Provided by: zsh_4.3.17-1ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       zshcontrib - user contributions to zsh


       The  Zsh source distribution includes a number of items contributed by the user community.
       These are not inherently a part of the shell, and some may not be available in  every  zsh
       installation.   The  most  significant of these are documented here.  For documentation on
       other contributed items such as shell functions, look for comments in the function  source


   Accessing On-Line Help
       The  key  sequence  ESC  h  is  normally  bound by ZLE to execute the run-help widget (see
       zshzle(1)).  This invokes the run-help command with the  command  word  from  the  current
       input line as its argument.  By default, run-help is an alias for the man command, so this
       often fails when the command word is a shell  builtin  or  a  user-defined  function.   By
       redefining the run-help alias, one can improve the on-line help provided by the shell.

       The  helpfiles utility, found in the Util directory of the distribution, is a Perl program
       that can be used to process the zsh manual to produce a separate help file for each  shell
       builtin  and  for  many other shell features as well.  The autoloadable run-help function,
       found in Functions/Misc, searches for these helpfiles and performs several other tests  to
       produce the most complete help possible for the command.

       There  may  already be a directory of help files on your system; look in /usr/share/zsh or
       /usr/local/share/zsh and subdirectories below those, or ask your system administrator.

       To create your own help files with helpfiles, choose  or  create  a  directory  where  the
       individual  command help files will reside.  For example, you might choose ~/zsh_help.  If
       you unpacked the zsh distribution in your home directory, you would use the commands:

              mkdir ~/zsh_help
              cd ~/zsh_help
              man zshall | colcrt - | \
              perl ~/zsh-4.3.17/Util/helpfiles

       Next, to use the run-help function, you need to add lines something like the following  to
       your .zshrc or equivalent startup file:

              unalias run-help
              autoload run-help

       The  HELPDIR  parameter  tells  run-help where to look for the help files.  If your system
       already has a help file directory installed, set HELPDIR to the  path  of  that  directory

       Note  that  in  order for `autoload run-help' to work, the run-help file must be in one of
       the directories named in your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).  This should already  be  the
       case  if  you have a standard zsh installation; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/run-help
       to an appropriate directory.

   Recompiling Functions
       If you frequently edit your zsh functions, or periodically update your zsh installation to
       track  the  latest  developments,  you  may  find  that function digests compiled with the
       zcompile builtin are frequently out of date with respect to  the  function  source  files.
       This is not usually a problem, because zsh always looks for the newest file when loading a
       function, but it may cause slower shell startup and function loading.  Also, if  a  digest
       file  is explicitly used as an element of fpath, zsh won't check whether any of its source
       files has changed.

       The zrecompile autoloadable function,  found  in  Functions/Misc,  can  be  used  to  keep
       function digests up to date.

       zrecompile [ -qt ] [ name ... ]
       zrecompile [ -qt ] -p args [ -- args ... ]
              This tries to find *.zwc files and automatically re-compile them if at least one of
              the original files is newer than the compiled file.  This works only if  the  names
              stored  in  the compiled files are full paths or are relative to the directory that
              contains the .zwc file.

              In the first form, each name is  the  name  of  a  compiled  file  or  a  directory
              containing  *.zwc  files  that  should  be checked.  If no arguments are given, the
              directories and *.zwc files in fpath are used.

              When -t is given, no compilation is performed, but a return status of  zero  (true)
              is  set  if  there  are  files  that  need  to  be re-compiled and non-zero (false)
              otherwise.  The -q option quiets the chatty output that describes  what  zrecompile
              is doing.

              Without  the  -t  option,  the  return  status  is  zero  if  all files that needed
              re-compilation could be compiled and non-zero if compilation for at  least  one  of
              the files failed.

              If  the  -p  option  is  given,  the  args  are  interpreted as one or more sets of
              arguments for zcompile, separated by `--'.  For example:

                     zrecompile -p \
                                -R ~/.zshrc -- \
                                -M ~/.zcompdump -- \
                                ~/zsh/comp.zwc ~/zsh/Completion/*/_*

              This compiles ~/.zshrc into ~/.zshrc.zwc if that doesn't exist or if  it  is  older
              than ~/.zshrc. The compiled file will be marked for reading instead of mapping. The
              same is done for ~/.zcompdump and  ~/.zcompdump.zwc,  but  this  compiled  file  is
              marked  for mapping. The last line re-creates the file ~/zsh/comp.zwc if any of the
              files matching the given pattern is newer than it.

              Without the -p option, zrecompile does not create  function  digests  that  do  not
              already exist, nor does it add new functions to the digest.

       The  following  shell loop is an example of a method for creating function digests for all
       functions in your fpath, assuming that you have write permission to the directories:

              for ((i=1; i <= $#fpath; ++i)); do
                if [[ $dir == (.|..) || $dir == (.|..)/* ]]; then
                if [[ -w $dir:h && -n $files ]]; then
                  if ( cd $dir:h &&
                       zrecompile -p -U -z $zwc $files ); then

       The -U and -z options are appropriate for functions in the default zsh installation fpath;
       you may need to use different options for your personal function directories.

       Once  the digests have been created and your fpath modified to refer to them, you can keep
       them up to date by running zrecompile with no arguments.

   Keyboard Definition
       The  large  number  of  possible  combinations  of  keyboards,  workstations,   terminals,
       emulators,  and  window  systems makes it impossible for zsh to have built-in key bindings
       for every situation.  The zkbd utility, found in  Functions/Misc,  can  help  you  quickly
       create key bindings for your configuration.

       Run zkbd either as an autoloaded function, or as a shell script:

              zsh -f ~/zsh-4.3.17/Functions/Misc/zkbd

       When you run zkbd, it first asks you to enter your terminal type; if the default it offers
       is correct, just press return.  It then asks you to press a number of  different  keys  to
       determine  characteristics  of  your  keyboard  and  terminal;  zkbd warns you if it finds
       anything out of the ordinary, such as a Delete key that sends neither ^H nor ^?.

       The keystrokes read by zkbd are recorded as a definition for an  associative  array  named
       key,  written  to  a  file  in  the  subdirectory .zkbd within either your HOME or ZDOTDIR
       directory.  The name of the file is composed from the TERM, VENDOR and OSTYPE  parameters,
       joined by hyphens.

       You  may  read this file into your .zshrc or another startup file with the `source' or `.'
       commands, then reference the key parameter in bindkey commands, like this:

              source ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.zkbd/$TERM-$VENDOR-$OSTYPE
              [[ -n ${key[Left]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Left]}" backward-char
              [[ -n ${key[Right]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Right]}" forward-char
              # etc.

       Note that in order for `autoload zkbd' to work, the zkdb  file  must  be  in  one  of  the
       directories  named in your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).  This should already be the case
       if you have a standard zsh installation; if it is  not,  copy  Functions/Misc/zkbd  to  an
       appropriate directory.

   Dumping Shell State
       Occasionally  you may encounter what appears to be a bug in the shell, particularly if you
       are using a beta version of zsh or a development release.  Usually  it  is  sufficient  to
       send  a  description  of  the  problem  to  one of the zsh mailing lists (see zsh(1)), but
       sometimes one of the zsh developers will need to recreate your  environment  in  order  to
       track the problem down.

       The  script  named  reporter, found in the Util directory of the distribution, is provided
       for this purpose.  (It is  also  possible  to  autoload  reporter,  but  reporter  is  not
       installed  in  fpath by default.)  This script outputs a detailed dump of the shell state,
       in the form of another script that can be read with `zsh -f' to recreate that state.

       To use reporter, read the script into your shell with the `.'  command  and  redirect  the
       output into a file:

              . ~/zsh-4.3.17/Util/reporter >

       You  should  check the file for any sensitive information such as passwords and
       delete them by hand before sending the script to the developers.  Also, as the output  can
       be  voluminous,  it's  best  to wait for the developers to ask for this information before
       sending it.

       You can also use reporter to dump only a subset of the shell  state.   This  is  sometimes
       useful for creating startup files for the first time.  Most of the output from reporter is
       far more detailed than usually is necessary for a startup file, but the aliases,  options,
       and zstyles states may be useful because they include only changes from the defaults.  The
       bindings state may be useful if you have created any of your own keymaps, because reporter
       arranges to dump the keymap creation commands as well as the bindings for every keymap.

       As  is  usual with automated tools, if you create a startup file with reporter, you should
       edit the results to remove unnecessary commands.   Note  that  if  you're  using  the  new
       completion  system,  you  should  not  dump the functions state to your startup files with
       reporter; use the compdump function instead (see zshcompsys(1)).

       reporter [ state ... ]
              Print to standard output the indicated subset of  the  current  shell  state.   The
              state arguments may be one or more of:

              all    Output everything listed below.
                     Output alias definitions.
                     Output ZLE key maps and bindings.
                     Output  old-style  compctl commands.  New completion is covered by functions
                     and zstyles.
                     Output autoloads and function definitions.
              limits Output limit commands.
                     Output setopt commands.
              styles Same as zstyles.
                     Output shell parameter assignments, plus export commands for any environment
                     Output zstyle commands.

              If the state is omitted, all is assumed.

       With  the  exception of `all', every state can be abbreviated by any prefix, even a single
       letter; thus a is the same as aliases, z is the same as zstyles, etc.

   Manipulating Hook Functions
       add-zsh-hook [-dD] hook function
              Several functions are special to the shell, as described  in  the  section  SPECIAL
              FUNCTIONS,  see  zshmisc(1),  in that they are automatic called at a specific point
              during shell execution.  Each has  an  associated  array  consisting  of  names  of
              functions  to  be  called  at the same point; these are so-called `hook functions'.
              The shell function add-zsh-hook  provides  a  simple  way  of  adding  or  removing
              functions from the array.

              hook  is  one  of  chpwd,  periodic,  precmd,  preexec,  zshaddhistory, zshexit, or
              zsh_directory_name,   the   special   functions    in    question.     Note    that
              zsh_directory_name  is  called in a different way from the other functions, but may
              still be manipulated as a hook.

              function is name of an ordinary shell function.  If no options are given this  will
              be added to the array of functions to be executed in the given context.

              If  the  option -d is given, the function is removed from the array of functions to
              be executed.

              If the option -D is given, the function is treated as a pattern  and  any  matching
              names of functions are removed from the array of functions to be executed.

              The  options  -U,  -z and -k are passed as arguments to autoload for function.  For
              functions contributed with zsh, the options -Uz are appropriate.


       The function cdr allows you  to  change  the  working  directory  to  a  previous  working
       directory from a list maintained automatically.  It is similar in concept to the directory
       stack controlled by the pushd, popd and dirs builtins, but is more configurable, and as it
       stores  all  entries  in  files  it is maintained across sessions and (by default) between
       terminal emulators in the current session.  (The pushd directory  stack  is  not  actually
       modified or used by cdr unless you configure it to do so as described in the configuration
       section below.)

       The system works by means of a hook function that  is  called  every  time  the  directory
       changes.   To install the system, autoload the required functions and use the add-zsh-hook
       function described above:

              autoload -Uz chpwd_recent_dirs cdr add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook chpwd chpwd_recent_dirs

       Now every time you change directly interactively, no matter which  command  you  use,  the
       directory to which you change will be remembered in most-recent-first order.

       All direct user interaction is via the cdr function.

       The  argument  to  cdr  is  a  number  N corresponding to the Nth most recently changed-to
       directory.  1 is the immediately preceding directory; the current directory is  remembered
       but  is  not  offered as a destination.  Note that if you have multiple windows open 1 may
       refer to a directory  changed  to  in  another  window;  you  can  avoid  this  by  having
       per-terminal  files  for  storing  directory  as  described for the recent-dirs-file style

       If you set the recent-dirs-default style described below cdr will behave the same as cd if
       given  a  non-numeric  argument,  or more than one argument.  The recent directory list is
       updated just the same however you change directory.

       If the argument is omitted, 1 is  assumed.   This  is  similar  to  pushd's  behaviour  of
       swapping the two most recent directories on the stack.

       Completion  for  the argument to cdr is available if compinit has been run; menu selection
       is recommended, using:

              zstyle ':completion:*:*:cdr:*:*' menu selection

       to allow you to cycle through recent directories; the order is  preserved,  so  the  first
       choice  is  the  most  recent directory before the current one.  The verbose style is also
       recommended to ensure the directory is shown; this style is on by default so no action  is
       required unless you have changed it.

       The behaviour of cdr may be modified by the following options.

       -l     lists  the numbers and the corresponding directories in abbreviated form (i.e. with
              ~ substitution reapplied), one per line.  The directories here are not quoted (this
              would  only  be an issue if a directory name contained a newline).  This is used by
              the completion system.

       -r     sets the variable reply to the current set of directories.  Nothing is printed  and
              the directory is not changed.

       -e     allows  you  to edit the list of directories, one per line.  The list can be edited
              to any extent you like; no sanity checking is performed.  Completion is  available.
              No  quoting  is  necessary  (except  for  newlines,  where  I  have  in any case no
              sympathy); directories are in unabbreviated from and contain an absolute path, i.e.
              they  start  with  /.   Usually  the  first  entry  should  be  left as the current

       Configuration is by means of the styles mechanism that should be familiar from completion;
       if  not,  see the description of the zstyle command in see zshmodules(1).  The context for
       setting styles should be ':chpwd:*' in case the meaning of  the  context  is  extended  in
       future, for example:

              zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-max 0

       sets  the value of the recent-dirs-max style to 0.  In practice the style name is specific
       enough that a context of '*' should be fine.

       An exception is recent-dirs-insert, which is used exclusively by the completion system and
       so  has  the  usual completion system context (':completion:*' if nothing more specific is
       needed), though again '*' should be fine in practice.

              If true, and the command is expecting a recent directory index, and either there is
              more  than  one  argument  or  the argument is not an integer, then fall through to
              "cd".  This allows the lazy  to  use  only  one  command  for  directory  changing.
              Completion  recognises  this,  too;  see  recent-dirs-insert  for  how  to  control
              completion when this option is in use.

              The  file  where  the   list   of   directories   is   saved.    The   default   is
              ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.chpwd-recent-dirs,  i.e.  this  is in your home directory unless
              you have set the variable ZDOTDIR to point somewhere  else.   Directory  names  are
              saved  in  $'...' quoted form, so each line in the file can be supplied directly to
              the shell as an argument.

              The value of this style may be an array.  In this case, the first file in the  list
              will  always  be  used  for  saving  directories  while  any  other  files are left
              untouched.  When reading the recent directory list, if there  are  fewer  than  the
              maximum  number  of  entries  in the first file, the contents of later files in the
              array will be appended with duplicates removed from the list shown.   The  contents
              of  the  two  files are not sorted together, i.e. all the entries in the first file
              are shown first.  The special value + can  appear  in  the  list  to  indicate  the
              default file should be read at that point.  This allows effects like the following:

                     zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file \
                     ~/.chpwd-recent-dirs-${TTY##*/} +

              Recent  directories  are  read  from a file numbered according to the terminal.  If
              there are insufficient entries the list is supplemented from the default file.

