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NAME

       zshzle - zsh command line editor

DESCRIPTION

       If  the  ZLE  option  is  set (which it is by default in interactive shells) and the shell
       input is attached to the terminal, the user is able to edit command lines.

       There are two display modes.  The first, multiline mode, is the default.  It only works if
       the  TERM  parameter  is  set  to  a valid terminal type that can move the cursor up.  The
       second, single line mode, is used if TERM is invalid or incapable of moving the cursor up,
       or if the SINGLE_LINE_ZLE option is set.  This mode is similar to ksh, and uses no termcap
       sequences.  If TERM is "emacs", the ZLE option will be unset by default.

       The parameters BAUD, COLUMNS, and LINES are also used by the line editor.  See  Parameters
       Used By The Shell in zshparam(1).

       The  parameter  zle_highlight  is also used by the line editor; see Character Highlighting
       below.  Highlighting of special characters and the region between the cursor and the  mark
       (as set with set-mark-command in Emacs mode) is enabled by default; consult this reference
       for more information.  Irascible conservatives will wish to know that all highlighting may
       be disabled by the following setting:

              zle_highlight=(none)

KEYMAPS

       A  keymap  in  ZLE contains a set of bindings between key sequences and ZLE commands.  The
       empty key sequence cannot be bound.

       There can be any number of keymaps at any time, and each keymap has one or more names.  If
       all  of  a  keymap's  names are deleted, it disappears.  bindkey can be used to manipulate
       keymap names.

       Initially, there are six keymaps:

       emacs  EMACS emulation
       viins  vi emulation - insert mode
       vicmd  vi emulation - command mode
       isearch
              incremental search mode
       command
              read a command name
       .safe  fallback keymap

       The `.safe' keymap is special.  It can never  be  altered,  and  the  name  can  never  be
       removed.   However,  it can be linked to other names, which can be removed.  In the future
       other special keymaps may be added; users should avoid using names beginning with `.'  for
       their own keymaps.

       In  addition  to these names, either `emacs' or `viins' is also linked to the name `main'.
       If one of the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables contain  the  string  `vi'  when  the
       shell  starts  up then it will be `viins', otherwise it will be `emacs'.  bindkey's -e and
       -v options provide a convenient way to override this default choice.

       When the editor starts up, it will select the  `main'  keymap.   If  that  keymap  doesn't
       exist, it will use `.safe' instead.

       In  the `.safe' keymap, each single key is bound to self-insert, except for ^J (line feed)
       and ^M (return) which are bound to accept-line.  This is deliberately not pleasant to use;
       if you are using it, it means you deleted the main keymap, and you should put it back.

   Reading Commands
       When  ZLE  is reading a command from the terminal, it may read a sequence that is bound to
       some command and is also a prefix of a longer bound string.  In this case ZLE will wait  a
       certain  time  to  see  if  more characters are typed, and if not (or they don't match any
       longer string) it will execute the binding.  This timeout is  defined  by  the  KEYTIMEOUT
       parameter; its default is 0.4 sec.  There is no timeout if the prefix string is not itself
       bound to a command.

       The key timeout is also applied when ZLE is reading the bytes from a  multibyte  character
       string  when  it  is  in the appropriate mode.  (This requires that the shell was compiled
       with multibyte mode enabled; typically also the  locale  has  characters  with  the  UTF-8
       encoding, although any multibyte encoding known to the operating system is supported.)  If
       the second or a subsequent byte is not read within the timeout period, the shell  acts  as
       if ? were typed and resets the input state.

       As  well  as  ZLE commands, key sequences can be bound to other strings, by using `bindkey
       -s'.  When such a sequence is read, the replacement string is pushed back  as  input,  and
       the  command  reading  process  starts  again using these fake keystrokes.  This input can
       itself invoke further replacement strings, but in order to detect loops the  process  will
       be stopped if there are twenty such replacements without a real command being read.

       A key sequence typed by the user can be turned into a command name for use in user-defined
       widgets with the read-command widget, described below.

ZLE BUILTINS

       The ZLE module contains three related builtin commands. The  bindkey  command  manipulates
       keymaps and key bindings; the vared command invokes ZLE on the value of a shell parameter;
       and the zle command manipulates editing widgets and allows  command  line  access  to  ZLE
       commands from within shell functions.

       bindkey [ options ] -l [ -L ] [ keymap ... ]
       bindkey [ options ] -d
       bindkey [ options ] -D keymap ...
       bindkey [ options ] -A old-keymap new-keymap
       bindkey [ options ] -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
       bindkey [ options ] -m
       bindkey [ options ] -r in-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] -s in-string out-string ...
       bindkey [ options ] in-string command ...
       bindkey [ options ] [ in-string ]
              bindkey's  options  can  be divided into three categories: keymap selection for the
              current command, operation selection, and others.   The  keymap  selection  options
              are:

              -e     Selects  keymap  `emacs' for any operations by the current command, and also
                     links `emacs' to `main' so that it is selected by default the next time  the
                     editor starts.

              -v     Selects  keymap  `viins' for any operations by the current command, and also
                     links `viins' to `main' so that it is selected by default the next time  the
                     editor starts.

