Provided by: xli_1.17.0+20061110-3ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       xli - load images into an X11 window or onto the root window


       xli [global_options] {[image_options] image ...}
       xli [global_options] [image_options] stdin < image


       xli  displays  images  in an X11 window or loads them onto the root window.  See the IMAGE
       TYPES section below for supported image types.

       If the filename stdin is given, xli will read the image from standard input.

       If the destination display cannot support the number of colors in  the  image,  the  image
       will be dithered (monochrome destination) or have its colormap reduced (color destination)
       as appropriate.  This can also be done forcibly with the -halftone, -dither,  and  -colors

       A   variety   of  image  manipulations  can  be  specified,  including  gamma  correction,
       brightening, clipping, dithering, depth-reduction, rotation, and zooming.  Most  of  these
       manipulations have simple implementations; speed was opted for above accuracy.

       If  you  are  viewing a large image in a window, the initial window will be at most 90% of
       the size of the display unless the window manager does not correctly  handle  window  size
       requests or if you've used the -fullscreen or -fillscreen options.  You may move the image
       around in the window by dragging with the first mouse button.  The  cursor  will  indicate
       which directions you may drag, if any.

       When the keyboard focus is in the window you can:
       Type 'q' or '^C' to exit xli.
       Type space, 'n' or 'f' to move to the next image in the list.
       Type 'b' or 'p' to move to the previous image in the list.
       Type . to reload the image.
       Type l to rotate the image anti-clockwise.
       Type r to rotate the image clockwise.
       Type 0 to set the images assumed gamma to your display gamma
              (usually darkens images)
       Type 1 to set the images assumed gamma to 1.0
              (usually lightens images)
       Type 5-2 to lighten the image (5 in small steps, up to 2 in large steps)
       Type 6-9 to darken the image (6 in small steps, up to 9 in large steps)
       Type > resp. < to zoom in resp. out

       A  wide  variety  of  common  image  manipulations  can be done by mixing and matching the
       available options.  See the section entitled HINTS FOR GOOD IMAGE DISPLAYS for some ideas.


       xli uses the resource class name _XSETROOT_Id for window managers which need this resource


       The  following options affect the global operation of xli.  They may be specified anywhere
       on the command line.

              Set the root background to the default root weave.  This is the  same  as  xsetroot
              with no arguments.

       -debug Talk  to  the X server in synchronous mode.  This is useful for debugging.  If an X
              error is seen while in this mode, a core will be dumped.

              Signals will not be trapped, and instead a coredump will occur.

       -display display_name
              X11 display name to send the image(s) to.

       -dispgamma Display_gamma
              Specify the gamma correction  value  appropriate  for  the  display  device.   This
              overrides  the  value  read  from  the  environment  variable DISPLAY_GAMMA, or the
              default value of 2.2, which is approximately correct for many displays. A value  of
              between 1.6 and 2.8 is reasonable. If individual images are too bright or dark, use
              the -gamma option.

       There is an image provided with xli called 'chkgamma.jpg' that lets you  set  the  display
       gamma reasonably accurately.  This file contains two grayscale ramps. The ramps are chosen
       to look linear to the  human  eye,  one  using  continuous  tones,  and  the  other  using
       dithering.  When the display gamma is correct, then the two ramps should look symmetrical,
       and the point at which they look equally bright should be almost exactly half way from the
       top to the bottom. (To find this point it helps if you move away a little from the screen,
       and de-focus your eyes a bit.)

       If the equal brightness point is above center increase the gamma, and decrease it if it is
       below  the  center. The value will usually be around 2.2 Once you've got it right, you can
       set the DISPLAY_GAMMA environment variable in your .profile

              Use the whole screen for displaying an image. The image will be zoomed so  that  it
              just  fits  the size of the screen. If -onroot is also specified, it will be zoomed
              to completely fill the screen.

       -fit   Force image to use the default visual and colormap.  This is useful if you  do  not
              want technicolor effects when the colormap focus is inside the image window, but it
              may reduce the quality of the displayed image.  This is on by default if -onroot or
              -windowid is specified.

              Apply -fillscreen and -fullscreen options to all images and not just the first.

       -fork  Fork  xli.   This  causes  xli  to disassociate itself from the shell.  This option
              automatically turns on -quiet.

              Use the whole screen for displaying an image. The image will  be  surrounded  by  a
              border  if  it  is smaller than the screen. If -onroot is also specified, the image
              will be zoomed so that it just fits the size of the screen.