              It is possible to use zstyle -e to make the directory configurable at run time:

                     zstyle -e ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file pick-recent-dirs-file
                     pick-recent-dirs-file() {
                       if [[ $PWD = ~/text/writing(|/*) ]]; then

              In this example, if the current directory is ~/text/writing or  a  directory  under
              it, then use a special file for saving recent directories, else use the default.

              Used  by  completion.   If  recent-dirs-default  is true, then setting this to true
              causes the actual directory, rather than its index, to be inserted on  the  command
              line;  this  has  the  same  effect as using the corresponding index, but makes the
              history clearer and the line easier to edit.  With this  setting,  if  part  of  an
              argument  was  already  typed,  normal  directory  completion  rather  than  recent
              directory completion is done;  this  is  because  recent  directory  completion  is
              expected to be done by cycling through entries menu fashion.

              If  the  value  of  the  style  is  always,  then  only  recent directories will be
              completed; in that case, use the  cd  command  when  you  want  to  complete  other

              If  the  value  is  fallback,  recent  directories will be tried first, then normal
              directory completion is performed if recent directory completion failed to  find  a

              Finally,  if  the  value  is  both then both sets of completions are presented; the
              usual tag mechanism can be used to distinguish  results,  with  recent  directories
              tagged  as  recent-dirs.  Note that the recent directories inserted are abbreviated
              with directory names where appropriate.

              The maximum number of directories to save to the file.  If this is zero or negative
              there is no maximum.  The default is 20.  Note this includes the current directory,
              which isn't offered, so the highest number of directories you will  be  offered  is
              one less than the maximum.

              This style is an array determining what directories should (or should not) be added
              to the recent list.  Elements of the array can include:

              parent Prune parents  (more  accurately,  ancestors)  from  the  recent  list.   If
                     present,  changing  directly  down  by  any number of directories causes the
                     current directory to be overwritten.  For example,  changing  from  ~pws  to
                     ~pws/some/other/dir  causes  ~pws  not  to  be  left on the recent directory
                     stack.  This only applies  to  direct  changes  to  descendant  directories;
                     earlier  directories on the list are not pruned.  For example, changing from
                     ~pws/yet/another to ~pws/some/other/dir does not cause ~pws to be pruned.

                     Gives a zsh pattern for directories that should not be added to  the  recent
                     list  (if not already there).  This element can be repeated to add different
                     patterns.  For example, 'pattern:/tmp(|/*)' stops /tmp  or  its  descendants
                     from  being  added.   The EXTENDED_GLOB option is always turned on for these

              If set to true, cdr will use pushd instead of cd to change the  directory,  so  the
              directory  is  saved  on the directory stack.  As the directory stack is completely
              separate from the list of files saved by the mechanism used in this file  there  is
              no obvious reason to do this.

   Use with dynamic directory naming
       It  is  possible to refer to recent directories using the dynamic directory name syntax by
       using the supplied function zsh_directory_name_cdr a hook:

              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook -Uz zsh_directory_name zsh_directory_name_cdr

       When this is done, ~[1] will refer to the most recent directory other than  $PWD,  and  so
       on.  Completion after ~[...  also works.

   Details of directory handling
       This  section  is  for  the  curious  or  confused;  most users will not need to know this

       Recent directories are saved  to  a  file  immediately  and  hence  are  preserved  across
       sessions.   Note  currently no file locking is applied: the list is updated immediately on
       interactive commands and nowhere else (unlike history), and it is  assumed  you  are  only
       going to change directory in one window at once.  This is not safe on shared accounts, but
       in any case the system has limited utility when someone else is changing  to  a  different
       set of directories behind your back.

       To  make  this  a  little  safer, only directory changes instituted from the command line,
       either directly or indirectly through shell function calls  (but  not  through  subshells,
       evals, traps, completion functions and the like) are saved.  Shell functions should use cd
       -q or pushd -q to avoid side effects if the change to the directory is to be invisible  at
       the command line.  See the contents of the function chpwd_recent_dirs for more details.


       In  a  lot of cases, it is nice to automatically retrieve information from version control
       systems (VCSs), such as subversion, CVS or git, to be able to  provide  it  to  the  user;
       possibly  in  the  user's  prompt.  So  that  you  can instantly tell which branch you are
       currently on, for example.

       In order to do that, you may use the vcs_info function.

       The following VCSs are supported, showing the abbreviated name by which they are  referred
       to within the system:
       Bazaar (bzr)
       Codeville (cdv)
       Concurrent Versioning System (cvs)
       Darcs (darcs)
       Fossil (fossil)
       Git (git)
       GNU arch (tla)
       Mercurial (hg)
       Monotone (mtn)
       Perforce (p4)
       Subversion (svn)
       SVK (svk)

       There     is     also     support     for    the    patch    management    system    quilt
       ( See Quilt Support below for details.

       To load vcs_info:

              autoload -Uz vcs_info

       It can be used in any existing prompt, because it does not require any $psvar  entries  to
       be left available.

       To  get  this  feature  working  quickly  (including  colors),  you  can  do the following
       (assuming, you loaded vcs_info properly - see above):

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' actionformats \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{3}|%F{1}%a%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' formats       \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(sv[nk]|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%F{1}:%F{3}%r'
              precmd () { vcs_info }
              PS1='%F{5}[%F{2}%n%F{5}] %F{3}%3~ ${vcs_info_msg_0_}%f%# '

       Obviously, the last two lines are there for demonstration. You need to call vcs_info  from
       your  precmd  function. Once that is done you need a single quoted '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' in
       your prompt.

       To be able to use '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' directly in your prompt like this, you will need to
       have the PROMPT_SUBST option enabled.

       Now call the vcs_info_printsys utility from the command line:

              % vcs_info_printsys
              ## list of supported version control backends:
              ## disabled systems are prefixed by a hash sign (#)
              ## flavours (cannot be used in the enable or disable styles; they
              ## are enabled and disabled with their master [git-svn -> git])
              ## they *can* be used in contexts: ':vcs_info:git-svn:*'.

       You  may  not  want  all  of these because there is no point in running the code to detect
       systems you do not use.  So there is a way to disable some backends altogether:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr cdv darcs mtn svk tla

       You may also pick a few from that list and enable only those:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable git cvs svn

       If you rerun vcs_info_printsys after one of these commands,  you  will  see  the  backends
       listed  in  the  disable  style  (or  backends not in the enable style - if you used that)
       marked as disabled by a hash sign.  That means the detection of these systems  is  skipped
       completely. No wasted time there.

       The vcs_info feature can be configured via zstyle.

       First, the context in which we are working:

              is one of: git, git-svn, git-p4, hg, hg-git, hg-hgsubversion, hg-hgsvn, darcs, bzr,
              cdv, mtn, svn, cvs, svk, tla, p4 or fossil. When hooks are active the hooks name is
              added after a `+'. (See Hooks in vcs_info below.)

              is  a  freely  configurable string, assignable by the user as the first argument to
              vcs_info (see its description below).

              is the name of a repository in which you want a style to match. So, if you  want  a
              setting  specific  to  /usr/src/zsh,  with  that  being a CVS checkout, you can set
              repo-root-name to zsh to make it so.

       There are three special values for vcs-string: The first  is  named  -init-,  that  is  in
       effect  as long as there was no decision what VCS backend to use. The second is -preinit-;
       it is used before vcs_info is run, when initializing the  data  exporting  variables.  The
       third  special  value  is  formats  and is used by the vcs_info_lastmsg for looking up its

       The initial value of repo-root-name is -all- and it is replaced with the actual  name,  as
       soon  as  it  is  known.  Only  use  this  part  of  the context for defining the formats,
       actionformats or branchformat styles, as it is guaranteed that repo-root-name  is  set  up
       correctly for these only. For all other styles, just use '*' instead.

       There are two pre-defined values for user-context:
              the one used if none is specified
              used by vcs_info_lastmsg to lookup its styles

       You can of course use ':vcs_info:*' to match all VCSs in all user-contexts at once.

       This is a description of all styles that are looked up.

              A list of formats, used when actionformats is not used (which is most of the time).

              A  list  of  formats,  used  if  there is a special action going on in your current
              repository; like an interactive rebase or a merge conflict.

              Some backends replace %b in the formats and actionformats styles above, not only by
              a  branch  name  but also by a revision number. This style lets you modify how that
              string should look.

              These "formats" are exported when we didn't detect a version control system for the
              current  directory or vcs_info was disabled. This is useful if you want vcs_info to
              completely take over the generation of your prompt. You  would  do  something  like
              PS1='${vcs_info_msg_0_}' to accomplish that.

              hg  uses  both  a hash and a revision number to reference a specific changeset in a
              repository. With this style you can format the revision string  (see  branchformat)
              to include either or both. It's only useful when get-revision is true.

              Defines the maximum number of vcs_info_msg_*_ variables vcs_info will export.

       enable A  list  of  backends  you want to use. Checked in the -init- context. If this list
              contains an item called NONE no backend  is  used  at  all  and  vcs_info  will  do
              nothing. If this list contains ALL, vcs_info will use all known backends. Only with
              ALL in enable will the disable style  have  any  effect.  ALL  and  NONE  are  case

              A  list  of  VCSs  you don't want vcs_info to test for repositories (checked in the
              -init- context, too). Only used if enable contains ALL.

              A list of patterns that are checked against $PWD. If a  pattern  matches,  vcs_info
              will be disabled. This style is checked in the :vcs_info:-init-:*:-all- context.

              Say, ~/.zsh is a directory under version control, in which you do not want vcs_info
              to be active, do:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable-patterns "$HOME/.zsh(|/*)"

              If enabled, the quilt support code is active in `addon' mode.   See  Quilt  Support
              for details.

              If enabled, `standalone' mode detection is attempted if no VCS is active in a given
              directory. See Quilt Support for details.

              Overwrite the value of the $QUILT_PATCHES environment variable. See  Quilt  Support
              for details.

              When quilt itself is called in quilt support the value of this style is used as the
              command name.

              If enabled, this style causes the %c and %u format escapes to show when the working
              directory  has  uncommitted  changes. The strings displayed by these escapes can be
              controlled via the  stagedstr  and  unstagedstr  styles.  The  only  backends  that
              currently support this option are git and hg (hg only supports unstaged).

              For this style to be evaluated with the hg backend, the get-revision style needs to
              be set and the use-simple style needs to be unset. The latter is the  default;  the
              former is not.

              Note,  the  actions taken if this style is enabled are potentially expensive (read:
              they may be slow, depending on how big the current repository is).   Therefore,  it
              is disabled by default.

              This  string  will  be  used  in  the  %c escape if there are staged changes in the

              This string will be used in the %u escape if there  are  unstaged  changes  in  the

              This  style causes vcs_info to use the supplied string as the command to use as the
              VCS's binary. Note, that setting this in ':vcs_info:*' is not a good idea.

              If the value of this style is empty (which is the default), the used binary name is
              the name of the backend in use (e.g. svn is used in an svn repository).

              The  repo-root-name part in the context is always the default -all- when this style
              is looked up.

              For example, this style can be used to use binaries from  non-default  installation
              directories.  Assume,  git  is  installed in /usr/bin but your sysadmin installed a
              newer version in /usr/bin/local. Instead  of  changing  the  order  of  your  $PATH
              parameter, you can do this:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*:-all-' command /usr/local/bin/git

              This  is  used  by  the  Perforce  backend  (p4) to decide if it should contact the
              Perforce server to find out if a directory is managed by  Perforce.   This  is  the
              only  reliable  way  of doing this, but runs the risk of a delay if the server name
              cannot be found.  If the server (more specifically, the host:port  pair  describing
              the  server)  cannot  be  contacted,  its  name  is  put into the associative array
              vcs_info_p4_dead_servers and is not contacted again during the session until it  is
              removed  by  hand.   If you do not set this style, the p4 backend is only usable if
              you  have  set  the  environment  variable  P4CONFIG  to  a  file  name  and   have
              corresponding  files in the root directories of each Perforce client.  See comments
              in the function VCS_INFO_detect_p4 for more detail.

              If there are two different ways  of  gathering  information,  you  can  select  the
              simpler   one   by  setting  this  style  to  true;  the  default  is  to  use  the
              not-that-simple code, which is potentially a lot slower but might be more  accurate
              in  all  possible cases. This style is used by the bzr and hg backends. In the case
              of hg it will invoke the external hexdump program  to  parse  the  binary  dirstate
              cache file; this method will not return the local revision number.

              If  set  to  true,  vcs_info  goes  the  extra mile to figure out the revision of a
              repository's work tree (currently for the git and hg backends, where this  kind  of
              information  is not always vital). For git, the hash value of the currently checked
              out commit is available via the %i expansion. With hg, the  local  revision  number
              and the corresponding global hash are available via %i.

       get-mq If  set  to  true,  the  hg  backend  will  look  for  a Mercurial Queue (mq) patch
              directory. Information will be available via the `%m' replacement.

              If set to true, the hg backend will try to get a list of  current  bookmarks.  They
              will be available via the `%m' replacement.

              Determines  if  we  assume  that the assembled string from vcs_info includes prompt
              escapes. (Used by vcs_info_lastmsg.)

       debug  Enable debugging output to track possible problems. Currently this  style  is  only
              used by vcs_info's hooks system.

       hooks  A  list  style  that  defines  hook-function names. See Hooks in vcs_info below for

       The default values for these styles in all contexts are:

              " (%s)-[%b]%u%c-"
              " (%s)-[%b|%a]%u%c-"
              "%b:%r" (for bzr, svn, svk and hg)
       enable ALL
              (empty list)
              (empty list)
              (string: "S")
              (string: "U")
              (empty string)
       get-mq true
       debug  false
       hooks  (empty list)
              empty - use $QUILT_PATCHES

       In normal formats and actionformats the following replacements are done:

       %s     The VCS in use (git, hg, svn, etc.).
       %b     Information about the current branch.
       %a     An identifier that describes the action. Only makes sense in actionformats.
       %i     The current revision number or identifier. For hg the hgrevformat style may be used
              to customize the output.
       %c     The string from the stagedstr style if there are staged changes in the repository.
       %u     The  string  from  the  unstagedstr  style  if  there  are  unstaged changes in the
       %R     The base directory of the repository.
       %r     The repository name. If %R is /foo/bar/repoXY, %r is repoXY.
       %S     A subdirectory within a repository. If $PWD is  /foo/bar/repoXY/beer/tasty,  %S  is
       %m     A  "misc"  replacement.  It is at the discretion of the backend to decide what this
              replacement expands to. It is currently used by the hg and git backends to  display
              patch information from the mq and stgit extensions.

       In branchformat these replacements are done:

       %b     The branch name.
       %r     The current revision number or the hgrevformat style for hg.

