tooltip string, displayed as popup;

         -  a  sequence  of  actions  to  be  performed when the corresponding
         toolbar button is pushed.

       To illustrate this, the default value of toolbarTranslations  looks  as
       follows:

            xdvi.toolbarTranslations: \
               SPACER(5)\n\
               0:Open a new document   (Key\\: Ctrl-f):\
                    Open file:select-dvi-file()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               1:Reread this document   (Key\\: R):\
                    Reread file:reread-dvi-file()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               2:Go to the first page of this document   (Key\\: 1g):\
                    Go to first page:goto-page(1)\n\
               3:Go to the previous page of this document   (Key\\: p):\
                    Go to previous page:back-page(1)\n\
               4:Go to the next page of this document   (Key\\: n):\
                    Go to next page:forward-page(1)\n\
               5:Go to the last page of this document   (Key\\: g):\
                    Go to last page:goto-page()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               6:Enlarge the display   (Key\\: Ctrl-+):Zoom in:\
                    set-shrink-factor(+)\n\
               7:Shrink the display   (Key\\: Ctrl--):Zoom out:\
                    set-shrink-factor(-)\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               8:Jump back to the previous hyperlink   (Key\\: B):\
                    Back hyperlink:htex-back()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               10:Print this document:Print:print()\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               11:Toggle marks for odd pages   (Key\\: 1m):\
                    Toggle odd:toggle-mark(1)\n\
               12:Toggle marks for even pages   (Key\\: 2m):\
                    Toggle even:toggle-mark(2)\n\
               13:Toggle mark for current page   (Key\\: 2m):\
                    Toggle current:toggle-mark()\n\
               14:Unmark all pages   (Key\\: 0m):\
                    Unmark all:toggle-mark(0)\n\
               SPACER(10)\n\
               18:Display fonts darker   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl-+):\
                    Fonts darker:change-density(5)\n\
               19:Display fonts lighter   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl--):\
                    Fonts lighter:change-density(-5)\n

       When  the  mouse  remains over a toolbar button for a certain period, a
       `tooltip' window is shown, describing what the button  does  using  the
       short  tooltip  string  from  the above resource. At the same time, the
       long tooltip string is displayed in the statusline.  The appearance and
       behaviour  of  these  tooltips  can  be  customized  via  the following
       resources:

       tipShell.background
              Background color of the tooltip window.

       tipShell.fontSet
              Font used for the tooltip.

       tipShell.waitPeriod
              The time (in milliseconds) the mouse pointer needs  to  be  over
              the  button  before  the  tooltip is shown. Set it to a negative
              value to suppress the tooltips altogether.

GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS

       The greyscale anti-aliasing feature in xdvi will not work at  its  best
       if  the display does not have enough colors available.  This can happen
       if other applications are using most of the colormap (even if they  are
       iconified).   If this occurs, then xdvi will print an error message and
       turn on the -copy option.  This will result  in  overstrike  characters
       appearing  wrong;  it  may  also  result in poor display quality if the
       number of available colors is very small.

       Typically this problem occurs on displays that allocate eight  bits  of
       video  memory  per  pixel.  To see how many bits per pixel your display
       uses, type xwininfo in an xterm window, and then click the mouse on the
       root  window  when  asked.  The ``Depth:'' entry will tell you how many
       bits are allocated per pixel.

       Displays using at least 15  bits  per  pixel  are  typically  TrueColor
       visuals,  which  do  not  have  this  problem,  since their colormap is
       permanently allocated and available to all applications.   (The  visual
       class  is  also displayed by xwininfo.)  For more information on visual
       classes see the documentation for the X Window System.

       To alleviate this problem, therefore, one may (a) run  with  more  bits
       per  pixel  (this may require adding more video memory or replacing the
       video card), (b) shut down other applications that may be using much of
       the  colormap  and then restart xdvi, or (c) run xdvi with the -install
       option.

       One application which is often the cause of this problem  is  Netscape.
       In  this  case  there  are  two  more  alternatives  to  remedying  the
       situation.  One can run ``netscape  -install''  to  cause  Netscape  to
       install a private colormap.  This can cause colors to change in bizarre
       ways when the mouse is moved to a different window.  Or,  one  can  run
       ``netscape  -ncols  220''  to  limit  Netscape  to  a smaller number of
       colors.  A smaller number will ensure that other applications have more
       colors  available,  but  will degrade the color quality in the Netscape
       window.