       -geometry WxH[{+-X}{+-}Y]
              This sets the size of the window onto which the images are loaded  to  a  different
              value  than  the size of the image.  When viewing an image in a window, this can be
              used to set the size and position of the  viewing  window.   If  the  size  is  not
              specified  in  the  geometry,  (or is set to 0), then the size will be chosen to be
              small enough to able to fit the window in the screen (as usual).

       -goto image_name
              When the end of the list of images is reached, go to  image  image_name.   This  is
              useful  for  generating looped slideshows.  If more than one image of the same name
              as the target exists on the argument list, the first in the argument list is used.

       -help [option ...]
              Give information on an option or list of options.  If no option is given, a  simple
              interactive help facility is invoked.

              Identify the supplied images rather than display them.

              Forcibly  install  the  images  colormap when the window is focused.  This violates
              ICCCM standards and only exists to allow operation with naive window managers.  Use
              this option only if your window manager does not install colormaps properly.

       -list  List the images which are along the image path.

              Load  image(s)  onto  the  root window instead of viewing in a window.  This option
              automatically sets the -fit option.  This is the opposite of  -view.   If  used  in
              conjunction  with  -fullscreen,  the image will be zoomed to just fit. If used with
              -fillscreen, the image will be zoomed to completely fill the screen. -border,  -at,
              and -center also affect the results.

       -path  Displays  the  image  path  and  image suffixes which will be used when looking for
              images.  These are loaded from ~/.xlirc and optionally  from  a  system  wide  file
              (normally /usr/lib/xlirc).

              Force  the  use  of  a pixmap as backing-store.  This is provided for servers where
              backing-store is broken (such as some versions of the AIXWindows server).   It  may
              improve scrolling performance on servers which provide backing-store.

              Force  the  use of a private colormap.  Normally colors are allocated shared unless
              there are not enough colors available.

       -quiet Forces xli and xview to be quiet.

              List the supported image types.

              Causes xli to be talkative, telling you what kind of image it's  playing  with  and
              any special processing that it has to do.  This is the default for xview and xli.

              Print the version number and patchlevel of this version of xli.

       -view  View  image(s)  in  a  window.  This is the opposite of -onroot and the default for
              xview and xli.

       -visual visual_name
              Force the use of a specific visual type to display an image.  Normally xli tries to
              pick  the  best  available image for a particular image type.  The available visual
              types  are:   DirectColor,  TrueColor,  PseudoColor,  StaticColor,  GrayScale,  and
              StaticGray.  Nonconflicting names may be abbreviated and case is ignored.

       -windowid hex_window_id
              Sets  the  background  pixmap  of  a particular window ID.  The argument must be in
              hexadecimal and must be preceded by "0x" (eg -windowid 0x40000b.  This is  intended
              for  setting the background pixmap of some servers which use untagged virtual roots
              (eg HP-VUE), but can have other interesting applications.


       The following options may precede each image.  They take effect from the next  image,  and
       continue until overridden or canceled with -newoptions.

       -border color
              This  sets  the  background  portion  of  the  window or clipped image which is not
              covered by any images to be color.

       -brighten percentage
              Specify a percentage multiplier for a color images colormap.  A value of more  than
              100 will brighten an image, one of less than 100 will darken it.

       -colors n
              Specify  the  maximum  number  of  colors  to  use  in the image.  This is a way to
              forcibly reduce the depth of an image.


              Dither the image with a Floyd-Steinberg dither if the number of colors is  reduced.
              This  will  be  slow, but will give a better looking result with a restricted color
              set. -cdither and -colordither are equivalent.

       -delay secs
              Sets xli to automatically advance to the following image, secs  seconds  after  the
              next image file is displayed.

              Dither  a  color  image  to monochrome using a Floyd-Steinberg dithering algorithm.
              This happens by default when viewing color images on a monochrome display.  This is
              slower than -halftone and affects the image accuracy but usually looks much better.

       -gamma Image_gamma
              Specify the gamma of the display the image was intended to be displayed on.  Images
              seem to come in two flavors: 1) linear  color  images,  produced  by  ray  tracers,
              scanners  etc. These sort of images generally look too dark when displayed directly
              to a CRT display. 2) Images that have been processed to look right on a typical CRT
              display  without  any sort of processing. These images have been 'gamma corrected'.
              By default, xli assumes that 8 bit images have been gamma  corrected  and  need  no
              other  processing.  24  bit  images are assumed to be linear.  If a linear image is
              displayed as if it is gamma corrected it will look too dark, and a gamma  value  of
              1.0  should  be  specified,  so  that xli can correct the image for the CRT display
              device. If a gamma corrected image is displayed as if it were a linear image,  then
              it  will  look  too  light,  and  a  gamma  value  of (approximately) 2.2 should be
              specified for that image.  Some formats (RLE) allow the image gamma to be  embedded
              as  a  comment  in  the file itself, and the -gamma option allows overriding of the
              file comment.  In general, values smaller than 2.2  will  lighten  the  image,  and
              values  greater  than  2.2 will darken the image.  In general this will work better
              than the -brighten option.