       In hgrevformat these replacements are done:

       %r     The current local revision number.
       %h     The current 40-character changeset ID hash identifier.

       In patch-format and nopatch-format these replacements are done:

       %p     The name of the top-most applied patch.
       %u     The number of unapplied patches.
       %n     The number of applied patches.
       %c     The number of unapplied patches.
       %g     The names of active mq guards (hg backend).
       %G     The number of active mq guards (hg backend).

       Not all VCS backends have to support all replacements. For nvcsformats no replacements are
       performed at all, it is just a string.

       If you want to use the %b (bold off) prompt expansion in formats, which expands %b itself,
       use  %%b.  That  will  cause  the vcs_info expansion to replace %%b with %b, so that zsh's
       prompt expansion mechanism can handle it. Similarly, to hand down  %b  from  branchformat,
       use  %%%%b.  Sorry  for this inconvenience, but it cannot be easily avoided. Luckily we do
       not clash with a lot of prompt expansions and this only needs to be done for those.

   Quilt Support
       Quilt is not a version control system, therefore this is not implemented as a backend.  It
       can help keeping track of a series of patches. People use it to keep a set of changes they
       want to use on top of software packages (which is  tightly  integrated  into  the  package
       build  process  -  the Debian project does this for a large number of packages). Quilt can
       also help individual developers keep track of their own patches on  top  of  real  version
       control systems.

       The  vcs_info integration tries to support both ways of using quilt by having two slightly
       different modes of operation: `addon' mode and `standalone' mode).

       For `addon' mode to become active vcs_info must  have  already  detected  a  real  version
       control  system  controlling  the  directory.  If that is the case, a directory that holds
       quilt's patches needs to be found. That directory is configurable via the  `QUILT_PATCHES'
       environment  variable.  If  that  variable  exists  its value is used, otherwise the value
       `patches' is  assumed.  The  value  from  $QUILT_PATCHES  can  be  overwritten  using  the
       `quilt-patches'  style.  (Note:  you  can use vcs_info to keep the value of $QUILT_PATCHES
       correct all the time via the post-quilt hook).

       When the directory in question is found, quilt is assumed to be  active.  To  gather  more
       information,  vcs_info  looks  for  a directory called `.pc'; Quilt uses that directory to
       track its current state. If this directory does not exist we know that quilt has not  done
       anything to the working directory (read: no patches have been applied yet).

       If  patches  are  applied,  vcs_info will try to find out which. If you want to know which
       patches of a series are not yet applied, you need to activate the get-unapplied  style  in
       the appropriate context.

       vcs_info  allows  for very detailed control over how the gathered information is presented
       (see the below sections, Styles and Hooks in vcs_info), all of which are documented below.
       Note  there  are  a  number  of other patch tracking systems that work on top of a certain
       version control system (like stgit for git, or mq for hg); the configuration  for  systems
       like that are generally configured the same way as the quilt support.

       If  the  quilt  support  is working in `addon' mode, the produced string is available as a
       simple format  replacement  (%Q  to  be  precise),  which  can  be  used  in  formats  and
       actionformats; see below for details).

       If,  on  the  other  hand, the support code is working in `standalone' mode, vcs_info will
       pretend as if quilt were an actual version control system. That  means  that  the  version
       control system identifier (which otherwise would be something like `svn' or `cvs') will be
       set to `-quilt-'. This has implications on the used style context where this identifier is
       the  second  element.  vcs_info  will have filled in a proper value for the "repository's"
       root directory and the string containing the  information  about  quilt's  state  will  be
       available as the `misc' replacement (and %Q for compatibility with `addon' mode.

       What  is  left  to discuss is how `standalone' mode is detected. The detection itself is a
       series of searches for directories. You can have this detection enabled all  the  time  in
       every  directory  that is not otherwise under version control. If you know there is only a
       limited set of trees where  you  would  like  vcs_info  to  try  and  look  for  Quilt  in
       `standalone' mode to minimise the amount of searching on every call to vcs_info, there are
       a number of ways to do that:

       Essentially,   `standalone'   mode   detection   is   controlled   by   a   style   called
       `quilt-standalone'.  It  is  a  string style and its value can have different effects. The
       simplest values are: `always' to run detection every time vcs_info is run, and `never'  to
       turn the detection off entirely.

       If  the value of quilt-standalone is something else, it is interpreted differently. If the
       value is the name of a scalar variable the value of that  variable  is  checked  and  that
       value is used in the same `always'/`never' way as described above.

       If  the  value  of  quilt-standalone  is  an array, the elements of that array are used as
       directory names under which you want the detection to be active.

       If quilt-standalone is an associative array, the keys are taken as directory  names  under
       which  you  want  the  detection  to be active, but only if the corresponding value is the
       string `true'.

       Last, but not least, if the value of quilt-standalone is  the  name  of  a  function,  the
       function is called without arguments and the return value decides whether detection should
       be active. A `0' return value is true; a non-zero return value is interpreted as false.

       Note, if there is both a function and a variable by  the  name  of  quilt-standalone,  the
       function will take precedence.

   Function Descriptions (Public API)
       vcs_info [user-context]
              The   main   function,   that  runs  all  backends  and  assembles  all  data  into
              ${vcs_info_msg_*_}. This is the function you want to call from precmd if  you  want
              to  include up-to-date information in your prompt (see Variable description below).
              If an argument is given, that string  will  be  used  instead  of  default  in  the
              user-context field of the style context.

              Statically  registers  a  number of functions to a given hook. The hook needs to be
              given as the first argument; what follows is  a  list  of  hook-function  names  to
              register  to  the  hook.  The `+vi-' prefix needs to be left out here. See Hooks in
              vcs_info below for details.

              Remove hook-functions from a given hook. The hook needs to be given  as  the  first
              non-option  argument;  what follows is a list of hook-function names to un-register
              from the hook. If `-a' is used  as  the  first  argument,  all  occurances  of  the
              functions  are  unregistered.  Otherwise  only  the last occurance is removed (if a
              function was registered to a hook more than once) . The `+vi-' prefix needs  to  be
              left out here. See Hooks in vcs_info below for details.

              Outputs  the  last  ${vcs_info_msg_*_}  value.  Takes into account the value of the
              use-prompt-escapes style in ':vcs_info:formats:command:-all-'. It also only  prints
              max-exports values.

       vcs_info_printsys [user-context]
              Prints a list of all supported version control systems. Useful to find out possible
              contexts (and which of them are enabled) or values for the disable style.

              Initializes vcs_info's internal list of available backends. With this function, you
              can add support for new VCSs without restarting the shell.

       All functions named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Variable Description
       ${vcs_info_msg_N_} (Note the trailing underscore)
              Where  N  is an integer, e.g., vcs_info_msg_0_. These variables are the storage for
              the informational message the last vcs_info call has assembled. These are  strongly
              connected  to  the  formats,  actionformats and nvcsformats styles described above.
              Those styles  are  lists.  The  first  member  of  that  list  gets  expanded  into
              ${vcs_info_msg_0_},   the   second   into   ${vcs_info_msg_1_}  and  the  Nth  into
              ${vcs_info_msg_N-1_}. These parameters are exported into the environment. (See  the
              max-exports style above.)

       All variables named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Hooks in vcs_info
       Hooks  are  places  in vcs_info where you can run your own code. That code can communicate
       with the code that called it and through that, change the system's behaviour.

       For configuration, hooks change the style context:

       To register functions to a hook, you  need  to  list  them  in  the  hooks  style  in  the
       appropriate context.

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+foo:*' hooks bar baz

       This  registers  functions to the hook `foo' for all backends. In order to avoid namespace
       problems, all registered function names are prepended by a `+vi-', so the actual functions
       called for the `foo' hook are `+vi-bar' and `+vi-baz'.

       If  you would like to register a function to a hook regardless of the current context, you
       may use the vcs_info_hookadd function. To remove a function that was added like that,  the
       vcs_info_hookdel function can be used.

       If  something  seems weird, you can enable the `debug' boolean style in the proper context
       and the hook-calling code will print what it tried to execute and whether the function  in
       question existed.

       When  you  register more than one function to a hook, all functions are executed one after
       another until one function returns non-zero or  until  all  functions  have  been  called.
       Context-sensitive  hook functions are executed before statically registered ones (the ones
       added by vcs_info_hookadd).

       You may pass data between functions via an associative array, user_data.  For example:
                  # do something with ${user_data[myval]}

       There are a number of variables that are special in hook contexts:

       ret    The return value that the hooks system will return to the caller. The default is an
              integer  `zero'. If and how a changed ret value changes the execution of the caller
              depends on the specific hook. See the hook documentation below for details.

              An associated array which is used for bidirectional communication from  the  caller
              to hook functions. The used keys depend on the specific hook.

              The  active context of the hook. Functions that wish to change this variable should
              make it local scope first.

       vcs    The current VCS after it was detected. The same values  as  in  the  enable/disable
              style are used. Available in all hooks except start-up.

       Finally, the full list of currently available hooks:

              Called  after starting vcs_info but before the VCS in this directory is determined.
              It can be used to deactivate vcs_info temporarily if necessary. When ret is set  to
              1,  vcs_info aborts and does nothing; when set to 2, vcs_info sets up everything as
              if no version control were active and exits.

              Same as start-up but after the VCS was detected.

              Called  in  the  Mercurial  backend  when  a  bookmark  string  is  generated;  the
              get-revision and get-bookmarks styles must be true.

              This  hook  gets  the names of the Mercurial bookmarks that vcs_info collected from

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[hg-bookmark-string]} will be
              used  in  the  %m  escape  in formats and actionformats and will be availabe in the
              global backend_misc array as ${backend_misc[bookmarks]}.

              Called in the git (with stgit), and hg (with mq) backends and in quilt support when
              the  applied-string  is generated; the use-quilt zstyle must be true for quilt (the
              mq and stgit backends are active by default).

              This hook gets the names of all applied patches which vcs_info collected so far  in
              the  opposite  order, which means that the first argument is the top-most patch and
              so forth.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string  in  ${hook_com[applied-string]}  will  be
              used  in  the  %m  escape in formats and actionformats; it will be available in the
              global backend_misc array as $backend_misc[patches]}; and it will be  available  as
              %p in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

              Called  in the git (with stgit), and hg (with mq) backend and in quilt support when
              the unapplied-string is generated; the get-unapplied style must be true.

              This hook gets the names of all unapplied patches which vcs_info collected  so  far
              in the opposite order, which mean that the first argument is the patch next-in-line
              to be applied and so forth.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[unapplied-string]}  will  be
              available as %u in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

              Called  in the hg backend when guards-string is generated; the get-mq style must be
              true (default).

              This hook gets the names of any active mq guards.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[guards-string]} will be used
              in the %g escape in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

       no-vcs This hooks is called when no version control system was detected.

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called  after  the  quilt  support  is done. The following information is passed as
              arguments to the hook: 1. the quilt-support mode (`addon' or `standalone'); 2.  the
              directory  that  contains  the  patch  series;  3. the directory that holds quilt's
              status information (the `.pc' directory) or the string "-nopc-" if  that  directory
              wasn't found.

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called  before  `branchformat'  is set. The only argument to the hook is the format
              that is configured at this point.

              The `hook_com' keys considered are `branch' and `revision'.  They are  set  to  the
              values figured out so far by vcs_info and any change will be used directly when the
              actual replacement is done.

              If ret is set to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[branch-replace]} will  be  used
              unchanged as the `%b' replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called  before  a `hgrevformat' is set. The only argument to the hook is the format
              that is configured at this point.

              The `hook_com' keys considered are `hash' and `localrev'.   They  are  set  to  the
              values figured out so far by vcs_info and any change will be used directly when the
              actual replacement is done.

              If ret is set to non-zero, the string  in  ${hook_com[rev-replace]}  will  be  used
              unchanged as the `%i' replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called  each  time  before  a  `vcs_info_msg_N_'  message  is  set.   It  takes two
              arguments; the first being the `N' in the message variable name, the second is  the
              currently configured formats or actionformats.

              There  are  a  number  of  `hook_com' keys, that are used here: `action', `branch',
              `base', `base-name', `subdir', `staged', `unstaged', `revision', `misc', `vcs'  and
              one  `miscN'  entry for each backend-specific data field (N starting at zero). They
              are set to the values figured out so far by vcs_info and any change  will  be  used
              directly when the actual replacement is done.

              Since  this  hook  is triggered multiple times (once for each configured formats or
              actionformats), each of the `hook_com' keys mentioned above (except for  the  miscN
              entries)  has an `_orig' counterpart, so even if you changed a value to your liking
              you can still get the original value in the next run. Changing the  `_orig'  values
              is probably not a good idea.

              If  ret  is  set  to  non-zero,  the  string  in  ${hook_com[message]} will be used
              unchanged as the message by vcs_info.

       If all of this sounds rather confusing, take a look at the Examples section below and also
       in the Misc/vcs_info-examples file in the Zsh source.  They contain some explanatory code.

       Don't use vcs_info at all (even though it's in your prompt):
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable NONE

       Disable the backends for bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr svk

       Disable everything but bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable bzr svk

       Provide a special formats for git:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' formats       ' GIT, BABY! [%b]'
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' actionformats ' GIT ACTION! [%b|%a]'

       All  %x  expansion  in all sorts of formats ("formats", "actionformats", branchformat, you
       name it) are done using the `zformat' builtin from the `zsh/zutil' module. That means  you
       can  do  everything  with these %x items what zformat supports. In particular, if you want
       something that is really long  to  have  a  fixed  width,  like  a  hash  in  a  mercurial
       branchformat,  you  can  do  this: %12.12i. That'll shrink the 40 character hash to its 12
       leading characters. The form is actually `%min.maxx'. More is possible.  See  the  section
       `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1) for details.

       Use the quicker bzr backend
              zstyle ':vcs_info:bzr:*' use-simple true

       If you do use use-simple, please report if it does `the-right-thing[tm]'.

       Display the revision number in yellow for bzr and svn:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%{'${fg[yellow]}'%}:%r'

       If  you  want  colors, make sure you enclose the color codes in %{...%} if you want to use
       the string provided by vcs_info in prompts.

       Here is how to print the VCS information as a command (not in a prompt):
              alias vcsi='vcs_info command; vcs_info_lastmsg'

       This way, you can even define different formats for output  via  vcs_info_lastmsg  in  the
       ':vcs_info:*:command:*' namespace.

       Now as promised, some code that uses hooks: say, you'd like to replace the string `svn' by
       `subversion' in vcs_info's %s formats replacement.