HANDLING OF POSTSCRIPT FIGURES

       Xdvi can display Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files  included  in  the
       dvi file.  Such files are first searched for in the directory where the
       dvi file is, and  then  using  normal  Kpathsea  rules.   There  is  an
       exception  to  this,  however:  if the file name begins with a backtick
       (`), then the remaining characters  in  the  file  name  give  a  shell
       command  (often  zcat)  which  is executed; its standard output is then
       sent to be interpreted as PostScript.  Since the execution of arbitrary
       shell  commands  with  the  user's permissions is a huge security risk,
       evaluation of these backtick commands is disabled by default. It  needs
       to  be  activated  via  the -allowshell command-line option.  NOTE: You
       should never use this option when viewing  documents  that  you  didn't
       compile   yourself.   The   backtick   specials   are  not  needed  for
       uncompressing gzipped Postscript files, since xdvi can do that  on  the
       fly if the filename ends with .eps.gz or .eps.Z (and if the first bytes
       of the file indicate that the file is indeed compressed).  This is both
       safer  and  more flexible than the backtick approach, since the default
       file searching rules will apply to such filenames too.

T1LIB

       Using   T1Lib,   a   library   written   by   Rainer    Menzner    (see
       ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/libs/graphics/),    xdvi   can   render
       Postscript<tm> Type1 fonts directly, without the route  via  TeX  pixel
       (pk)  fonts.  The  advantage of this is that only one size of each font
       needs to be stored on disk.  Unless the -not1lib option is  used,  xdvi
       will  try  to render every font using T1Lib. Only as a fallback it will
       invoke an external program (like mktexpk,  which  in  turn  may  invoke
       utilities  like  ps2pk  or  gsftopk)  to generate a pixel font from the
       Type1 source. The direct rendering of the Computer Modern fonts  should
       work  out-of-the  box,  whereas  other  Type1  fonts  such  as  the  35
       `standard' Postscript<tm> fonts resident in printers  may  need  to  be
       made  accessible for use with xdvi, unless your system administrator or
       TeX distribution has already done  so  (which  is  the  case  e.g.  for
       current  teTeX  systems).  The  xdvik distribution comes with a utility
       called t1mapper to make these fonts available for xdvi; see the  manual
       page for t1mapper(1) for usage details.

SPECIALS (GENERALLY)

       Any  of  the  specials  used  by xdvi may be preceded by the characters
       ``xdvi:''.  Doing so does not change the behavior of the special  under
       xdvi, but it tells other dvi drivers (such as e.g. dvips) to ignore the
       special.

SOURCE SPECIALS

       Some TeX implementations or macro  packages  provide  the  facility  to
       automatically  include  so-called  `source  specials'  into a DVI file.
       These contain the line number, eventually  a  column  number,  and  the
       filename of the .tex source. This makes it possible to jump from a .dvi
       file to the corresponding place in the .tex source and vice versa (also
       called  `inverse search' - jumping from the DVI file to the TeX file is
       also known as `reverse search', and jumping from the TeX  file  to  the
       DVI file as `forward search').

       To  be  usable with xdvi, source specials in the dvi file must have one
       of the following formats:

                src:line[ ]filename
                src:line:col[ ]filename
                src:line
                src:line:col
                src::col

       If filename or line are omitted, the most recent values are used.   The
       first  source  special  on  each  page  must be in one of the first two
       forms, since defaults are not inherited across pages.

       You will need a TeX implementation that provides an appropriate  switch
       (e.g.   -src)  or  a  macro  package (such as srcltx.sty or srctex.sty,
       available from CTAN:macros/latex/contrib/supported/srcltx/)  to  insert
       such source specials into the DVI file.

       For reverse search, the combination Ctrl-Mouse 1 will make xdvi open an
       editor (the value of the -editor command line option) with the file and
       the  line number of the .tex source. See the description of the -editor
       option for more information and example settings.

       For forward search, xdvi has a -sourceposition option that  makes  xdvi
       jump  to  the  page in the DVI file corresponding to the given line (or
       the closest line having a source special) of  the  specified  file  and
       highlight  the found region. See the description of the -sourceposition
       option for more details.

       More information on setting up various  editors  for  use  with  source
       specials can be found at:

            http://xdvi.sourceforge.net/inverse-search.html

PAPERSIZE SPECIALS

       xdvi  accepts  specials  to set the paper size for the document.  These
       specials should be of the form

                papersize=[*]width,height

       where width and  height  give  the  width  and  height  of  the  paper,
       respectively.   Each  of  these  should appear in the form of a decimal
       number followed by  any  of  the  two-letter  abbreviations  for  units
       accepted  by  TeX  (pt,  pc,  in,  bp,  cm,  mm, dd, cc, or sp).  If an
       asterisk (*) appears just before the width, then the measurements refer
       to  the  document  dimensions  (e.g.,  pt  as opposed to truept).  This
       allows a macro package to vary the page size according to  elements  of
       the document; e.g.,

            \special{xdvi: papersize=*\number\wd\mybox sp,
                     \number\ht\mybox sp}

       Except for the asterisk, this format is compatible with dvips.