       -gray  Convert an image to grayscale.  This is very useful when displaying colorful images
              on  servers with limited color capability.  The optional spelling -grey may also be

       -idelay secs
              Set the delay to be used for this image to secs seconds (see  -delay).   If  -delay
              was specified, this overrides it.  If it was not specified, this sets the automatic
              advance delay for this image while others will wait for the user to advance them.

              Smooth a color image.  This reduces blockiness after zooming an image up.  If  used
              on  a  monochrome  image, nothing happens.  This option can take awhile to perform,
              especially on large images.  You may specify  more  than  one  -smooth  option  per
              image, causing multiple iterations of the smoothing algorithm.

       -title window_title
              Set  the  titlebar of the window used to display the image.  This will override any
              title that is read from the image file. The title will also be used  for  the  icon

       -xpm color_context_key
              Select  the  preferred  xpm  colour  map. XPM files may contain more than one color
              mapping, each mapping being appropriate for a particular visual.  Normally xli will
              select an appropriate color mapping from that supported by the XPM file by checking
              on the default X visual class and depth.  This option allows the user  to  override
              this choice.  Legal values of  color_context_key are: m, g4, g and c.  m = mono, g4
              = 4 level gray, g = gray, c = color ).

       -xzoom percentage
              Zoom the X axis of an image by percentage.  A number greater than 100  will  expand
              the  image,  one  smaller  will  compress  it.  A zero value will be ignored.  This
              option, and the related -yzoom are useful for correcting the aspect ratio of images
              to be displayed.

       -yzoom percentage
              Zoom the Y axis of an image by percentage.  See -xzoom for more information.

       -zoom percentage
              Zoom  both  the  X  and  Y  axes  by  percentage.  See -xzoom for more information.
              Technically the percentage actually zoomed is the square  of  the  number  supplied
              since the zoom is to both axes, but I opted for consistency instead of accuracy.

       -zoom auto
              Zoom large images to fit the screen; don't zoom small images.

              Reset options that propagate.  The -bright, -colors, -colordither, -delay, -dither,
              -gamma, -gray, -normalize, -smooth, -xzoom,  -yzoom,  and  -zoom  options  normally
              propagate to all following images.


       The  following  options may precede each image.  These options are local to the image they

       -at X,Y
              Indicates coordinates to load the image at X,Y on the base image.  If  this  is  an
              option  to  the first image, and the -onroot option is specified, the image will be
              loaded at the given location on the display background.

       -background color
              Use color as the background color instead of the default (usually  white  but  this
              depends  on  the  image type) if you are transferring a monochrome image to a color

              Center the image on the base image loaded.  If this  is  an  option  to  the  first
              image,  and  the  -onroot  option  is  specified, the image will be centered on the
              display background.

       -clip X,Y,W,H
              Clip the image before loading it.  X and Y define the upper-left corner of the clip
              area,  and W and H define the extents of the area.  A zero value for W or H will be
              interpreted as the remainder of the image.  Note that X and Y may be negative,  and
              that W and H may be larger than the image. This causes a border to be placed around
              the image. The border color may be set with the -border option.

              Forces the image (after all other optional processing) to be expanded into  a  True
              Color  (24  bit)  image.  This is useful on systems which support 24 bit color, but
              where xli might choose to load a bitmap or 8  bit  image  into  one  of  the  other
              smaller depth visuals supported on your system.

       -foreground color
              Use  color  as  the  foreground  color  instead  of black if you are transferring a
              monochrome image to a  color  display.   This  can  also  be  used  to  invert  the
              foreground and background colors of a monochrome image.

              Force  halftone dithering of a color image when displaying on a monochrome display.
              This option is ignored on monochrome images.  This  dithering  algorithm  blows  an
              image up by sixteen times; if you don't like this, the -dither option will not blow
              the image up but will take longer to process and will be less accurate.

              Inverts a monochrome image.  This is shorthand for  -foreground  white  -background

       -merge Merge  this  image  onto  the base image after local processing.  The base image is
              considered to be the first image specified or the last image that was not  preceded
              by  -merge.   If used in conjunction with -at and -clip, very complex images can be
              built up.  Note that the final image will be the size of the first image, and  that
              subsequent  merged  images  overlay  previous  images.  The final image size can be
              altered by using the -clip option on the base image to make it bigger  or  smaller.
              This option is on by default for all images if the -onroot or -windowid options are

       -name image_name
              Force the next argument to be treated as an image name.  This is useful if the name
              of the image is -dither, for instance.