       First, we will tell vcs_info to call a function when populating the message variables with
       the gathered information:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion

       Nothing  happens.  Which is reasonable, since we didn't define the actual function yet. To
       see what the hooks subsystem is trying to do, enable the `debug' style:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug true

       That should give you an idea what is going on. Specifically,  the  function  that  we  are
       looking  for is `+vi-svn2subversion'. Note, the `+vi-' prefix. So, everything is in order,
       just as documented. When you are done checking out the debugging output, disable it again:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug false

       Now, let's define the function:
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {
                  [[ ${hook_com[vcs_orig]} == svn ]] && hook_com[vcs]=subversion

       Simple enough. And it could have even been simpler, if only we had registered our function
       in  a less generic context. If we do it only in the `svn' backend's context, we don't need
       to test which the active backend is:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:svn+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {

       And finally a little more elaborate example, that uses  a  hook  to  create  a  customised
       bookmark string for the hg backend.

       Again, we start off by registering a function:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:hg+gen-hg-bookmark-string:*' hooks hgbookmarks

       And then we define the `+vi-hgbookmarks function:
              function +vi-hgbookmarks() {
                  # The default is to connect all bookmark names by
                  # commas. This mixes things up a little.
                  # Imagine, there's one type of bookmarks that is
                  # special to you. Say, because it's *your* work.
                  # Those bookmarks look always like this: "sh/*"
                  # (because your initials are sh, for example).
                  # This makes the bookmarks string use only those
                  # bookmarks. If there's more than one, it
                  # concatenates them using commas.
                  local s i
                  # The bookmarks returned by `hg' are available in
                  # the functions positional parameters.
                  (( $# == 0 )) && return 0
                  for i in "$@"; do
                      if [[ $i == sh/* ]]; then
                          [[ -n $s ]] && s=$s,
                  # Now, the communication with the code that calls
                  # the hook functions is done via the hook_com[]
                  # hash. The key, at which the `gen-hg-bookmark-string'
                  # hook looks at is `hg-bookmark-string'. So:
                  # And to signal, that we want to use the sting we
                  # just generated, set the special variable `ret' to
                  # something other than the default zero:
                  return 0

       Some longer examples and code snippets which might be useful are available in the examples
       file located at Misc/vcs_info-examples in the Zsh source directory.

       This concludes our guided tour through zsh's vcs_info.


       You should make sure all the functions from the Functions/Prompts directory of the  source
       distribution  are  available;  they  all  begin  with  the string `prompt_' except for the
       special function`promptinit'.  You also need the `colors'  function  from  Functions/Misc.
       All  of  these  functions may already have been installed on your system; if not, you will
       need to find them and copy them.  The directory should appear as one of  the  elements  of
       the fpath array (this should already be the case if they were installed), and at least the
       function promptinit should  be  autoloaded;  it  will  autoload  the  rest.   Finally,  to
       initialize  the use of the system you need to call the promptinit function.  The following
       code in your .zshrc will arrange  for  this;  assume  the  functions  are  stored  in  the
       directory ~/myfns:

              fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
              autoload -U promptinit

   Theme Selection
       Use  the prompt command to select your preferred theme.  This command may be added to your
       .zshrc following the call to promptinit in  order  to  start  zsh  with  a  theme  already

       prompt [ -c | -l ]
       prompt [ -p | -h ] [ theme ... ]
       prompt [ -s ] theme [ arg ... ]
              Set  or  examine the prompt theme.  With no options and a theme argument, the theme
              with that name is set as the current theme.  The available themes are determined at
              run  time;  use the -l option to see a list.  The special theme `random' selects at
              random one of the available themes and sets your prompt to that.

              In some cases the theme may be modified by one or more arguments, which  should  be
              given  after the theme name.  See the help for each theme for descriptions of these

              Options are:

              -c     Show the currently selected theme and its parameters, if any.
              -l     List all available prompt themes.
              -p     Preview the theme named by theme, or all themes if no theme is given.
              -h     Show help for the theme named by theme, or for the  prompt  function  if  no
                     theme is given.
              -s     Set theme as the current theme and save state.

              Each available theme has a setup function which is called by the prompt function to
              install that theme.  This function may  define  other  functions  as  necessary  to
              maintain the prompt, including functions used to preview the prompt or provide help
              for its use.  You should not normally call a theme's setup function directly.


       These functions all implement user-defined ZLE widgets (see zshzle(1)) which can be  bound
       to keystrokes in interactive shells.  To use them, your .zshrc should contain lines of the

              autoload function
              zle -N function

       followed by an appropriate bindkey command to associate the function with a key  sequence.
       Suggested bindings are described below.

       bash-style word functions
              If  you are looking for functions to implement moving over and editing words in the
              manner of bash, where only alphanumeric characters are considered word  characters,
              you  can  use  the  functions  described  in  the  next  section.  The following is

                     autoload -U select-word-style
                     select-word-style bash

       forward-word-match, backward-word-match
       kill-word-match, backward-kill-word-match
       transpose-words-match, capitalize-word-match
       up-case-word-match, down-case-word-match
       select-word-style, match-word-context, match-words-by-style
              The eight `-match' functions are  drop-in  replacements  for  the  builtin  widgets
              without  the suffix.  By default they behave in a similar way.  However, by the use
              of styles and the function select-word-style, the way  words  are  matched  can  be

              The  simplest  way  of configuring the functions is to use select-word-style, which
              can either be called as a normal function with the appropriate argument, or invoked
              as a user-defined widget that will prompt for the first character of the word style
              to be used.  The first  time  it  is  invoked,  the  eight  -match  functions  will
              automatically  replace  the  builtin  versions,  so  they  do not need to be loaded

              The word styles available are as follows.  Only the first character is examined.

              bash   Word characters are alphanumeric characters only.

              normal As in normal shell operation:  word characters are  alphanumeric  characters
                     plus any characters present in the string given by the parameter $WORDCHARS.

              shell  Words  are  complete  shell  command  arguments, possibly including complete
                     quoted strings, or any tokens special to the shell.

                     Words are any set of characters delimited by whitespace.

                     Restore the default settings; this is usually the same as `normal'.

              All but `default' can be input as an upper  case  character,  which  has  the  same
              effect  but  with  subword matching turned on.  In this case, words with upper case
              characters are treated specially: each separate run of upper case characters, or an
              upper  case  character  followed by any number of other characters, is considered a
              word.  The style subword-range can supply an alternative  character  range  to  the
              default `[:upper:]'; the value of the style is treated as the contents of a `[...]'
              pattern  (note  that  the  outer  brackets  should  not  be  supplied,  only  those
              surrounding named ranges).

              More   control   can  be  obtained  using  the  zstyle  command,  as  described  in
              zshmodules(1).  Each style is looked up in the context :zle:widget where widget  is
              the  name of the user-defined widget, not the name of the function implementing it,
              so in the case of the definitions supplied  by  select-word-style  the  appropriate
              contexts  are  :zle:forward-word, and so on.  The function select-word-style itself
              always defines styles for the context `:zle:*' which  can  be  overridden  by  more
              specific (longer) patterns as well as explicit contexts.

              The  style  word-style  specifies  the  rules  to use.  This may have the following

              normal Use the standard shell rules,  i.e.  alphanumerics  and  $WORDCHARS,  unless
                     overridden by the styles word-chars or word-class.

                     Similar  to  normal,  but  only  the  specified  characters,  and  not  also
                     alphanumerics, are considered word characters.

                     The negation of specified.  The given characters are those which will not be
                     considered part of a word.

              shell  Words are obtained by using the syntactic rules for generating shell command
                     arguments.  In addition, special tokens which are  never  command  arguments
                     such as `()' are also treated as words.

                     Words are whitespace-delimited strings of characters.

              The  first  three  of  those  rules  usually  use  $WORDCHARS, but the value in the
              parameter can be overridden by the style word-chars, which  works  in  exactly  the
              same  way  as  $WORDCHARS.   In addition, the style word-class uses character class
              syntax to group characters and takes precedence over word-chars if  both  are  set.
              The  word-class  style  does  not include the surrounding brackets of the character
              class;  for  example,  `-:[:alnum:]'  is  a  valid  word-class   to   include   all
              alphanumerics  plus  the characters `-' and `:'.  Be careful including `]', `^' and
              `-' as these are special inside character classes.

              word-style may also have `-subword' appended  to  its  value  to  turn  on  subword
              matching, as described above.

              The  style  skip-chars  is mostly useful for transpose-words and similar functions.
              If set, it gives a count of characters starting at the cursor position  which  will
              not  be  considered  part  of the word and are treated as space, regardless of what
              they actually are.  For example, if

                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words' skip-chars 1

              has been set, and transpose-words-match is called with  the  cursor  on  the  X  of
              fooXbar, where X can be any character, then the resulting expression is barXfoo.

              Finer grained control can be obtained by setting the style word-context to an array
              of pairs of entries.  Each pair of entries consists of a pattern and a  subcontext.
              The  shell  argument the cursor is on is matched against each pattern in turn until
              one matches; if it does, the context is extended by a colon and  the  corresponding
              subcontext.  Note that the test is made against the original word on the line, with
              no stripping of quotes.  Special  handling  is  done  between  words:  the  current
              context  is examined and if it contains the string back, the word before the cursor
              is considered, else the word after cursor is considered. Some  examples  are  given

              Here  are  some  examples  of use of the styles, actually taken from the simplified
              interface in select-word-style:

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-style standard
                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-chars ''

              Implements bash-style word handling for all widgets, i.e.  only  alphanumerics  are
              word  characters; equivalent to setting the parameter WORDCHARS empty for the given

                     style ':zle:*kill*' word-style space

              Uses space-delimited words for widgets with the word `kill' in the  name.   Neither
              of the styles word-chars nor word-class is used in this case.

              Here are some examples of use of the word-context style to extend the context.

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-context "*/*" file "[[:space:]]" whitespace
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:whitespace' word-style shell
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-style normal
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-chars ''

              This  provides two different ways of using transpose-words depending on whether the
              cursor is on whitespace between words or on a filename, here any word containing  a
              /.   On  whitespace,  complete arguments as defined by standard shell rules will be
              transposed.  In a filename, only  alphanumerics  will  be  transposed.   Elsewhere,
              words will be transposed using the default style for :zle:transpose-words.

              The  word  matching and all the handling of zstyle settings is actually implemented
              by the function match-words-by-style.  This can be used to create new  user-defined
              widgets.   The  calling  function  should  set  the  local  parameter curcontext to
              :zle:widget, create the local parameter matched_words and call match-words-by-style
              with  no  arguments.   On  return,  matched_words  will be set to an array with the
              elements: (1) the start of the line (2) the word before the cursor (3) any non-word
              characters  between  that  word  and  the  cursor (4) any non-word character at the
              cursor position plus any  remaining  non-word  characters  before  the  next  word,
              including  all  characters  specified  by  the skip-chars style, (5) the word at or
              following the cursor (6) any  non-word  characters  following  that  word  (7)  the
              remainder  of  the  line.   Any of the elements may be an empty string; the calling
              function should test for this to decide whether it can perform its function.

              It is possible to pass options with arguments to match-words-by-style  to  override
              the use of styles.  The options are:
              -w     word-style
              -s     skip-chars
              -c     word-class
              -C     word-chars
              -r     subword-range

              For  example, match-words-by-style -w shell -c 0 may be used to extract the command
              argument around the cursor.

              The word-context style is implemented by  the  function  match-word-context.   This
              should not usually need to be called directly.

              This  widget works like a combination of insert-last-word and copy-prev-shell-word.
              Repeated invocations of the widget retrieve earlier words on the  relevant  history
              line.   With a numeric argument N, insert the Nth word from the history line; N may
              be negative to count from the end of the line.

              If insert-last-word has been used to retrieve the last word on a  previous  history
              line,  repeated invocations will replace that word with earlier words from the same

              Otherwise, the widget applies to words on the line  currently  being  edited.   The
              widget  style  can  be  set  to the name of another widget that should be called to
              retrieve  words.   This  widget  must  accept   the   same   three   arguments   as

              After inserting an unambiguous string into the command line, the new function based
              completion system may know about multiple places in this  string  where  characters
              are  missing  or  differ  from  at least one of the possible matches.  It will then
              place the cursor on the position it considers to be the most interesting one,  i.e.
              the  one  where  one  can  disambiguate between as many matches as possible with as
              little typing as possible.

              This widget allows the cursor to be easily moved to the  other  interesting  spots.
              It  can  be  invoked  repeatedly  to  cycle  between  all positions reported by the
              completion system.

              This  is  another  function  which  works  like  the  -match  functions   described
              immediately above, i.e. using styles to decide the word boundaries.  However, it is
              not a replacement for any existing function.

              The basic behaviour is to delete the word around the cursor.  There is  no  numeric
              prefix  handling;  only  the  single  word around the cursor is considered.  If the
              widget contains the string kill, the removed text will be placed in  the  cutbuffer
              for  future  yanking.   This  can  be obtained by defining kill-whole-word-match as

                     zle -N kill-whole-word-match delete-whole-word-match

              and then binding the widget kill-whole-word-match.

       up-line-or-beginning-search, down-line-or-beginning-search
              These  widgets  are  similar  to  the  builtin  functions   up-line-or-search   and
              down-line-or-search:   if  in  a  multiline  buffer they move up or down within the
              buffer, otherwise they search for a history line matching the start of the  current
              line.  In this case, however, they search for a line which matches the current line
              up    to    the    current    cursor     position,     in     the     manner     of
              history-beginning-search-backward  and  -forward, rather than the first word on the

              Edit the command line using your visual editor, as in ksh.

                     bindkey -M vicmd v edit-command-line

              This function  implements  the  widgets  history-beginning-search-backward-end  and
              history-beginning-search-forward-end.   These  commands  work  by first calling the
              corresponding builtin widget (see `History Control' in zshzle(1)) and  then  moving
              the  cursor to the end of the line.  The original cursor position is remembered and
              restored before calling the builtin widget a second time, so that the  same  search
              is repeated to look farther through the history.

              Although  you  autoload  only  one  function,  the  commands to use it are slightly
              different because it implements two widgets.

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-backward-end \
                     zle -N history-beginning-search-forward-end \
                     bindkey '\e^P' history-beginning-search-backward-end
                     bindkey '\e^N' history-beginning-search-forward-end

              This function implements yet another form of history searching.   The  text  before
              the    cursor    is   used   to   select   lines   from   the   history,   as   for
              history-beginning-search-backward except that all matches are shown in  a  numbered
              menu.   Typing  the  appropriate  digits  inserts the full history line.  Note that
              leading zeroes must be typed (they are  only  shown  when  necessary  for  removing
              ambiguity).   The  entire  history  is  searched;  there  is no distinction between
              forwards and backwards.

              With a prefix argument, the search is not anchored to the start of  the  line;  the
              string typed by the use may appear anywhere in the line in the history.

              If  the  widget  name  contains  `-end'  the cursor is moved to the end of the line
              inserted.  If the widget name contains `-space' any space  in  the  text  typed  is
              treated  as  a wildcard and can match anything (hence a leading space is equivalent
              to giving a prefix argument).  Both forms can be combined, for example:

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-menu-space-end \

              The function history-pattern-search implements widgets which prompt for  a  pattern
              with  which  to  search  the  history backwards or forwards.  The pattern is in the
              usual zsh format, however the first character may be ^ to anchor the search to  the
              start  of the line, and the last character may be $ to anchor the search to the end
              of the line.  If the search was not anchored to the end of the line the  cursor  is
              positioned just after the pattern found.

