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       xemacs - Emacs: The Next Generation


       xemacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]


       XEmacs  is  a  version of Emacs, compatible with and containing many improvements over GNU
       Emacs, written by Richard Stallman of the Free Software  Foundation.   It  was  originally
       based  on an early release of GNU Emacs Version 19, and has tracked subsequent releases of
       GNU Emacs as they have become available.

       The primary documentation of XEmacs is in the XEmacs Reference Manual, which you can  read
       on-line  using Info, a subsystem of XEmacs.  Please look there for complete and up-to-date
       documentation.  Complete documentation on using Emacs Lisp is  available  on-line  through
       the  XEmacs  Lisp  Programmer's Manual.  Both manuals also can be printed out nicely using
       the TeX formatting package.

       The user functionality of XEmacs encompasses everything other Emacs editors do, and it  is
       easily extensible since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       XEmacs  has an extensive interactive help facility, but the facility assumes that you know
       how to manipulate XEmacs windows and buffers.  CTRL-h  enters  the  Help  facility.   Help
       Tutorial  (CTRL-h  t)  requests  an  interactive  tutorial  which  can teach beginners the
       fundamentals of XEmacs in a few minutes.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a command
       given  its  functionality,  Help  Key  Binding (CTRL-h k) describes a given key sequence's
       effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function  specified  by  name.
       You can also look up key sequences in the XEmacs Reference Manual using Lookup Key Binding
       (CTRL-h CTRL-k), and look up Lisp functions in the XEmacs Lisp Programmer's  Manual  using
       Lookup  Function (CTRL-h CTRL-f).  All of these help functions, and more, are available on
       the Help menu if you are using a window system.

       XEmacs has extensive GUI (graphical user interface) support when running  under  a  window
       system  such  as  X,  including multiple frames (top-level windows), a menubar, a toolbar,
       horizontal and vertical scrollbars, dialog boxes, and extensive mouse support.

       XEmacs has full support for multiple fonts and colors, variable-width fonts, and variable-
       height lines, and allows for pixmaps to be inserted into a buffer. (This is used in the W3
       web-browsing package and in some of the debugger and  outlining  interfaces,  among  other

       XEmacs's  Undo  can  undo  several steps of modification to your buffers, so it is easy to
       recover from editing mistakes.

       XEmacs's many special packages handle mail  reading  (VM,  MH-E  and  RMail)  and  sending
       (Mail),  Usenet news reading and posting (GNUS), World Wide Web browsing (W3), specialized
       modes for editing source code in all common programming languages, syntax highlighting for
       many  languages  (Font-Lock), compiling (Compile), running subshells within XEmacs windows
       (Shell), outline editing (Outline), running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (Lisp-Interaction-
       Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There  is  an  extensive  reference  manual, but users of other Emacsen should have little
       trouble adapting even without a copy.  Users new to  Emacs  will  be  able  to  use  basic
       features  fairly  rapidly  by  studying  the  tutorial  and  using  the self-documentation

       XEmacs Options

       XEmacs accepts all standard X Toolkit command line  options  when  run  in  an  X  Windows
       environment.   In  addition,  the  following  options  are  accepted (when options imply a
       sequence of actions to perform, they are performed in the order encountered):

       -t file Use specified file as the terminal instead of using  stdin/stdout.   This  implies

       -batch  Edit  in  batch  mode.  The editor will send messages to stdout.  You must use the
               -l, -f, and -eval options to specify files to execute and functions to call.

       -nw     Inhibit the use of any window-system-specific display code: use the current TTY.

               Enter the debugger if an error occurs loading the init file.

               Do not map the initial frame.

               Do not load the site-specific init file (site-start.el).

       -q, -no-init-file
               Do not load an init file.

               Do not process the early packages.

               Load no extra files at startup.  Equivalent to the combination of -q  ,  -no-site-
               file , and -no-early-packages

       -u user, -user user
               Load user's init file.

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between the "+" sign and
               the number).

       -help   Print a help message and exit.

       -V, -version,
               Print the version number and exit.

       -f function, -funcall function
               Execute the lisp function function.

       -l file, -load file
               Load the Lisp code in the file file.

       -eval form
               Evaluate the Lisp form form.

       -i file, -insert file
               Insert file into the current buffer.

       -kill   Exit XEmacs (useful with -batch).

       Using XEmacs with X Windows

       XEmacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If you  run  XEmacs  from
       under X windows, it will create its own X window to display in.