              Normalize a color image.

       -rotate degrees
              Rotate the image by degrees clockwise.  The number must be a multiple of 90.


       To  load the rasterfile "my.image" onto the background and replicate it to fill the entire

            xli -onroot my.image

       To load a monochrome image "my.image" onto the background, using  red  as  the  foreground
       color, replicate the image, and overlay "another.image" onto it at coordinate (10,10):

            xli -foreground red my.image -at 10,10 another.image

       To center the rectangular region from 10 to 110 along the X axis and from 10 to the height
       of the image along the Y axis:

            xli -center -clip 10,10,100,0 my.image

       To double the size of an image:

            xli -zoom 200 my.image

       To halve the size of an image:

            xli -zoom 50 my.image

       To brighten a dark image:

            xli -brighten 150 my.image

       To darken a bright image:

            xli -brighten 50 my.image


       Since images are likely to come from a variety of sources, they may be  in  a  variety  of
       aspect  ratios  which may not be supported by your display.  The -xzoom and -yzoom options
       can be used to change the aspect ratio of an image  before  display.   If  you  use  these
       options,  it is recommended that you increase the size of one of the dimensions instead of
       shrinking the other, since shrinking looses detail.  For instance, many  GIF  and  G3  FAX
       images  have an X:Y ratio of about 2:1.  You can correct this for viewing on a 1:1 display
       with either -xzoom 50 or -yzoom 200 (reduce X axis to 50% of its size and expand Y axis to
       200%  of its size, respectively) but the latter should be used so no detail is lost in the

       When zooming color images up you can reduce blockiness with -smooth.  For zooms of 300% or
       more,  I  recommend  two  smoothing  passes  (although  this can take awhile to do on slow
       machines).  There will be a noticeable improvement in the image.

       You can perform image processing on a small portion of an image by loading the image  more
       than once and using the -merge, -at and -clip options.  Load the image, then merge it with
       a clipped, processed version of itself.  To brighten a 100x100 rectangular portion  of  an
       image located at (50,50), for instance, you could type:

            xli my.image -merge -at 50,50 -clip 50,50,100,100 -brighten 150 my.image

       If  you're using a display with a small colormap to display colorful images, try using the
       -gray option to convert to grayscale.


       xlito (XLoadImageTrailingOptions) is a  separate  utility  that  provides  a  file  format
       independent  way of marking image files with the appropriate options to display correctly.
       It does this by appending to file a string specified by the user, marked with  some  magic
       numbers  so that this string can be extracted by a program that knows where to look. Since
       almost all image files have some sort of image size specifier, the programs that  load  or
       manipulate  these files do not look beyond the point at which they have read the image, so
       trailing information can safely be appended to the file.  If  appending  this  information
       causes trouble with other utilities, it can simply be deleted.

       xli  will  recognize  these trailing options at the end of the image files, and will treat
       the embedded string as if it were a sequence of command line  IMAGE  OPTIONS.  Any  GLOBAL
       OPTIONS will be ignored, and the IMAGE OPTIONS are never propagated to other images.

       Trailing options can be examined with:

            xlito image_file ...

       Changed or added with:

            xlito -c "string of options" image_file

       And deleted with:

            xlito -d image_file ...

       For  example,  if  you  have a gif file fred.gif which is too dark and is the wrong aspect
       ratio, then it may need to be viewed with:

            xli -yzoom 130 -gamma 1.0 fred.gif

       to get it to look OK. These options can then be appended to the file by:

            xlito -c "-yzoom 130 -gamma 1.0" fred.gif

       and from then on xli will get the appropriate options from the image file itself.  See the
       xlito manual entry for more details about this utility.


       The  file  ~/.xlirc  (and  optionally  a  system-wide  file)  defines the path and default
       extensions that xli will use when looking for images.  This file can have two  statements:
       "path="  and  "extension=" (the equals signs must follow the word with no spaces between).
       Everything following the "path=" keyword will be prepended to the supplied image  name  if
       the  supplied  name  does not specify an existing file.  The paths will be searched in the
       order they are specified.  Everything following the "extension=" keyword will be  appended
       to  the  supplied  image  name if the supplied name does not specify an existing file.  As
       with paths, these extensions will be searched in the order they are given.   Comments  are
       any portion of a line following a hash-mark (#).