              The  commands  to  create  bindable  widgets  are  similar  to those in the example
              immediately above:

                     autoload -U history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-backward history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-forward history-pattern-search

       incarg Typing the keystrokes for this widget with the cursor placed on or to the  left  of
              an  integer  causes  that  integer to be incremented by one.  With a numeric prefix
              argument, the number is incremented by the amount of the argument  (decremented  if
              the  prefix argument is negative).  The shell parameter incarg may be set to change
              the default increment to something other than one.

                     bindkey '^X+' incarg

              This allows incremental completion of a word.  After starting this command, a  list
              of  completion  choices  can be shown after every character you type, which you can
              delete with ^H or DEL.  Pressing return accepts the completion so far  and  returns
              you to normal editing (that is, the command line is not immediately executed).  You
              can hit TAB to do normal completion, ^G  to  abort  back  to  the  state  when  you
              started, and ^D to list the matches.

              This works only with the new function based completion system.

                     bindkey '^Xi' incremental-complete-word

              This function allows you to compose characters that don't appear on the keyboard to
              be  inserted  into  the  command  line.   The  command  is  followed  by  two  keys
              corresponding  to  ASCII characters (there is no prompt).  For accented characters,
              the two keys are a base character followed by a code  for  the  accent,  while  for
              other  special  characters  the  two  characters  together  form a mnemonic for the
              character to be inserted.  The two-character codes are a subset of those  given  by
              RFC 1345 (see for example

              The  function  may optionally be followed by up to two characters which replace one
              or both of the characters read from the keyboard; if both characters are  supplied,
              no input is read.  For example, insert-composed-char a: can be used within a widget
              to insert an a with umlaut into the command line.  This has the advantages over use
              of a literal character that it is more portable.

              For  best  results zsh should have been built with support for multibyte characters
              (configured with --enable-multibyte); however, the function works for  the  limited
              range of characters available in single-byte character sets such as ISO-8859-1.

              The  character  is  converted  into  the local representation and inserted into the
              command line at the cursor position.  (The conversion is  done  within  the  shell,
              using  whatever  facilities  the C library provides.)  With a numeric argument, the
              character and its code are previewed in the status line

              The function may be run outside zle in which case it prints the character (together
              with a newline) to standard output.  Input is still read from keystrokes.

              See  insert-unicode-char  for  an  alternative  way of inserting Unicode characters
              using their hexadecimal character number.

              The set of accented characters is  reasonably  complete  up  to  Unicode  character
              U+0180,  the  set of special characters less so.  However, it is very sporadic from
              that  point.   Adding  new  characters  is  easy,   however;   see   the   function
              define-composed-chars.  Please send any additions to

              The  codes  for  the second character when used to accent the first are as follows.
              Note that not every character can take every accent.
              !      Grave.
              '      Acute.
              >      Circumflex.
              ?      Tilde.  (This is not ~ as RFC 1345 does not assume that character is present
                     on the keyboard.)
              -      Macron.  (A horizontal bar over the base character.)
              (      Breve.  (A shallow dish shape over the base character.)
              .      Dot  above the base character, or in the case of i no dot, or in the case of
                     L and l a centered dot.
              :      Diaeresis (Umlaut).
              c      Cedilla.
              _      Underline, however there are currently no underlined characters.
              /      Stroke through the base character.
              "      Double acute (only supported on a few letters).
              ;      Ogonek.   (A  little  forward  facing  hook  at  the  bottom  right  of  the
              <      Caron.  (A little v over the letter.)
              0      Circle over the base character.
              2      Hook over the base character.
              9      Horn over the base character.

              The  most  common  characters from the Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek and Hebrew alphabets
              are available; consult RFC 1345 for the appropriate sequences.  In addition, a  set
              of  two  letter codes not in RFC 1345 are available for the double-width characters
              corresponding to ASCII characters from !  to ~ (0x21  to  0x7e)  by  preceding  the
              character with ^, for example ^A for a double-width A.

              The following other two-character sequences are understood.

              ASCII characters
                     These are already present on most keyboards:
              <(     Left square bracket
              //     Backslash (solidus)
              )>     Right square bracket
              (!     Left brace (curly bracket)
              !!     Vertical bar (pipe symbol)
              !)     Right brace (curly bracket)
              '?     Tilde

              Special letters
                     Characters found in various variants of the Latin alphabet:
              ss     Eszett (scharfes S)
              D-, d- Eth
              TH, th Thorn
              kk     Kra
              'n     'n
              NG, ng Ng
              OI, oi Oi
              yr     yr
              ED     ezh

              Currency symbols
              Ct     Cent
              Pd     Pound sterling (also lira and others)
              Cu     Currency
              Ye     Yen
              Eu     Euro (N.B. not in RFC 1345)

              Punctuation characters
                     References  to  "right"  quotes  indicate the shape (like a 9 rather than 6)
                     rather than their grammatical use.  (For example, a "right" low double quote
                     is used to open quotations in German.)
              !I     Inverted exclamation mark
              BB     Broken vertical bar
              SE     Section
              Co     Copyright
              -a     Spanish feminine ordinal indicator
              <<     Left guillemet
              --     Soft hyphen
              Rg     Registered trade mark
              PI     Pilcrow (paragraph)
              -o     Spanish masculine ordinal indicator
              >>     Right guillemet
              ?I     Inverted question mark
              -1     Hyphen
              -N     En dash
              -M     Em dash
              -3     Horizontal bar
              :3     Vertical ellipsis
              .3     Horizontal midline ellipsis
              !2     Double vertical line
              =2     Double low line
              '6     Left single quote
              '9     Right single quote
              .9     "Right" low quote
              9'     Reversed "right" quote
              "6     Left double quote
              "9     Right double quote
              :9     "Right" low double quote
              9"     Reversed "right" double quote
              /-     Dagger
              /=     Double dagger

              Mathematical symbols
              DG     Degree
              -2, +-, -+
                     - sign, +/- sign, -/+ sign
              2S     Superscript 2
              3S     Superscript 3
              1S     Superscript 1
              My     Micro
              .M     Middle dot
              14     Quarter
              12     Half
              34     Three quarters
              *X     Multiplication
              -:     Division
              %0     Per mille
              FA, TE, /0
                     For all, there exists, empty set
              dP, DE, NB
                     Partial derivative, delta (increment), del (nabla)
              (-, -) Element of, contains
              *P, +Z Product, sum
              *-, Ob, Sb
                     Asterisk, ring, bullet
              RT, 0(, 00
                     Root sign, proportional to, infinity

              Other symbols
              cS, cH, cD, cC
                     Card suits: spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs
              Md, M8, M2, Mb, Mx, MX
                     Musical notation: crotchet (quarter note), quaver (eighth note), semiquavers
                     (sixteenth notes), flag sign, natural sign, sharp sign
              Fm, Ml Female, male

              Accents on their own
              '>     Circumflex (same as caret, ^)
              '!     Grave (same as backtick, `)
              ',     Cedilla
              ':     Diaeresis (Umlaut)
              'm     Macron
              ''     Acute

              This function allows you type a file pattern, and see the results of the  expansion
              at  each  step.   When you hit return, all expansions are inserted into the command

                     bindkey '^Xf' insert-files

              When first executed, the  user  inputs  a  set  of  hexadecimal  digits.   This  is
              terminated  with  another  call to insert-unicode-char.  The digits are then turned
              into the corresponding Unicode character.  For example, if the widget is  bound  to
              ^XU, the character sequence `^XU 4 c ^XU' inserts L (Unicode U+004c).

              See  insert-composed-char  for  a way of inserting characters using a two-character

       narrow-to-region [ -p pre ] [ -P post ]
           [ -S statepm | -R statepm ] [ -n ] [ start end ])
              Narrow the editable portion of the buffer to the region between the cursor and  the
              mark, which may be in either order.  The region may not be empty.

              narrow-to-region  may  be  used  as  a  widget  or  called  as  a  function  from a
              user-defined widget; by  default,  the  text  outside  the  editable  area  remains
              visible.   A  recursive-edit  is performed and the original widening status is then
              restored.  Various options and arguments are available  when  it  is  called  as  a

              The  options  -p pretext and -P posttext may be used to replace the text before and
              after the display for the duration of the function; either or both may be an  empty

              If  the option -n is also given, pretext or posttext will only be inserted if there
              is text before or after the region respectively which will be made invisible.

              Two numeric arguments may be given which will be used instead  of  the  cursor  and
              mark positions.

              The option -S statepm is used to narrow according to the other options while saving
              the original state in the parameter with name statepm, while the option -R  statepm
              is used to restore the state from the parameter; note in both cases the name of the
              parameter is required.  In  the  second  case,  other  options  and  arguments  are
              irrelevant.   When this method is used, no recursive-edit is performed; the calling
              widget should call this function with the option -S, perform its own editing on the
              command  line  or pass control to the user via `zle recursive-edit', then call this
              function with the option -R.  The argument statepm must be a suitable name  for  an
              ordinary  parameter,  except  that  parameters  beginning with the prefix _ntr_ are
              reserved for use within narrow-to-region.  Typically the parameter will be local to
              the calling function.

              narrow-to-region-invisible  is  a  simple  widget which calls narrow-to-region with
              arguments which replace any text outside the region with `...'.

              The display is restored (and the widget returns) upon any zle command  which  would
              usually cause the line to be accepted or aborted.  Hence an additional such command
              is required to accept or abort the current line.

              The return status of both widgets is zero if the line was accepted, else non-zero.

              Here is a trivial example of a widget using this feature.
                     local state
                     narrow-to-region -p $'Editing restricted region\n' \
                       -P '' -S state
                     zle recursive-edit
                     narrow-to-region -R state

              This set of functions implements predictive typing  using  history  search.   After
              predict-on, typing characters causes the editor to look backward in the history for
              the first line beginning with what you  have  typed  so  far.   After  predict-off,
              editing  returns  to normal for the line found.  In fact, you often don't even need
              to use predict-off, because if the line doesn't match  something  in  the  history,
              adding  a  key  performs  standard  completion,  and  then  inserts  itself  if  no
              completions were found.  However, editing in the middle of  a  line  is  liable  to
              confuse prediction; see the toggle style below.

              With the function based completion system (which is needed for this), you should be
              able to  type  TAB  at  almost  any  point  to  advance  the  cursor  to  the  next
              ``interesting''  character  position  (usually  the  end  of  the current word, but
              sometimes somewhere in the middle of the word).  And  of  course  as  soon  as  the
              entire  line  is what you want, you can accept with return, without needing to move
              the cursor to the end first.

              The first time predict-on is used, it creates several additional widget functions:

                     Replaces the backward-delete-char widget.  You do  not  need  to  bind  this
                     Implements  predictive  typing  by replacing the self-insert widget.  You do
                     not need to bind this yourself.
                     Turns off predictive typing.

              Although you autoload only the predict-on function, it is  necessary  to  create  a
              keybinding for predict-off as well.

                     zle -N predict-on
                     zle -N predict-off
                     bindkey '^X^Z' predict-on
                     bindkey '^Z' predict-off

              This  is  most useful when called as a function from inside a widget, but will work
              correctly as a widget in its own right.  It prompts for a value below  the  current
              command  line;  a  value may be input using all of the standard zle operations (and
              not  merely  the  restricted   set   available   when   executing,   for   example,
              execute-named-cmd).   The  value  is  then  returned to the calling function in the
              parameter $REPLY and the editing buffer restored to its  previous  state.   If  the
              read  was aborted by a keyboard break (typically ^G), the function returns status 1
              and $REPLY is not set.

              If one argument is supplied to the function it is taken as a prompt, otherwise `? '
              is  used.  If two arguments are supplied, they are the prompt and the initial value
              of $LBUFFER, and if a third argument is given it is the initial value of  $RBUFFER.
              This  provides  a  default  value  and  starting cursor placement.  Upon return the
              entire buffer is the value of $REPLY.

              One option is available: `-k num' specifies that num  characters  are  to  be  read
              instead  of a whole line.  The line editor is not invoked recursively in this case,
              so depending on the terminal settings the input may not be visible,  and  only  the
              input  keys are placed in $REPLY, not the entire buffer.  Note that unlike the read
              builtin num must be given; there is no default.

              The name is a slight misnomer, as in fact the shell's own minibuffer is  not  used.
              Hence  it  is still possible to call executed-named-cmd and similar functions while
              reading a value.

       replace-string, replace-pattern
       replace-string-again, replace-pattern-again
              The function replace-string implements three widgets.  If defined  under  the  same
              name as the function, it prompts for two strings; the first (source) string will be
              replaced by the second everywhere it occurs in the line editing buffer.

              If the widget name contains the word `pattern', for example by defining the  widget
              using  the  command  `zle  -N replace-pattern replace-string', then the matching is
              performed using zsh patterns.  All zsh extended globbing patterns can  be  used  in
              the  source  string; note that unlike filename generation the pattern does not need
              to match an entire word, nor do glob qualifiers have any effect.  In addition,  the
              replacement  string can contain parameter or command substitutions.  Furthermore, a
              `&' in the replacement string will be replaced with the matched source string,  and
              a  backquoted  digit  `\N'  will  be  replaced  by the Nth parenthesised expression
              matched.  The form `\{N}' may be used to protect the digit from following digits.

              If the widget instead contains the word `regex' (or `regexp'), then the matching is
              performed   using  regular  expressions,  respecting  the  setting  of  the  option
              RE_MATCH_PCRE (see the description of  the  function  regexp-replace  below).   The
              special replacement facilities described above for pattern matching are available.

              By  default  the  previous  source  or  replacement  string will not be offered for
              editing.  However, this feature can be activated by setting the style edit-previous
              in  the  context  :zle:widget  (for  example,  :zle:replace-string)  to  true.   In
              addition, a positive numeric argument forces the previous values to be  offered,  a
              negative or zero argument forces them not to be.

              The  function  replace-string-again can be used to repeat the previous replacement;
              no prompting is done.  As with replace-string, if the name of the  widget  contains
              the word `pattern' or `regex', pattern or regular expression matching is performed,
              else a literal string replacement.  Note that the previous source  and  replacement
              text are the same whether pattern, regular expression or string matching is used.

              In  addition,  replace-string  shows  the previous replacement above the prompt, so
              long as there was one during the current session; if the source  string  is  empty,
              that  replacement  will  be repeated without the widget prompting for a replacement

              For example, starting from the line:

                     print This line contains fan and fond

              and invoking replace-pattern with the source string  `f(?)n'  and  the  replacement
              string `c\1r' produces the not very useful line:

                     print This line contains car and cord

              The   range   of   the   replacement   string   can   be   limited   by  using  the
              narrow-to-region-invisible widget.  One limitation of the current version  is  that
              undo  will  cycle  through  changes  to  the  replacement and source strings before
              undoing the replacement itself.