       XEmacs can be started with the following standard X options:

       -visual <visualname><bitdepth>
              Select  the  visual that XEmacs will attempt to use.  <visualname> should be one of
              the   strings   "StaticColor",   "TrueColor",   "GrayScale",    "PseudoColor"    or
              "DirectColor",  and  <bitdepth>  should  be  the number of bits per pixel (example,
              "-visual TrueColor24" for a 24bit TrueColor visual) See X(1) for more information.

              Require XEmacs to create and use a private colormap for display.   This  will  keep
              XEmacs  from  taking  colors  from the default colormap and keeping them from other
              clients, at the cost of causing annoying flicker when the focus changes.  Use  this
              option only if your X server does not support 24 bit visuals.

       -geometry ##x##+##+##
              Specify  the geometry of the initial window.  The ##'s represent a number; the four
              numbers are width (characters), height  (characters),  X  offset  (pixels),  and  Y
              offset  (pixels), respectively.  Partial specifications of the form ##x## or +##+##
              are also allowed. (The geometry specification is in the standard X format; see X(1)
              for more information.)

              Specifies that the initial window should initially appear iconified.

       -name name
               Specifies  the  program  name which should be used when looking up defaults in the
               user's X resources.

       -title title, -T title, -wn title
               Specifies the title which should be assigned to the XEmacs window.

       -d displayname, -display displayname
               Create the XEmacs window on the display specified by  displayname.   Must  be  the
               first option specified in the command line.

       -font font, -fn font
               Set the XEmacs window's font to that specified by font.  You will find the various
               X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  XEmacs works with either  fixed-  or
               variable-width fonts, but will probably look better with a fixed-width font.

       -scrollbar-width pixels
               Specify the width of the vertical scrollbars.

       -scrollbar-height pixels
               Specify the height of the horizontal scrollbars.

       -bw pixels, -borderwidth pixels
               Set  the XEmacs window's border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels.
               Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.

       -ib pixels, -internal-border-width pixels
               Specify the width between a frame's border and its text, in pixels.   Defaults  to
               one pixel on each side of the window.

       -fg color, -foreground color
               Sets the color of the text.

               See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for a list of valid color names.

       -bg color, -background color
               Sets the color of the window's background.

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
               Sets the color of the window's border.

       -mc color
               Sets the color of the mouse pointer.

       -cr color
               Sets the color of the text cursor.

       -rv, -reverse
               Reverses   the   foreground  and  background  colors  (reverse  video).   Consider
               explicitly setting the foreground and background  colors  instead  of  using  this

       -xrm argument
               This allows you to set an arbitrary resource on the command line.  argument should
               be a resource specification, as might be found in your .Xresources  or  .Xdefaults

       You  can  also  set  resources,  i.e.   X  default values, for your XEmacs windows in your
       .Xresources or .Xdefaults file (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:




       where value specifies the default value of  keyword.   (Some  resources  need  the  former
       format; some the latter.)

       You can also set resources for a particular frame by using the format


       where  framename  is  the  resource  name  assigned  to  that  particular frame.  (Certain
       packages, such as VM, give their frames unique resource names, in this case "VM".)

       XEmacs lets you set default values for the following keywords:

       default.attributeFont (class Face.AttributeFont)
               Sets the window's text font.

       default.attributeForeground (class Face.AttributeForeground)
               Sets the window's text color.

       default.attributeBackground (class Face.AttributeBackground)
               Sets the window's background color.

       face.attributeFont (class Face.AttributeFont)
               Sets the font for face, which should be the name of a face.  Common face names are

               FACE            PURPOSE
               default         Normal text.
               bold            Bold text.
               italic          Italicized text.
               bold-italic     Bold and italicized text.
               modeline        Modeline text.
               zmacs-region    Text selected with the mouse.
               highlight       Text highlighted when the mouse passes over.
               left-margin     Text in the left margin.
               right-margin    Text in the right margin.
               isearch         Text highlighted during incremental search.
               info-node       Text of Info menu items.
               info-xref       Text of Info cross references.

       face.attributeForeground (class Face.AttributeForeground)
               Sets the foreground color for face.

       face.attributeBackground (class Face.AttributeBackground)
               Sets the background color for face.

       face.attributeBackgroundPixmap (class Face.AttributeBackgroundPixmap)
               Sets the background pixmap (stipple) for face.

       face.attributeUnderline (class Face.AttributeUnderline)
               Whether face should be underlined.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
               If set to on, the window will be displayed in reverse video.  Consider  explicitly
               setting the foreground and background colors instead of using this resource.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               Sets the window's border width in pixels.

       internalBorderWidth (class InternalBorderWidth)
               Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               Sets the color of the window's border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
               Sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
               Sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       emacsVisual (class EmacsVisual)
               Sets the default visual XEmacs will try to use (as described above).

       privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
               If set, XEmacs will default to using a private colormap.

       geometry (class Geometry)
               Sets the geometry of the XEmacs window (as described above).

       iconic (class Iconic)
               If set to on, the XEmacs window will initially appear as an icon.

       menubar (class Menubar)
               Whether the XEmacs window will have a menubar.  Defaults to true.

       initiallyUnmapped (class InitiallyUnmapped)
               Whether XEmacs will leave the initial frame unmapped when it starts up.

       barCursor (class BarCursor)
               Whether the cursor should be a bar instead of the traditional box.

       title (class Title)
               Sets the title of the XEmacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
               Sets the icon name for the XEmacs window icon.

       scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
               Sets  the  width  of  the  vertical  scrollbars, in pixels.  A width of 0 means no
               vertical scrollbars.

       scrollBarHeight (class ScrollBarHeight)
               Sets the height of the horizontal scrollbars, in pixels.  A height of 0  means  no
               horizontal scrollbars.

       scrollBarPlacement (class ScrollBarPlacement)
               Sets  the  position  of vertical and horizontal scrollbars.   Should be one of the
               strings "top-left", "bottom-left", "top-right", or "bottom-right".  The default is
               "bottom-right" for the Motif and Lucid scrollbars and "bottom-left" for the Athena

       topToolBarHeight (class TopToolBarHeight)
               Sets the height of the top toolbar, in pixels.  0 means no top toolbar.

       bottomToolBarHeight (class BottomToolBarHeight)
               Sets the height of the bottom toolbar, in pixels.  0 means no bottom toolbar.

       leftToolBarWidth (class LeftToolBarWidth)
               Sets the width of the left toolbar, in pixels.  0 means no left toolbar.

       rightToolBarWidth (class RightToolBarWidth)
               Sets the width of the right toolbar, in pixels.  0 means no right toolbar.

       topToolBarShadowColor (class TopToolBarShadowColor)
               Sets the color of the top shadows for the toolbars. (For all  toolbars,  not  just
               the toolbar at the top of the frame.)

       bottomToolBarShadowColor (class BottomToolBarShadowColor)
               Sets the color of the bottom shadows for the toolbars. (For all toolbars, not just
               the toolbar at the bottom of the frame.)

       topToolBarShadowPixmap (class TopToolBarShadowPixmap)
               Sets the pixmap of the top shadows for the toolbars. (For all toolbars,  not  just
               the  toolbar  at  the  top  of  the  frame.)  If  set, this resource overrides the
               corresponding color resource.

       bottomToolBarShadowPixmap (class BottomToolBarShadowPixmap)
               Sets the pixmap of the bottom shadows for the toolbars.  (For  all  toolbars,  not
               just  the toolbar at the bottom of the frame.) If set, this resource overrides the
               corresponding color resource.

       toolBarShadowThickness (class ToolBarShadowThickness)
               Thickness of the shadows around the toolbars, in pixels.

       visualBell (class VisualBell)
               Whether XEmacs should flash the screen rather than making an audible beep.

       bellVolume (class BellVolume)
               Volume of the audible beep.  Range is 0 through 100.

       useBackingStore (class UseBackingStore)
               Whether XEmacs should set the backing-store attribute of the X windows it creates.
               This  increases  the  memory  usage  of the X server but decreases the amount of X
               traffic necessary to update the screen, and is useful when the connection to the X
               server goes over a low-bandwidth line such as a modem connection.

       textPointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to use when the mouse is over text.

       selectionPointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to use when the mouse is over a mouse-highlighted text region.

       spacePointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to use when the mouse is over a blank space in a buffer (that is, after
               the end of a line or after the end-of-file).

       modeLinePointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to use when the mouse is over a mode line.

       gcPointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to display when a garbage-collection is in progress.

       scrollbarPointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to use when the mouse is over the scrollbar.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
               The foreground color of the mouse cursor.

       pointerBackground (class Background)
               The background color of the mouse cursor.

       Using the Mouse

       The following lists the mouse button bindings for the XEmacs window under X11.

       left                 Set point or make a text selection.
       middle               Paste text.
       right                Pop up a menu of options.
       SHIFT-left           Extend a selection.
       CTRL-left            Make a selection and insert it at point.
       CTRL-middle          Set point and move selected text there.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left      Make a selection, delete it, and insert it at point.
       META-left            Make a rectangular selection.


       Lisp code is read at startup from the user's init file, $HOME/.emacs.