       The following is a sample ~/.xlirc file:

         # paths to look for images in
         path= /usr/local/images

         # default extensions for images; .Z is automatic; scanned in order
         extension= .csun .msun .sun .face .xbm .bm

       Versions  of  xli  prior  to version 01, patchlevel 03 would load the system-wide file (if
       any), followed by the user's file.  This behavior  made  it  difficult  for  the  user  to
       configure  her environment if she didn't want the default.  Newer versions will ignore the
       system-wide file if a personal configuration file exists.


       xli currently supports the following image types:

         CMU Window Manager raster files
         Faces Project images
         Fuzzy Bitmap (.fbm) images
         GEM bit images
         GIF images (Including GIF89a compatibility)
         G3 FAX images
         JFIF style jpeg images
         McIDAS areafiles
         MacPaint images
         Windows, OS/2 RLE Image
         Monochrome PC Paintbrush (.pcx) images
         Photograph on CD Image
         Portable Bitmap (.pbm, .pgm, .ppm) images
         Sun monochrome rasterfiles
         Sun color RGB rasterfiles
         Targa (.tga) files
         Utah Raster Toolkit (.rle) files
         X pixmap (.xpm) files (Version 1, 2C and 3)
         X10 bitmap files
         X11 bitmap files
         X Window Dump (except TrueColor and DirectColor)

       Normal, compact, and raw PBM images are supported.  Both standard and  run-length  encoded
       Sun  rasterfiles  are  supported.   Any  image  whose  name  ends in .Z is assumed to be a
       compressed image and will be filtered through "uncompress". If HAVE_GUNZIP is  defined  in
       the  Makefile.std  make file, then any image whose name ends in .gz or .Z will be filtered
       through gunzip.

       Any file that looks like a uuencoded file will be decoded automatically.


       The original Author is:
       Jim Frost
       Saber Software

       Version 1.16 of xli is derived from xloadimage 3.01 has been brought to you by:
       Graeme Gill

       Version 1.17 of xli is derived from xli 1.16 by

       For a more-or-less complete list of other contributors (there are a lot of  them),  please
       see the README file enclosed with the distribution.


            xli                      - the image loader and viewer
            xlito                   - the trailing options utility
            /usr/lib/X11/Xli        - default system-wide configuration file
            ~/.xlirc                - user's personal configuration file


       Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993 Jim Frost, Graeme Gill and others.

       Xli  is copyrighted material with a very loose license allowing unlimited modification and
       distribution if the copyright notices are left intact.  Various portions  are  copyrighted
       by  various  people, but all use a modification of the MIT copyright notice.  Please check
       the source for complete copyright information.  The intent is to keep the source free, not
       to stifle its distribution, so please write to me if you have any questions.


       Zooming dithered images, especially downwards, is UGLY.

       Images  can  come  in a variety of aspect ratios.  Xli cannot detect what aspect ratio the
       particular image being loaded has, nor the aspect ratio of  the  destination  display,  so
       images  with  differing  aspect ratios from the destination display will appear distorted.
       The solution to this is to use xlito to append the appropriate options to the image  file.
       See HINTS FOR GOOD IMAGE DISPLAYS and XLITO for more information.

       The  GIF format allows more than one image to be stored in a single GIF file, but xli will
       only display the first.

       One of  the  pseudonyms  for  xli,  xview,  is  the  same  name  as  Sun  uses  for  their
       SunView-under-X package.  This will be confusing if you're one of those poor souls who has
       to use Sun's XView.

       Some window managers do not correctly handle window size requests.   In  particular,  many
       versions of the twm window manager use the MaxSize hint instead of the PSize hint, causing
       images which are larger than the screen to display in a window  larger  than  the  screen,
       something  which  is  normally  avoided.   Some  versions  of  twm also ignore the MaxSize
       argument's real function, to limit the maximum size of the window, and allow the window to
       be  resized  larger  than  the image.  If this happens, xli merely places the image in the
       upper-left corner of the window and uses the zero-value'ed pixel for any  space  which  is
       not  covered by the image.  This behavior is less-than-graceful but so are window managers
       which are cruel enough to ignore such details.

       The order in which operations are performed on an image is independent  of  the  order  in
       which  they  were  specified  on  the  command  line.   Wherever possible I tried to order
       operations in such a way as to look the  best  possible  (zooming  before  dithering,  for
       instance) or to increase speed (zooming downward before compressing, for instance).

       Display Gamma should setable in the ~/.xlirc file.

       Embedded  trailing  options  override the command line Image Options. Command line options
       should really override trailing options.

                                           28 Oct 2002                                     XLI(1)