              This is similar to read-from-minibuffer in that it may be called as a function from
              a  widget  or  as  a  widget  of  its  own,  and interactively reads input from the
              keyboard.  However, the input being typed is concealed and a  string  of  asterisks
              (`*')  is shown instead.  The value is saved in the parameter $INVISIBLE to which a
              reference is inserted into the editing buffer at the restored cursor position.   If
              the  read  was  aborted  by  a keyboard break (typically ^G) or another escape from
              editing such as push-line, $INVISIBLE is set to empty and the  original  buffer  is
              restored unchanged.

              If  one  argument  is  supplied  to the function it is taken as a prompt, otherwise
              `Non-echoed text: ' is used (as in emacs).  If a  second  and  third  argument  are
              supplied  they  are  used  to  begin  and  end  the reference to $INVISIBLE that is
              inserted into the buffer.  The default is to open  with  ${,  then  INVISIBLE,  and
              close with }, but many other effects are possible.

              This function may replace the insert-last-word widget, like so:

                     zle -N insert-last-word smart-insert-last-word

              With a numeric prefix, or when passed command line arguments in a call from another
              widget, it behaves like insert-last-word, except that words in comments are ignored
              when INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS is set.

              Otherwise,  the  rightmost  ``interesting'' word from the previous command is found
              and inserted.  The default definition of ``interesting'' is that the word  contains
              at  least  one  alphabetic  character, slash, or backslash.  This definition may be
              overridden by use of the match style.  The context used to look up the style is the
              widget  name,  so  usually the context is :insert-last-word.  However, you can bind
              this function to different widgets to use different patterns:

                     zle -N insert-last-assignment smart-insert-last-word
                     zstyle :insert-last-assignment match '[[:alpha:]][][[:alnum:]]#=*'
                     bindkey '\e=' insert-last-assignment

              If no interesting word is found and the auto-previous style is set to a true value,
              the  search  continues  upward through the history.  When auto-previous is unset or
              false (the default), the widget must be  invoked  repeatedly  in  order  to  search
              earlier history lines.

              Only  useful  with a multi-line editing buffer; the lines here are lines within the
              current on-screen buffer, not history lines.  The effect is similar to the function
              of the same name in Emacs.

              Transpose  the current line with the previous line and move the cursor to the start
              of the next line.  Repeating this (which  can  be  done  by  providing  a  positive
              numeric prefix argument) has the effect of moving the line above the cursor down by
              a number of lines.

              With a negative numeric prefix argument,  requires  two  lines  above  the  cursor.
              These  two  lines  are transposed and the cursor moved to the start of the previous
              line.  Using a numeric prefix less than -1 has the effect of moving the line  above
              the cursor up by minus that number of lines.

              This  function  is  a drop-in replacement for the builtin widget which-command.  It
              has enhanced behaviour, in that it correctly detects whether  or  not  the  command
              word needs to be expanded as an alias; if so, it continues tracing the command word
              from the expanded alias until it reaches the command that will be executed.

              The style whence is available in the context :zle:$WIDGET; this may be  set  to  an
              array  to give the command and options that will be used to investigate the command
              word found.  The default is whence -c.

   Utility Functions
       These functions are useful in constructing widgets.  They should be loaded with  `autoload
       -U function' and called as indicated from user-defined widgets.

              This  function  splits  the  line  currently  being edited into shell arguments and
              whitespace.  The result is stored in the array reply.  The array contains  all  the
              parts of the line in order, starting with any whitespace before the first argument,
              and finishing with any whitespace after the last argument.  Hence (so long  as  the
              option  KSH_ARRAYS  is not set) whitespace is given by odd indices in the array and
              arguments by even indices.  Note that no  stripping  of  quotes  is  done;  joining
              together  all  the elements of reply in order is guaranteed to produce the original

              The parameter REPLY is set to the index of the word in  reply  which  contains  the
              character  after  the  cursor,  where the first element has index 1.  The parameter
              REPLY2 is set to the index of the character under the cursor in  that  word,  where
              the first character has index 1.

              Hence reply, REPLY and REPLY2 should all be made local to the enclosing function.

              See the function modify-current-argument, described below, for an example of how to
              call this function.

       modify-current-argument expr-using-$ARG
              This function provides a simple method of allowing user-defined widgets  to  modify
              the  command  line  argument  under  the  cursor (or immediately to the left of the
              cursor if the cursor is between arguments).  The argument should be  an  expression
              which  when evaluated operates on the shell parameter ARG, which will have been set
              to the command line argument under the cursor.  The expression should  be  suitably
              quoted to prevent it being evaluated too early.

              For  example,  a  user-defined  widget  containing  the following code converts the
              characters in the argument under the cursor into all upper case:

                     modify-current-argument '${(U)ARG}'

              The following strips any quoting from the current word (whether backslashes or  one
              of the styles of quotes), and replaces it with single quoting throughout:

                     modify-current-argument '${(qq)${(Q)ARG}}'

       The  behavior  of  several of the above widgets can be controlled by the use of the zstyle
       mechanism.  In particular, widgets that interact with the  completion  system  pass  along
       their context to any completions that they invoke.

              This  style  is used by the incremental-complete-word widget. Its value should be a
              pattern, and all  keys  matching  this  pattern  will  cause  the  widget  to  stop
              incremental  completion  without the key having any further effect. Like all styles
              used directly by incremental-complete-word, this  style  is  looked  up  using  the
              context `:incremental'.

              The incremental-complete-word and insert-and-predict widgets set up their top-level
              context name before calling completion.  This allows one to define  different  sets
              of  completer  functions for normal completion and for these widgets.  For example,
              to use completion, approximation and correction for normal  completion,  completion
              and  correction  for  incremental completion and only completion for prediction one
              could use:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct _approximate
                     zstyle ':completion:incremental:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct
                     zstyle ':completion:predict:*' completer \

              It is a good idea to restrict the completers used in prediction, because  they  may
              be  automatically invoked as you type.  The _list and _menu completers should never
              be  used  with  prediction.   The  _approximate,  _correct,  _expand,  and   _match
              completers  may  be  used, but be aware that they may change characters anywhere in
              the word behind the cursor, so you need to watch carefully that the result is  what
              you intended.

       cursor The insert-and-predict widget uses this style, in the context `:predict', to decide
              where to place the cursor after completion has been tried.  Values are:

                     The cursor is left where it was when completion finished, but only if it  is
                     after  a  character  equal  to  the one just inserted by the user.  If it is
                     after another character, this value is the same as `key'.

              key    The cursor is left after the nth occurrence of the character just  inserted,
                     where  n  is  the number of times that character appeared in the word before
                     completion was attempted.  In short, this has  the  effect  of  leaving  the
                     cursor  after the character just typed even if the completion code found out
                     that no other characters need to be inserted at that position.

              Any other value for this style unconditionally leaves the cursor  at  the  position
              where the completion code left it.

       list   When  using  the  incremental-complete-word  widget, this style says if the matches
              should be listed on every key press (if they fit on the screen).  Use  the  context
              prefix `:completion:incremental'.

              The insert-and-predict widget uses this style to decide if the completion should be
              shown even if there is only one possible completion.  This is done if the value  of
              this  style  is  the  string  always.   In this case the context is `:predict' (not

       match  This style is used by smart-insert-last-word  to  provide  a  pattern  (using  full
              EXTENDED_GLOB syntax) that matches an interesting word.  The context is the name of
              the widget to which smart-insert-last-word  is  bound  (see  above).   The  default
              behavior of smart-insert-last-word is equivalent to:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:]/\\]*'

              However, you might want to include words that contain spaces:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:][:space:]/\\]*'

              Or include numbers as long as the word is at least two characters long:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*([[:digit:]]?|[[:alpha:]/\\])*'

              The above example causes redirections like "2>" to be included.

       prompt The  incremental-complete-word  widget  shows the value of this style in the status
              line during incremental completion.  The  string  value  may  contain  any  of  the
              following substrings in the manner of the PS1 and other prompt parameters:

              %c     Replaced  by  the  name of the completer function that generated the matches
                     (without the leading underscore).

              %l     When the list style is set, replaced by `...' if the list of matches is  too
                     long  to  fit on the screen and with an empty string otherwise.  If the list
                     style is `false' or not set, `%l' is always removed.

              %n     Replaced by the number of matches generated.

              %s     Replaced by `-no match-', `-no prefix-', or an empty string if there  is  no
                     completion  matching  the  word  on  the line, if the matches have no common
                     prefix different from the word on the line, or if there  is  such  a  common
                     prefix, respectively.

              %u     Replaced  by the unambiguous part of all matches, if there is any, and if it
                     is different from the word on the line.

              Like `break-keys', this uses the `:incremental' context.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its value  is  treated
              similarly  to  the  one  for  the  break-keys  style  (and  uses  the same context:
              `:incremental').  However, in this case all keys matching the pattern given as  its
              value will stop incremental completion and will then execute their usual function.

       toggle This  boolean  style  is  used by predict-on and its related widgets in the context
              `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard  `true'  values,  predictive  typing  is
              automatically  toggled off in situations where it is unlikely to be useful, such as
              when editing a multi-line buffer or after moving into the middle of a line and then
              deleting  a  character.   The  default  is  to  leave prediction turned on until an
              explicit call to predict-off.

              This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related  widgets  in  the  context
              `:predict'.   If  set to one of the standard `true' values, these widgets display a
              message below the prompt when the predictive state is toggled.  This is most useful
              in combination with the toggle style.  The default does not display these messages.

       widget This  style  is  similar to the command style: For widget functions that use zle to
              call other widgets, this style can sometimes be used to override the  widget  which
              is  called.   The context for this style is the name of the calling widget (not the
              name of the calling function, because one function may be bound to multiple  widget

                     zstyle :copy-earlier-word widget smart-insert-last-word

              Check the documentation for the calling widget or function to determine whether the
              widget style is used.


       Two functions are provided to enable zsh to provide exception  handling  in  a  form  that
       should be familiar from other languages.

       throw exception
              The function throw throws the named exception.  The name is an arbitrary string and
              is only used by the throw and catch functions.  An exception is for the  most  part
              treated the same as a shell error, i.e. an unhandled exception will cause the shell
              to abort all processing in a function or script and to return to the top  level  in
              an interactive shell.

       catch exception-pattern
              The  function  catch returns status zero if an exception was thrown and the pattern
              exception-pattern   matches   its   name.    Otherwise   it   returns   status   1.
              exception-pattern  is  a  standard shell pattern, respecting the current setting of
              the EXTENDED_GLOB option.  An alias catch is also defined to prevent  the  argument
              to  the  function  from matching filenames, so patterns may be used unquoted.  Note
              that as exceptions are not fundamentally different from other shell  errors  it  is
              possible to catch shell errors by using an empty string as the exception name.  The
              shell variable CAUGHT is set by catch to the name of the exception caught.   It  is
              possible  to  rethrow  an  exception  by  calling  the throw function again once an
              exception has been caught.

       The functions are designed to be used together with  the  always  construct  described  in
       zshmisc(1).   This  is  important as only this construct provides the required support for
       exceptions.  A typical example is as follows.

                # "try" block
                # ... nested code here calls "throw MyExcept"
              } always {
                # "always" block
                if catch MyExcept; then
                  print "Caught exception MyExcept"
                elif catch ''; then
                  print "Caught a shell error.  Propagating..."
                  throw ''
                # Other exceptions are not handled but may be caught further
                # up the call stack.

       If all exceptions should be caught, the following idiom might be preferable.

                # ... nested code here throws an exception
              } always {
                if catch *; then
                  case $CAUGHT in
                    print "Caught my own exception"
                    print "Caught some other exception"

       In common with exception handling in other languages, the exception may be thrown by  code
       deeply  nested  inside  the  `try' block.  However, note that it must be thrown inside the
       current shell, not in a  subshell  forked  for  a  pipeline,  parenthesised  current-shell
       construct, or some form of command or process substitution.

       The  system  internally  uses  the  shell  variable  EXCEPTION  to  record the name of the
       exception between throwing and catching.  One drawback of  this  scheme  is  that  if  the
       exception  is  not  handled  the  variable  EXCEPTION  remains  set and may be incorrectly
       recognised as the name of an exception if a shell error subsequently occurs.  Adding unset
       EXCEPTION  at  the  start  of the outermost layer of any code that uses exception handling
       will eliminate this problem.


       Three functions are available to provide handling of files recognised  by  extension,  for
       example to dispatch a file when executed as a command to an appropriate viewer.

       zsh-mime-setup [ -fv ] [ -l [ suffix ... ] ]
       zsh-mime-handler [-l] command arguments ...
              These  two  functions  use  the  files  ~/.mime.types  and  /etc/mime.types,  which
              associate types and extensions, as well as ~/.mailcap and /etc/mailcap files, which
              associate  types  and  the  programs  that handle them.  These are provided on many
              systems with the Multimedia Internet Mail Extensions.

              To enable the system, the function zsh-mime-setup should  be  autoloaded  and  run.
              This  allows  files  with  extensions  to  be  treated as executable; such files be
              completed by the function completion system.  The function zsh-mime-handler  should
              not need to be called by the user.

              The  system  works  by  setting  up suffix aliases with `alias -s'.  Suffix aliases
              already installed by the user will not be overwritten.

              For suffixes defined in lower case, upper case variants will also automatically  be
              handled  (e.g.  PDF  is  automatically  handled  if  handling for the suffix pdf is
              defined), but not vice versa.

              Repeated calls to zsh-mime-setup do  not  override  the  existing  mapping  between
              suffixes  and  executable files unless the option -f is given.  Note, however, that
              this does not override existing suffix aliases  assigned  to  handlers  other  than

              Calling  zsh-mime-setup  with  the  option  -l  lists the existing mappings without
              altering them.  Suffixes to list (which may contain pattern characters that  should
              be  quoted  from  immediate  interpretation  on  the  command line) may be given as
              additional arguments, otherwise all suffixes are listed.

              Calling zsh-mime-setup with the option -v causes verbose output to be shown  during
              the setup operation.

              The  system  respects  the  mailcap  flags  needsterminal  and  copiousoutput,  see

              The functions use the following styles, which are defined with the  zstyle  builtin
              command  (see zshmodules(1)).  They should be defined before zsh-mime-setup is run.
              The contexts used all start with :mime:, with additional components in some  cases.
              It is recommended that a trailing * (suitably quoted) be appended to style patterns
              in case the system is extended in future.  Some examples are given below.