       The  last papersize special on a page determines the size of that page.
       If there is no such special on a given page, the most recent  papersize
       is  used, or, if there are no papersize specials on any preceding page,
       then the value of the paper resource (or -paper option on  the  command
       line) is used.  Thus the paper size may vary for different pages of the
       dvi file.

       If the paper resource (or -paper command-line  option)  begins  with  a
       plus  sign  (`+'),  then  all  papersize  specials  in the dvi file are
       ignored.

COLOR SPECIALS

       The color specials supported by xdvi are the same as those supported by
       dvips,  except  that  the literal PostScript color specification (as in
       the AggiePattern example in the dvips documentation) is not  supported.
       There  are  also  some  restrictions  due  to  the  way xdvi's  drawing
       routines are implemented; e.g. the  \colorbox  and  \fcolorbox   macros
       don't  work  with  xdvi.  See  the  section  LIMITATIONS below for more
       information on these restrictions.  Xdvi  supports  the  same  list  of
       named colors as with dvips, namely:

       Apricot,  Aquamarine,  Bittersweet, Black, Blue, BlueGreen, BlueViolet,
       BrickRed,  Brown,  BurntOrange,  CadetBlue,  CarnationPink,   Cerulean,
       CornflowerBlue,  Cyan,  Dandelion,  DarkOrchid,  Emerald,  ForestGreen,
       Fuchsia, Goldenrod, Gray, Green,  GreenYellow,  JungleGreen,  Lavender,
       LimeGreen,  Magenta,  Mahogany,  Maroon, Melon, MidnightBlue, Mulberry,
       NavyBlue, OliveGreen, Orange,  OrangeRed,  Orchid,  Peach,  Periwinkle,
       PineGreen,   Plum,  ProcessBlue,  Purple,  RawSienna,  Red,  RedOrange,
       RedViolet,  Rhodamine,  RoyalBlue,  RoyalPurple,   RubineRed,   Salmon,
       SeaGreen,   Sepia,   SkyBlue,   SpringGreen,  Tan,  TealBlue,  Thistle,
       Turquoise,   Violet,   VioletRed,   White,   WildStrawberry,    Yellow,
       YellowGreen, YellowOrange.

       Note that these names are case sensitive.

       The  documentation  of the LaTeX color package provides more details on
       how to use such specials with LaTeX; see the dvips documentation for  a
       detailed description of the syntax and semantics of the color specials.

SIGNALS

       When xdvi receives a SIGUSR1 signal, it rereads the dvi file.

ENVIRONMENT

       Xdvik  uses the same environment variables and algorithms for searching
       for font files as TeX and  friends.   See  the  documentation  for  the
       Kpathsea library, kpathsea.dvi, for a detailed description of these.

       In addition, xdvik accepts the following variables:

       DISPLAY
              Specifies which graphics display terminal to use.

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG
              Trace  Kpathsea  lookups;  set  it  to  -1  (=  all bits on) for
              complete tracing.

       EXTENSIONMAPS
              A list of files to be searched for mime types  entries  (as  for
              Acrobat Reader).  Earlier entries in one of these files override
              later ones.  If this variable is not set, the following  default
              path is used:

              $HOME/.mime.types:/etc/mime.types:\
                  /usr/etc/mime.types:/usr/local/etc/mimetypes

       MAILCAPS
              A  list  of files to be searched for mailcap entries, as defined
              by RFC 1343. See this RFC or the mailcap(4) manual  page  for  a
              detailed  description  of  the  mailcap file format.  Currently,
              only the following mailcap features are supported:

              test=command
                     The entry is only used if command can be executed via the
                     system() call and if the system() call returns with value
                     0 (success).  The command string may contain  the  format
                     string %s, which will be replaced by the file name.

              needsterminal
                     If  this  flag is used, the command will be executed in a
                     new xterm window by  prepending  ``xterm  -e  ''  to  the
                     command string.