       /usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser  (a  subsystem  of  XEmacs)  to
       refer  to.   The  complete  text  of  the  XEmacs  Reference  Manual  and  the XEmacs Lisp
       Programmer's Manual is included in a convenient tree structured form.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/info - the Info files may be here instead.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/lisp/* - Lisp source files and compiled files  that  define
       most editing commands.  The files are contained in subdirectories, categorized by function
       or individual package.  Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from  these  directories
       when used.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc  -  some files of information, pixmap files, other data
       files used by certain packages, etc.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/$CONFIGURATION  -  various  programs  that  are  used  with

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/$CONFIGURATION/DOC - contains the documentation strings for
       the Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of  XEmacs.   They  are  stored  here  to
       reduce the size of XEmacs proper.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs/site-lisp - locally-provided Lisp files.


       There  is  a  newsgroup,  comp.emacs.xemacs,  for  reporting  XEmacs  bugs  and  fixes and
       requesting help.  But before reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure  that  it
       really  is  a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate feature.  We ask you to read the
       section ``Reporting XEmacs Bugs'' near the end of the reference manual  (or  Info  system)
       for  hints on how and when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the XEmacs
       you are running and the system you are running it on in every bug report that you send in.
       Finally,  the more you can isolate the cause of a bug and the conditions it happens under,
       the more likely it is to be fixed, so please take the time to do so.

       The newsgroup is bidirectionally gatewayed to and from the mailing list
       You  can  read the list instead of the newsgroup if you do not have convenient Usenet news
       access.   To  request  to  be  added  to  the  mailing  list,   send   mail   to   xemacs- (Do not send mail to the list itself.)

       The  XEmacs maintainers read the newsgroup regularly and will attempt to fix bugs reported
       in a timely fashion.  However, not every message will get  a  response  from  one  of  the
       maintainers.   Note  that  there  are  many people other than the maintainers who read the
       newsgroup, and will usually be of assistance in helping with any problems encountered.

       If you need more personal assistance than can be provided by the newsgroup,  look  in  the
       SERVICE file (see above) for a list of people who offer it.

       For     more     information    about    XEmacs    mailing    lists,    see    the    file


       XEmacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of XEmacs to anyone under the terms  stated
       in  the XEmacs General Public License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of XEmacs and
       which also appears in the reference manual.

       Copies of XEmacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions  of  Unix  systems,
       but  it  is  never  included  in  the  scope  of any license covering those systems.  Such
       inclusion violates the terms on which distribution is permitted.   In  fact,  the  primary
       purpose  of  the  General  Public  License  is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other
       restrictions to redistribution of XEmacs.


       X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1), emacs(1), vi(1)


       XEmacs was written by Steve Baur <>, Martin Buchholz  <>,
       Richard  Mlynarik <>, Hrvoje Niksic <>, Chuck Thompson
       <>, Ben Wing <>, Jamie  Zawinski  <>,  and  many
       others.   It  was  based  on  an early version of GNU Emacs Version 19, written by Richard
       Stallman <> of  the  Free  Software  Foundation,  and  has  tracked  subsequent
       releases  of GNU Emacs as they have become available.  It was originally written by Lucid,
       Inc.  (now defunct) and was called Lucid Emacs.

       Chuck Thompson wrote the XEmacs redisplay engine, maintains the XEmacs FTP and WWW  sites,
       and has put out all releases of XEmacs since 19.11 (the first release called XEmacs).  Ben
       Wing wrote the Asian-language support, the on-line documentation (including this man  page
       and much of the FAQ), the external widget code, and retooled or rewrote most of the basic,
       low-level XEmacs subsystems.  Jamie Zawinski put out all releases of Lucid Emacs, from the
       first  (19.0)  through  the  last (19.10), and was the primary code contributor for all of
       these releases.  Richard  Mlynarik  rewrote  the  XEmacs  Lisp-object  allocation  system,
       improved  the  keymap and minibuffer code, and did the initial synching of XEmacs with GNU
       Emacs Version 19.

       Many others have also contributed significantly.  For more detailed information, including
       a  long  history  of  XEmacs  from multiple viewpoints and pretty pictures and bios of the
       major XEmacs contributors, see the XEmacs About Page (the About XEmacs option on the  Help


       For  more  information  about XEmacs, see the XEmacs About Page (mentioned above), look in
       the file /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc/NEWS, or point your Web browser at

       for up-to-the-minute information about XEmacs.

       The XEmacs FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) can be found at the Web site just  listed.   A
       possibly out-of-date version is also accessible through the Info system inside of XEmacs.

       The latest version of XEmacs can be downloaded using anonymous FTP from

       or from a mirror site near you.  Mirror sites are listed in the file etc/FTP in the XEmacs
       distribution or see the Web site for an up-to-date list of mirror sites.