              For files that have multiple suffixes, e.g. .pdf.gz, where the context includes the
              suffix it will be looked up starting with the longest possible suffix until a match
              for the style is found.  For example, if .pdf.gz produces a match for the  handler,
              that will be used; otherwise the handler for .gz will be used.  Note that, owing to
              the way suffix aliases work, it is always required that there be a handler for  the
              shortest  possible suffix, so in this example .pdf.gz can only be handled if .gz is
              also handled (though not necessarily  in  the  same  way).   Alternatively,  if  no
              handling for .gz on its own is needed, simply adding the command

                     alias -s gz=zsh-mime-handler

              to  the  initialisation code is sufficient; .gz will not be handled on its own, but
              may be in combination with other suffixes.

                     If this boolean style is true,  the  mailcap  handler  for  the  context  in
                     question  is  run  using  the  eval  builtin instead of by starting a new sh
                     process.  This is more efficient, but may not work in the  occasional  cases
                     where the mailcap handler uses strict POSIX syntax.

                     This  style  gives a list of patterns to be matched against files passed for
                     execution with a handler program.  If the  file  matches  the  pattern,  the
                     entire  command line is executed in its current form, with no handler.  This
                     is useful for files which might have suffixes but nonetheless be  executable
                     in their own right.  If the style is not set, the pattern *(*) *(/) is used;
                     hence executable files are executed directly and not passed  to  a  handler,
                     and  the  option AUTO_CD may be used to change to directories that happen to
                     have MIME suffixes.

                     Used if the style find-file-in-path is true for the same context.  Set to an
                     array of directories that are used for searching for the file to be handled;
                     the default is the command path given by the special  parameter  path.   The
                     shell  option  PATH_DIRS  is respected; if that is set, the appropriate path
                     will be searched even if the name of the file to be handled as it appears on
                     the  command  line  contains  a `/'.  The full context is :mime:.suffix:, as
                     described for the style handler.

                     If set, allows files whose  names  do  not  contain  absolute  paths  to  be
                     searched  for  in  the  command  path or the path specified by the file-path
                     style.  If the file is not found in the  path,  it  is  looked  for  locally
                     (whether  or  not  the current directory is in the path); if it is not found
                     locally, the handler will abort unless the handle-nonexistent style is  set.
                     Files found in the path are tested as described for the style execute-as-is.
                     The full context is :mime:.suffix:, as described for the style handler.

              flags  Defines flags to go with a handler; the context is as for the handler style,
                     and the format is as for the flags in mailcap.

                     By  default,  arguments that don't correspond to files are not passed to the
                     MIME handler in order to prevent it from intercepting commands found in  the
                     path  that  happen  to  have suffixes.  This style may be set to an array of
                     extended glob patterns for arguments that will be passed to the handler even
                     if  they  don't  exist.   If  it  is  not  explicitly  set  it  defaults  to
                     [[:alpha:]]#:/* which allows URLs to be passed  to  the  MIME  handler  even
                     though they don't exist in that format in the file system.  The full context
                     is :mime:.suffix:, as described for the style handler.

                     Specifies a handler for a suffix; the suffix is  given  by  the  context  as
                     :mime:.suffix:,  and  the  format of the handler is exactly that in mailcap.
                     Note in particular the `.' and trailing colon to distinguish this use of the
                     context.  This overrides any handler specified by the mailcap files.  If the
                     handler requires a terminal, the flags style should be set  to  include  the
                     word needsterminal, or if the output is to be displayed through a pager (but
                     not if the handler is itself a pager), it should include copiousoutput.

                     A list of files in the format of ~/.mailcap  and  /etc/mailcap  to  be  read
                     during  setup, replacing the default list which consists of those two files.
                     The context is :mime:.  A + in the list will  be  replaced  by  the  default

                     This  style  is  used  to resolve multiple mailcap entries for the same MIME
                     type.  It consists of an array of  the  following  elements,  in  descending
                     order  of priority; later entries will be used if earlier entries are unable
                     to resolve the entries being compared.  If none of  the  tests  resolve  the
                     entries, the first entry encountered is retained.

                     files  The  order  of  files  (entries  in the mailcap style) read.  Earlier
                            files are preferred.  (Note this does not resolve entries in the same

                            The priority flag from the mailcap entry.  The priority is an integer
                            from 0 to 9 with the default value being 5.

                     flags  The test given by the mailcap-prio-flags option is  used  to  resolve

                     place  Later  entries  are  preferred;  as the entries are strictly ordered,
                            this test always succeeds.

                     Note that as this style is handled during  initialisation,  the  context  is
                     always :mime:, with no discrimination by suffix.

                     This  style  is  used  when  the keyword flags is encountered in the list of
                     tests specified by the mailcap-priorities style.  It should be set to a list
                     of  patterns,  each  of  which  is tested against the flags specified in the
                     mailcap entry (in other words, the  sets  of  assignments  found  with  some
                     entries in the mailcap file).  Earlier patterns in the list are preferred to
                     later ones, and matched patterns are preferred to unmatched ones.

                     A list of files in the format of ~/.mime.types  and  /etc/mime.types  to  be
                     read  during  setup,  replacing the default list which consists of those two
                     files.  The context is :mime:.  A + in the list  will  be  replaced  by  the
                     default files.

                     If  this  boolean  style is set, the handler for the given context is always
                     run in the foreground, even if the  flags  provided  in  the  mailcap  entry
                     suggest it need not be (for example, it doesn't require a terminal).

              pager  If  set, will be used instead of $PAGER or more to handle suffixes where the
                     copiousoutput  flag  is  set.   The  context  is  as   for   handler,   i.e.
                     :mime:.suffix: for handling a file with the given suffix.


                     zstyle ':mime:*' mailcap ~/.mailcap /usr/local/etc/mailcap
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' handler less %s
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' flags needsterminal

              When  zsh-mime-setup  is  subsequently run, it will look for mailcap entries in the
              two files given.  Files of suffix .txt will be handled by running `less  file.txt'.
              The  flag  needsterminal  is  set  to show that this program must run attached to a

              As there are several steps to  dispatching  a  command,  the  following  should  be
              checked  if  attempting  to  execute  a  file  by  extension .ext does not have the
              expected effect.

              The command  `alias  -s  ext'  should  show  `ps=zsh-mime-handler'.   If  it  shows
              something else, another suffix alias was already installed and was not overwritten.
              If it shows nothing, no handler was installed:  this  is  most  likely  because  no
              handler  was  found  in the .mime.types and mailcap combination for .ext files.  In
              that case, appropriate handling should be added to ~/.mime.types and mailcap.

              If the extension is  handled  by  zsh-mime-handler  but  the  file  is  not  opened
              correctly,  either  the  handler  defined  for  the type is incorrect, or the flags
              associated with it are in appropriate.  Running zsh-mime-setup  -l  will  show  the
              handler  and,  if there are any, the flags.  A %s in the handler is replaced by the
              file (suitably quoted if necessary).  Check that the handler program  listed  lists
              and  can  be  run  in  the  way  shown.  Also check that the flags needsterminal or
              copiousoutput are set if the handler needs to be run under a terminal;  the  second
              flag  is  used  if  the output should be sent to a pager.  An example of a suitable
              mailcap entry for such a program is:

                     text/html; /usr/bin/lynx '%s'; needsterminal

              Running `zsh-mime-handler -l command line' prints the command line  that  would  be
              executed,  simplified  to  remove  the  effect of any flags, and quoted so that the
              output can be run as a complete zsh command line.  This is used by  the  completion
              system to decide how to complete after a file handled by zsh-mime-setup.

              This  function  is  separate from the two MIME functions described above and can be
              assigned directly to a suffix:

                     autoload -U pick-web-browser
                     alias -s html=pick-web-browser

              It is provided as an intelligent front end to dispatch a web browser.   It  may  be
              run  as  either  a  function  or  a shell script.  The status 255 is returned if no
              browser could be started.

              Various styles are available to customize the choice of browsers:

                     The value of the style is an array giving preferences  in  decreasing  order
                     for the type of browser to use.  The values of elements may be

                            Use a GUI browser that is already running when an X Window display is
                            available.  The browsers listed in the x-browsers style are tried  in
                            order  until  one  is  found; if it is, the file will be displayed in
                            that browser, so the user may need to check whether it has  appeared.
                            If  no  running browser is found, one is not started.  Browsers other
                            than Firefox, Opera and  Konqueror  are  assumed  to  understand  the
                            Mozilla syntax for opening a URL remotely.

                     x      Start  a  new  GUI  browser  when  an  X Window display is available.
                            Search for the availability of one of  the  browsers  listed  in  the
                            x-browsers  style and start the first one that is found.  No check is
                            made for an already running browser.

                     tty    Start a terminal-based browser.  Search for the availability  of  one
                            of  the browsers listed in the tty-browsers style and start the first
                            one that is found.

                     If the style is not set the default running x tty is used.

                     An array in decreasing order of preference of browsers to use  when  running
                     under  the  X  Window  System.  The array consists of the command name under
                     which to start the browser.  They are looked up in the context :mime: (which
                     may be extended in future, so appending `*' is recommended).  For example,

                            zstyle ':mime:*' x-browsers opera konqueror firefox

                     specifies  that pick-web-browser should first look for a running instance of
                     Opera, Konqueror or Firefox, in that order, and if  it  fails  to  find  any
                     should  attempt  to  start  Opera.   The default is firefox mozilla netscape
                     opera konqueror.

                     An array similar to x-browsers, except that it gives browsers to use when no
                     X Window display is available.  The default is elinks links lynx.

                     If  it is set this style is used to pick the command used to open a page for
                     a browser.  The  context  is  :mime:browser:new:$browser:  to  start  a  new
                     browser  or  :mime:browser:running:$browser:  to  open  a  URL  in a browser
                     already running on the current  X  display,  where  $browser  is  the  value
                     matched  in the x-browsers or tty-browsers style.  The escape sequence %b in
                     the style's value will be replaced by the browser, while %u will be replaced
                     by  the  URL.  If the style is not set, the default for all new instances is
                     equivalent to %b  %u  and  the  defaults  for  using  running  browsers  are
                     equivalent  to  the  values  kfmclient  openURL  %u  for  Konqueror, firefox
                     -new-tab %u for Firefox,  opera  -newpage  %u  for  Opera,  and  %b  -remote
                     "openUrl(%u)" for all others.


       zcalc [ expression ... ]
              A  reasonably  powerful  calculator  based on zsh's arithmetic evaluation facility.
              The syntax is similar to that of formulae in most programming  languages;  see  the
              section  `Arithmetic  Evaluation'  in  zshmisc(1)  for  details.   The mathematical
              library zsh/mathfunc will be loaded if  it  is  available;  see  the  section  `The
              zsh/mathfunc  Module'  in  zshmodules(1).  The mathematical functions correspond to
              the raw system libraries, so trigonometric functions are evaluated  using  radians,
              and so on.

              Each  line  typed  is evaluated as an expression.  The prompt shows a number, which
              corresponds to a positional parameter where  the  result  of  that  calculation  is
              stored.   For  example, the result of the calculation on the line preceded by `4> '
              is available as $4.  The last value calculated is available as ans.   Full  command
              line  editing,  including  the  history of previous calculations, is available; the
              history is saved in the file ~/.zcalc_history.  To exit, enter a blank line or type
              `:q' on its own (`q' is allowed for historical compatibility).

              If  arguments  are given to zcalc on start up, they are used to prime the first few
              positional parameters.  A visual indication of this is given  when  the  calculator

              The   constants  PI  (3.14159...)  and  E  (2.71828...)  are  provided.   Parameter
              assignment is possible, but note that all parameters will be put  into  the  global

              The  output  base  can  be  initialised by passing the option `-#base', for example
              `zcalc -#16' (the `#' may have to be quoted,  depending  on  the  globbing  options

              The  prompt is configurable via the parameter ZCALCPROMPT, which undergoes standard
              prompt expansion.  The index of the current entry is stored locally  in  the  first
              element  of the array psvar, which can be referred to in ZCALCPROMPT as `%1v'.  The
              default prompt is `%1v> '.

              A few special commands are  available;  these  are  introduced  by  a  colon.   For
              backward  compatibility, the colon may be omitted for certain commands.  Completion
              is available if compinit has been run.

              The output precision may be specified within zcalc  by  special  commands  familiar
              from many calculators.
              :norm  The  default  output format.  It corresponds to the printf %g specification.
                     Typically this shows six decimal digits.

              :sci digits
                     Scientific notation, corresponding to the printf %g output format  with  the
                     precision  given by digits.  This produces either fixed point or exponential
                     notation depending on the value output.

              :fix digits
                     Fixed point notation, corresponding to the printf %f output format with  the
                     precision given by digits.

              :eng digits
                     Exponential  notation, corresponding to the printf %E output format with the
                     precision given by digits.

              :raw   Raw output:  this is the default form of the output from a math  evaluation.
                     This may show more precision than the number actually possesses.

              Other special commands:
                     Execute line... as a normal shell command line.  Note that it is executed in
                     the context of the function, i.e. with local variables.  Space  is  optional
                     after :!.

              :local arg ...
                     Declare  variables  local  to the function.  Note that certain variables are
                     used by the function for its own purposes.  Other  variables  may  be  used,
                     too, but they will be taken from or put into the global scope.

              :function name [ body ]
                     Define a mathematical function or (with no body) delete it.  The function is
                     defined using zmathfuncdef, see below.

                     Note that zcalc takes care of all quoting.  Hence for example:

                            function cube $1 * $1 * $1

                     defines a function to cube the sole argument.

                     This is not a special command, rather  part  of  normal  arithmetic  syntax;
                     however, when this form appears on a line by itself the default output radix
                     is set to base.  Use, for example, `[#16]'  to  display  hexadecimal  output
                     preceded  by  an indication of the base, or `[##16]' just to display the raw
                     number in the given base.  Bases themselves are always specified in decimal.
                     `[#]'  restores  the normal output format.  Note that setting an output base
                     suppresses floating point output; use `[#]' to return to normal operation.

              See the comments in the function for a few extra tips.

       zmathfuncdef [ mathfunc [ body ] ]
              A convenient front end to functions -M.

              With two arguments, define a mathematical function named mathfunc which can be used
              in  any  form  of  arithmetic  evaluation.   body  is  a mathematical expression to
              implement the function.  It may contain references to position parameters  $1,  $2,
              ...   to refer to mandatory parameters and ${1:-defvalue} ...  to refer to optional
              parameters.  Note that the forms must be strictly adhered to for  the  function  to
              calculate  the  correct number of arguments.  The implementation is held in a shell
              function named zsh_math_func_mathfunc; usually the user will not need to  refer  to
              the  shell  function  directly.  Any existing function of the same name is silently

              With one argument, remove the mathematical function mathfunc as well as  the  shell
              function implementation.

              With no arguments, list all mathfunc functions in a form suitable for restoring the
              definition.  The functions have not necessarily been defined by zmathfuncdef.