              All  other  fields  in  the  mailcap  entry are ignored by xdvi.
              Earlier entries in one of these files override later  ones.   If
              the variable is not defined, the following default path is used:

                  $HOME/.mailcap:/etc/mailcap:/usr/etc/mailcap:\
                      /usr/local/etc/mailcap

              For  security reasons, some special characters (i.e.: ( ) ` \ ;)
              are escaped in the argument before passing it to system().

       BROWSER
              Determines the web browser used to open  external  links  (i.e.,
              all  URLs  that  don't start with the `file:' scheme and are not
              relative links in the local DVI file), and  to  open  links  for
              which  no  viewer  has  been specified in the mailcap files. The
              value of this variable is a colon-separated  list  of  commands.
              Xdvi  will try each of them in sequence until one succeeds (i.e.
              doesn't immediately return with status 0). This  allows  you  to
              specify  your  favourite  browser at the beginning, and fallback
              browsers at the end. Every occurrence of %s  in  the  string  is
              replaced  by  the target URL; every occurrence of %% is replaced
              by a single %.  If no %s is present, the URL string is added  as
              an extra argument.
              An example setting is:

              netscape  -raise  -remote 'openURL(%s,new-window)':xterm -e lynx
              %s:xterm -e wget %s:lynx %s:wget %s

              See

              http://www.catb.org/~esr/BROWSER/

              for more details on the BROWSER environment variable.

       TMPDIR The directory to use for storing temporary  files  created  when
              uncompressing PostScript files.

       XEDITOR
              Determines  the  editor command used for source special `reverse
              search', if neither the  -editor  command-line  option  nor  the
              .editor  resource  are  specified.   See  the description of the
              -editor command line option for details on the format.

       VISUAL Determines an editor to be opened in an xterm window if  neither
              of -editor, .editor, or XEDITOR is specified.

       EDITOR Determines  an editor to be opened in an xterm window if neither
              of -editor, .editor, XEDITOR or VISUAL is specified.

       WWWBROWSER
              Obsolete; use BROWSER instead.

LIMITATIONS

       xdvi accepts many but not all types of PostScript specials accepted  by
       dvips.   For  example,  it  accepts most specials generated by epsf and
       psfig.  It does not, however, support bop-hook or eop-hook, nor does it
       allow  PostScript  commands  to affect the rendering of things that are
       not PostScript (for example, the ``NEAT'' and rotated ``A'' examples in
       the  dvips  manual).  These restrictions are due to the design of xdvi;
       in all likelihood they will always remain.

       LaTeX2e rotation specials are currently not supported.

       MetaPost files containing included text are not supported.

       Xdvi's color handling doesn't  support  the  \colorbox  and  \fcolorbox
       macros;   this  is  not  likely to change in the near future. This also
       means that  e.g. colored tables (as created by  the  colortbl  package)
       may  render  incorrectly:  Text  in  colors  different from the default
       foreground color may not be displayed. When the page is  redrawn  (e.g.
       after  using  the  magnifier),  the  background  color of the cells may
       overdraw the text.

FILES

       $HOME/.xdvirc
              A file that holds all settings that the  user  changed  via  the
              keys, the `Options' and the Xaw `Modes' menu and the dialogs, as
              X  resources.  These  resources   override   the   settings   in
              $HOME/.Xdefaults.  This file is ignored if the -q option is used
              or the noInitFile X resource is set.

       xdvi.cfg
              A configuration file for the T1 font setup  which  needs  to  be
              supplied   in   the   directory  determined  by  the  XDVIINPUTS
              environment     variable.      Please     see      the      file
              http://xdvi.sourceforge.net/README.t1fonts   if   that  file  is
              missing.

SEE ALSO

       X(1),  dvips(1),   mktexpk(1),   ps2pk(1),   gsftopk(1),   t1mapper(1),
       mailcap(4),  the  Kpathsea  documentation,  and  the Xdvik home page at
       http://xdvi.sourceforge.net/.

AUTHORS

       Eric Cooper, CMU, did a version for direct output to a  QVSS.  Modified
       for  X  by Bob Scheifler, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Modified
       for X11 by Mark Eichin,  MIT  SIPB.  Additional  enhancements  by  many
       others.

       The  current  maintainer  of  the  original  xdvi  is  Paul Vojta, U.C.
       Berkeley.

       Code for the xdvik variant has been contributed by many  people,  whose
       names  are  scattered  across  the  source  files.  Xdvik  is hosted on
       CTAN:dviware/xdvik  and  on  SourceForge;  for  the   most   up-to-date
       information, please visit:

       http://xdvi.sourceforge.net

       Please report all bugs to the SourceForge bug tracker:

       http://sourceforge.net/tracker/?func=add&group_id=23164&atid=377580