Provided by: expat_2.0.1-7.2ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       xmlwf — Determines if an XML document is well-formed


       xmlwf [-s]  [-n]  [-p]  [-x]  [-e encoding]  [-w]  [-d output-dir]  [-c]  [-m]  [-r]  [-t]
       [-v]  [file ...]


       xmlwf uses the Expat library to determine if an XML document is well-formed.  It  is  non-

       If  you  do  not  specify  any files on the command-line, and you have a recent version of
       xmlwf, the input file will be read from standard input.


       A well-formed document must adhere to the following rules:

          ·  The file  begins  with  an  XML  declaration.   For  instance,  <?xml  version="1.0"
             standalone="yes"?>.   NOTE:           xmlwf does not currently check for a valid XML

          ·  Every start tag is either empty (<tag/>) or has a corresponding end tag.

          ·  There is exactly one root element.  This element must contain all other elements  in
             the  document.   Only  comments,  white  space, and processing instructions may come
             after the close of the root element.

          ·  All elements nest properly.

          ·  All attribute values are enclosed in quotes (either single or double).

       If the document has a DTD, and it strictly complies with that DTD, then  the  document  is
       also  considered  valid.   xmlwf  is a non-validating parser -- it does not check the DTD.
       However, it does support external entities (see the -x option).


       When an option includes an argument, you may specify the argument either  separately  ("-d
       output") or concatenated with the option ("-doutput").  xmlwf supports both.

       -c        If  the  input file is well-formed and xmlwf   doesn't encounter any errors, the
                 input file is simply copied to the output directory unchanged.  This implies  no
                 namespaces (turns off -n) and requires -d to specify an output file.

       -d output-dir
                 Specifies a directory to contain transformed representations of the input files.
                 By default, -d outputs a canonical representation (described  below).   You  can
                 select different output formats using -c   and -m.

                 The  output filenames will be exactly the same as the input filenames or "STDIN"
                 if the input is coming from standard input.  Therefore, you must be careful that
                 the  output  file  does  not  go  into  the  same  directory  as the input file.
                 Otherwise, xmlwf will delete the input file before it generates the output  file
                 (just like running cat < file > file in most shells).

                 Two  structurally  equivalent  XML  documents  have  a  byte-for-byte  identical
                 canonical XML representation.  Note that ignorable  white  space  is  considered
                 significant  and  is treated equivalently to data.  More on canonical XML can be
                 found at .

       -e encoding
                 Specifies the character encoding  for  the  document,  overriding  any  document
                 encoding  declaration.   xmlwf     supports  four  built-in encodings: US-ASCII,
                 UTF-8, UTF-16, and ISO-8859-1.  Also see the -w option.

       -m        Outputs some strange sort of XML file that completely describes  the  the  input
                 file, including character postitions.  Requires -d to specify an output file.

       -n        Turns on namespace processing.  (describe namespaces) -c disables namespaces.

       -p        Tells xmlwf to process external DTDs and parameter entities.

                 Normally  xmlwf  never  parses  parameter entities.  -p tells it to always parse
                 them.  -p implies -x.

       -r        Normally xmlwf memory-maps the XML file  before  parsing;  this  can  result  in
                 faster  parsing  on many platforms.  -r turns off memory-mapping and uses normal
                 file IO calls instead.  Of course, memory-mapping is  automatically  turned  off
                 when reading from standard input.

                 Use  of  memory-mapping  can cause some platforms to report substantially higher
                 memory usage for xmlwf, but this appears to be a matter of the operating  system
                 reporting memory in a strange way; there is not a leak in xmlwf.

       -s        Prints  an error if the document is not standalone.  A document is standalone if
                 it has no external subset and no references to parameter entities.

       -t        Turns on timings.  This tells Expat to parse the entire file,  but  not  perform
                 any  processing.   This  gives  a fairly accurate idea of the raw speed of Expat
                 itself without client overhead.  -t turns off most of the  output  options  (-d,
                 -m, -c, ...).

       -v        Prints  the  version of the Expat library being used, including some information
                 on the compile-time configuration of the library, and then exits.

       -w        Enables support for Windows code pages.  Normally, xmlwf will throw an error  if
                 it  runs  across an encoding that it is not equipped to handle itself.  With -w,
                 xmlwf will try to use a Windows code page.  See also -e.

       -x        Turns on parsing external entities.

                 Non-validating parsers are not required to resolve external  entities,  or  even
                 expand  entities  at  all.   Expat  always  expands  internal  entities (?), but
                 external entity parsing must be enabled explicitly.

                 External entities are simply entities that obtain their data  from  outside  the
                 XML file currently being parsed.

                 This is an example of an internal entity:

       <!ENTITY vers '1.0.2'>

                 And here are some examples of external entities:

       <!ENTITY header SYSTEM "header-&vers;.xml">  (parsed)
       <!ENTITY logo SYSTEM "logo.png" PNG>         (unparsed)

       --        (Two  hyphens.)   Terminates  the  list  of  options.   This is only needed if a
                 filename starts with a hyphen.  For example:

       xmlwf -- -myfile.xml

                 will run xmlwf on the file -myfile.xml.

       Older versions of xmlwf do not support reading from standard input.


       If an input file is not well-formed, xmlwf prints a single line describing the problem  to
       standard  output.   If a file is well formed, xmlwf outputs nothing.  Note that the result
       code is not set.


       xmlwf returns a 0 - noerr result, even if the file is not well-formed.  There is  no  good
       way  for  a program to use xmlwf to quickly check a file -- it must parse xmlwf's standard

       The errors should go to standard error, not standard output.

       There should be a way to get -d to send its output to standard output rather than  forcing
       the user to send it to a file.

       I  have no idea why anyone would want to use the -d, -c, and -m options.  If someone could
       explain it to me, I'd like to add this information to this manpage.


       Here are some XML validators on the web:


       The Expat home page:
       The W3 XML specification:


       This manual page was written by Scott Bronson for the Debian GNU/Linux
       system  (but  may  be  used  by others).  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or
       modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1.