       The zsh/newuser module comes with a function to aid in configuring shell options  for  new
       users.   If  the  module  is  installed,  this  function  can  also be run by hand.  It is
       available even if the module's default behaviour, namely running the function  for  a  new
       user logging in without startup files, is inhibited.

       zsh-newuser-install [ -f ]
              The  function  presents  the  user  with  various  options  for  customizing  their
              initialization scripts.  Currently only ~/.zshrc is  handled.   $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc  is
              used  instead  if the parameter ZDOTDIR is set; this provides a way for the user to
              configure a file without altering an existing .zshrc.

              By default the function exits immediately if it finds any  of  the  files  .zshenv,
              .zprofile,  .zshrc,  or  .zlogin  in  the  appropriate directory.  The option -f is
              required in order to force the function to continue.  Note this may happen even  if
              .zshrc itself does not exist.

              As  currently  configured,  the function will exit immediately if the user has root
              privileges; this behaviour cannot be overridden.

              Once activated, the function's behaviour is supposed to be self-explanatory.  Menus
              are  present  allowing  the  user  to  alter  the  value of options and parameters.
              Suggestions for improvements are always welcome.

              When the script exits, the user is given the opportunity to save the  new  file  or
              not; changes are not irreversible until this point.  However, the script is careful
              to restrict changes to the file only to a  group  marked  by  the  lines  `#  Lines
              configured   by   zsh-newuser-install'   and   `#   End   of  lines  configured  by
              zsh-newuser-install'.  In addition, the old version of .zshrc is saved  to  a  file
              with the suffix .zni appended.

              If  the  function edits an existing .zshrc, it is up to the user to ensure that the
              changes made will take effect.  For example, if control usually returns early  from
              the  existing .zshrc the lines will not be executed; or a later initialization file
              may override options or parameters, and  so  on.   The  function  itself  does  not
              attempt to detect any such conflicts.


       There  are  a large number of helpful functions in the Functions/Misc directory of the zsh
       distribution.  Most are very simple and do not require documentation here, but a  few  are
       worthy of special mention.

       colors This  function  initializes  several  associative arrays to map color names to (and
              from) the ANSI standard eight-color terminal codes.  These are used by  the  prompt
              theme system (see above).  You seldom should need to run colors more than once.

              The  eight  base  colors  are:  black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, and
              white.  Each of these has codes for foreground and background.  In  addition  there
              are  eight  intensity attributes: bold, faint, standout, underline, blink, reverse,
              and conceal.  Finally, there are six codes used to negate attributes:  none  (reset
              all  attributes  to  the  defaults),  normal (neither bold nor faint), no-standout,
              no-underline, no-blink, and no-reverse.

              Some terminals do not support all combinations of colors and intensities.

              The associative arrays are:

              colour Map all the color names to their integer codes, and  integer  codes  to  the
                     color  names.  The eight base names map to the foreground color codes, as do
                     names prefixed with `fg-', such as `fg-red'.   Names  prefixed  with  `bg-',
                     such  as `bg-blue', refer to the background codes.  The reverse mapping from
                     code to color yields base name for foreground codes and  the  bg-  form  for

                     Although  it  is a misnomer to call them `colors', these arrays also map the
                     other fourteen attributes from names to codes and codes to names.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape sequences  that  set
                     the  corresponding  foreground text properties.  The fg sequences change the
                     color without changing the eight intensity attributes.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape sequences  that  set
                     the  corresponding background properties.  The bg sequences change the color
                     without changing the eight intensity attributes.

              In addition, the scalar parameters reset_color and bold_color are set to  the  ANSI
              terminal  escapes  that  turn  off  all  attributes  and  turn  on  bold intensity,

       fned name
              Same as zed -f.  This function does not appear in the zsh distribution, but can  be
              created by linking zed to the name fned in some directory in your fpath.

       is-at-least needed [ present ]
              Perform a greater-than-or-equal-to comparison of two strings having the format of a
              zsh version number; that is, a string of numbers and text with  segments  separated
              by  dots  or  dashes.  If the present string is not provided, $ZSH_VERSION is used.
              Segments are paired left-to-right in the two strings with leading non-number  parts
              ignored.  If one string has fewer segments than the other, the missing segments are
              considered zero.

              This is useful in startup files to  set  options  and  other  state  that  are  not
              available in all versions of zsh.

                     is-at-least 3.1.6-15 && setopt NO_GLOBAL_RCS
                     is-at-least 3.1.0 && setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
                     is-at-least 2.6-17 || print "You can't use is-at-least here."

       nslookup [ arg ... ]
              This  wrapper  function  for the nslookup command requires the zsh/zpty module (see
              zshmodules(1)).  It behaves exactly like  the  standard  nslookup  except  that  it
              provides  customizable  prompts  (including  a right-side prompt) and completion of
              nslookup commands, host names, etc.  (if  you  use  the  function-based  completion
              system).     Completion    styles    may   be   set   with   the   context   prefix

              See also the pager, prompt and rprompt styles below.

       regexp-replace var regexp replace
              Use regular expressions to perform a global  search  and  replace  operation  on  a
              variable.   If  the  option  RE_MATCH_PCRE  is  not  set,  POSIX  extended  regular
              expressions are used, else Perl-compatible regular expressions (this  requires  the
              shell to be linked against the pcre library).

              var  is the name of the variable containing the string to be matched.  The variable
              will be modified directly by the function.   The  variables  MATCH,  MBEGIN,  MEND,
              match,  mbegin,  mend should be avoided as these are used by the regular expression

              regexp is the regular expression to match against the string.

              replace  is  the  replacement  text.   This  can  contain  parameter,  command  and
              arithmetic  expressions  which  will  be  replaced:   in particular, a reference to
              $MATCH will be replaced by the text matched by the pattern.

              The return status is 0 if at least one match was performed, else 1.

       run-help cmd
              This function is designed to be invoked by the run-help ZLE widget, in place of the
              default alias.  See `Accessing On-Line Help' above for setup instructions.

              In  the discussion which follows, if cmd is a file system path, it is first reduced
              to its rightmost component (the file name).

              Help is first sought by looking for a file named cmd in the directory named by  the
              HELPDIR  parameter.   If no file is found, an assistant function, alias, or command
              named run-help-cmd is sought.  If found, the assistant is executed with the rest of
              the  current command line (everything after the command name cmd) as its arguments.
              When neither file nor assistant is found, the external command `man cmd' is run.

              An example assistant for the "ssh" command:

                     run-help-ssh() {
                         emulate -LR zsh
                         local -a args
                         # Delete the "-l username" option
                         zparseopts -D -E -a args l:
                         # Delete other options, leaving: host command
                         if [[ ${#args} -lt 2 ]]; then
                             man ssh
                             run-help $args[2]

              Several of these assistants are provided in the  Functions/Misc  directory.   These
              must  be  autoloaded, or placed as executable scripts in your search path, in order
              to be found and used by run-help.

                     Assistant functions for the git, svk, and svn commands.

       tetris Zsh was once accused of not being as complete as Emacs, because it lacked a  Tetris
              game.  This function was written to refute this vicious slander.

              This function must be used as a ZLE widget:

                     autoload -U tetris
                     zle -N tetris
                     bindkey keys tetris

              To  start a game, execute the widget by typing the keys.  Whatever command line you
              were editing disappears temporarily, and your keymap is also  temporarily  replaced
              by  the  Tetris  control keys.  The previous editor state is restored when you quit
              the game (by pressing `q') or when you lose.

              If you quit in the middle of a game, the next invocation of the tetris widget  will
              continue where you left off.  If you lost, it will start a new game.

       zargs [ option ... -- ] [ input ... ] [ -- command [ arg ... ] ]
              This  function  works  like  GNU  xargs,  except  that  instead of reading lines of
              arguments from the standard input, it takes them from the command  line.   This  is
              useful because zsh, especially with recursive glob operators, often can construct a
              command line for a shell function that  is  longer  than  can  be  accepted  by  an
              external command.

              The  option list represents options of the zargs command itself, which are the same
              as those of xargs.  The input list is the collection of strings (often file  names)
              that become the arguments of the command, analogous to the standard input of xargs.
              Finally, the arg list consists of those arguments (usually options) that are passed
              to  the  command  each  time  it runs.  The arg list precedes the elements from the
              input list in each run.  If no command  is  provided,  then  no  arg  list  may  be
              provided, and in that event the default command is `print' with arguments `-r --'.

              For  example,  to get a long ls listing of all plain files in the current directory
              or its subdirectories:

                     autoload -U zargs
                     zargs -- **/*(.) -- ls -l

              Note that `--' is used both to mark the end of the option list and to mark the  end
              of  the  input  list, so it must appear twice whenever the input list may be empty.
              If there is guaranteed to be at least one input and the first input does not  begin
              with a `-', then the first `--' may be omitted.

              In  the event that the string `--' is or may be an input, the -e option may be used
              to  change  the  end-of-inputs  marker.   Note  that  this  does  not  change   the
              end-of-options marker.  For example, to use `..' as the marker:

                     zargs -e.. -- **/*(.) .. ls -l

              This  is a good choice in that example because no plain file can be named `..', but
              the best end-marker depends on the circumstances.

              For details of the other zargs options, see xargs(1) or run zargs with  the  --help

       zed [ -f ] name
       zed -b This function uses the ZLE editor to edit a file or function.

              Only one name argument is allowed.  If the -f option is given, the name is taken to
              be that of a function; if the function is marked for autoloading, zed searches  for
              it  in  the  fpath and loads it.  Note that functions edited this way are installed
              into the current shell, but not written back to the autoload file.

              Without -f, name is the path name of the file to edit, which need not exist; it  is
              created on write, if necessary.

              While  editing,  the function sets the main keymap to zed and the vi command keymap
              to zed-vicmd.  These will be copied from the existing main  and  vicmd  keymaps  if
              they  do  not exist the first time zed is run.  They can be used to provide special
              key bindings used only in zed.

              If it creates the keymap, zed rebinds the return key to insert  a  line  break  and
              `^X^W'  to  accept the edit in the zed keymap, and binds `ZZ' to accept the edit in
              the zed-vicmd keymap.

              The bindings alone can be installed by running `zed  -b'.   This  is  suitable  for
              putting into a startup file.  Note that, if rerun, this will overwrite the existing
              zed and zed-vicmd keymaps.

              Completion  is  available,  and  styles  may  be  set  with  the   context   prefix

              A  zle  widget  zed-set-file-name  is  available.   This can be called by name from
              within zed using `\ex zed-set-file-name' (note,  however,  that  because  of  zed's
              rebindings  you  will have to type ^j at the end instead of the return key), or can
              be bound to a key in either of the zed or zed-vicmd keymaps after `zed -b' has been
              run.   When  the  widget  is  called,  it prompts for a new name for the file being
              edited.  When zed exits the file will be written under that name and  the  original
              file will be left alone.  The widget has no effect with `zed -f'.

              While zed-set-file-name is running, zed uses the keymap zed-normal-keymap, which is
              linked from the main keymap in effect at the time  zed  initialised  its  bindings.
              (This  is to make the return key operate normally.)  The result is that if the main
              keymap has been changed, the widget won't notice.  This is not a concern  for  most

       zcp [ -finqQvwW ] srcpat dest
       zln [ -finqQsvwW ] srcpat dest
              Same  as zmv -C and zmv -L, respectively.  These functions do not appear in the zsh
              distribution, but can be created by linking zmv to the names zcp and  zln  in  some
              directory in your fpath.

       zkbd   See `Keyboard Definition' above.

       zmv [ -finqQsvwW ] [ -C | -L | -M | -p program ] [ -o optstring ] srcpat dest
              Move  (usually,  rename)  files  matching the pattern srcpat to corresponding files
              having names  of  the  form  given  by  dest,  where  srcpat  contains  parentheses
              surrounding  patterns  which  will be replaced in turn by $1, $2, ... in dest.  For

                     zmv '(*).lis' '$1.txt'

              renames `foo.lis' to `foo.txt', `my.old.stuff.lis' to  `my.old.stuff.txt',  and  so

              The  pattern is always treated as an EXTENDED_GLOB pattern.  Any file whose name is
              not changed by the substitution is  simply  ignored.   Any  error  (a  substitution
              resulted  in  an  empty  string,  two  substitutions  gave  the  same  result,  the
              destination was an existing regular file and -f was not given)  causes  the  entire
              function to abort without doing anything.


              -f     Force  overwriting  of  destination files.  Not currently passed down to the
                     mv/cp/ln command due to vagaries of implementations (but you can use -o-f to
                     do that).
              -i     Interactive:  show  each  line  to  be  executed and ask the user whether to
                     execute it.  `Y' or `y' will execute it, anything else will skip  it.   Note
                     that you just need to type one character.
              -n     No execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.
              -q     Turn  bare  glob  qualifiers  off:  now  assumed  by default, so this has no
              -Q     Force bare glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless you  are  actually
                     using glob qualifiers in a pattern.
              -s     Symbolic, passed down to ln; only works with -L.
              -v     Verbose: print each command as it's being executed.
              -w     Pick  out  wildcard parts of the pattern, as described above, and implicitly
                     add parentheses for referring to them.
              -W     Just like -w, with the addition of  turning  wildcards  in  the  replacement
                     pattern into sequential ${1} .. ${N} references.
              -M     Force cp, ln or mv, respectively, regardless of the name of the function.
              -p program
                     Call  program instead of cp, ln or mv.  Whatever it does, it should at least
                     understand the form `program -- oldname newname' where oldname  and  newname
                     are filenames generated by zmv.
              -o optstring
                     The  optstring is split into words and passed down verbatim to the cp, ln or
                     mv command called to perform the work.  It should probably begin with a `-'.

              Further examples:

                     zmv -v '(* *)' '${1// /_}'

              For any file in the current directory with at least one space in the name,  replace
              every space by an underscore and display the commands executed.

              For  more  complete  examples  and other implementation details, see the zmv source
              file, usually located in one  of  the  directories  named  in  your  fpath,  or  in
              Functions/Misc/zmv in the zsh distribution.

              See `Recompiling Functions' above.

       zstyle+ context style value [ + subcontext style value ... ]
              This  makes  defining styles a bit simpler by using a single `+' as a special token
              that allows you to append a context name to the previously used context name.  Like

                     zstyle+ ':foo:bar' style1 value1 \
                           + ':baz'     style2 value2 \
                           + ':frob'    style3 value3

              This  defines `style1' with `value1' for the context :foo:bar as usual, but it also
              defines `style2' with `value2' for  the  context  :foo:bar:baz  and  `style3'  with
              `value3'  for  :foo:bar:frob.  Any subcontext may be the empty string to re-use the
              first context unchanged.

              The zed function sets  this  style  in  context  `:completion:zed:*'  to  turn  off
              completion  when TAB is typed at the beginning of a line.  You may override this by
              setting your own value for this context and style.

       pager  The nslookup function looks up this style in the context `:nslookup'  to  determine
              the program used to display output that does not fit on a single screen.

              The  nslookup  function  looks  up this style in the context `:nslookup' to set the
              prompt and the right-side prompt, respectively.  The usual expansions for  the  PS1
              and RPS1 parameters may be used (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).