              -a     Selects keymap `vicmd' for any operations by the current command.

              -M keymap
                     The  keymap  specifies  a keymap name that is selected for any operations by
                     the current command.

              If a keymap selection is required and none of  the  options  above  are  used,  the
              `main'  keymap  is  used.   Some  operations do not permit a keymap to be selected,
              namely:

              -l     List all existing keymap names; if any arguments are given, list just  those
                     keymaps.

                     If  the  -L  option  is  also  used, list in the form of bindkey commands to
                     create or link the keymaps.  `bindkey -lL main' shows which keymap is linked
                     to  `main',  if  any,  and hence if the standard emacs or vi emulation is in
                     effect.  This option does not show the .safe keymap  because  it  cannot  be
                     created in that fashion; however, neither is `bindkey -lL .safe' reported as
                     an error, it simply outputs nothing.

              -d     Delete all existing keymaps and reset to the default state.

              -D keymap ...
                     Delete the named keymaps.

              -A old-keymap new-keymap
                     Make the new-keymap name an alias for old-keymap, so that both  names  refer
                     to  the  same  keymap.  The names have equal standing; if either is deleted,
                     the other remains.  If there is already a keymap with the  new-keymap  name,
                     it is deleted.

              -N new-keymap [ old-keymap ]
                     Create  a  new keymap, named new-keymap.  If a keymap already has that name,
                     it is  deleted.   If  an  old-keymap  name  is  given,  the  new  keymap  is
                     initialized to be a duplicate of it, otherwise the new keymap will be empty.

              To  use a newly created keymap, it should be linked to main.  Hence the sequence of
              commands to create and use a new keymap `mymap' initialized from the  emacs  keymap
              (which remains unchanged) is:

                     bindkey -N mymap emacs
                     bindkey -A mymap main

              Note  that  while `bindkey -A newmap main' will work when newmap is emacs or viins,
              it will not work for vicmd, as switching from vi insert  to  command  mode  becomes
              impossible.

              The following operations act on the `main' keymap if no keymap selection option was
              given:

              -m     Add the built-in set of meta-key bindings to the selected keymap.  Only keys
                     that are unbound or bound to self-insert are affected.

              -r in-string ...
                     Unbind  the  specified  in-strings  in the selected keymap.  This is exactly
                     equivalent to binding the strings to undefined-key.

                     When -R is also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

                     When -p is also used, the in-strings specify prefixes.  Any binding that has
                     the given in-string as a prefix, not including the binding for the in-string
                     itself, if any, will be removed.  For example,

                            bindkey -rpM viins '^['

                     will remove all bindings in the vi-insert keymap beginning  with  an  escape
                     character  (probably  cursor  keys),  but  leave  the binding for the escape
                     character itself (probably vi-cmd-mode).   This  is  incompatible  with  the
                     option -R.

              -s in-string out-string ...
                     Bind each in-string to each out-string.  When in-string is typed, out-string
                     will be pushed back and treated as input to the line  editor.   When  -R  is
                     also used, interpret the in-strings as ranges.

              in-string command ...
                     Bind  each  in-string  to  each  command.   When  -R  is used, interpret the
                     in-strings as ranges.

              [ in-string ]
                     List key bindings.  If an in-string is specified, the binding of that string
                     in  the  selected  keymap  is displayed.  Otherwise, all key bindings in the
                     selected keymap are displayed.  (As a special case, if the -e or  -v  option
                     is used alone, the keymap is not displayed - the implicit linking of keymaps
                     is the only thing that happens.)

                     When the option -p is used, the in-string  must  be  present.   The  listing
                     shows  all  bindings  which  have  the  given  key sequence as a prefix, not
                     including any bindings for the key sequence itself.

                     When the -L option is used, the list is in the form of bindkey  commands  to
                     create the key bindings.

       When  the -R option is used as noted above, a valid range consists of two characters, with
       an optional `-' between them.  All characters between the two  specified,  inclusive,  are
       bound as specified.

       For either in-string or out-string, the following escape sequences are recognised:

       \a     bell character
       \b     backspace
       \e, \E escape
       \f     form feed
       \n     linefeed (newline)
       \r     carriage return
       \t     horizontal tab
       \v     vertical tab
       \NNN   character code in octal
       \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
       \M[-]X character with meta bit set
       \C[-]X control character
       ^X     control character

       In all other cases, `\' escapes the following character.  Delete is written as `^?'.  Note
       that `\M^?' and `^\M?' are not the same, and that (unlike emacs), the bindings `\M-X'  and
       `\eX'  are  entirely  distinct,  although  they  are  initialized  to the same bindings by
       `bindkey -m'.

       vared [ -Aache ] [ -p prompt ] [ -r rprompt ]
         [ -M main-keymap ] [ -m vicmd-keymap ]
         [ -t tty ] name
              The value of the parameter name is loaded into the edit buffer, and the line editor
              is invoked.  When the editor exits, name is set to the string value returned by the
              editor.  When the -c flag is given, the parameter is created if it doesn't  already
              exist.   The  -a  flag may be given with -c to create an array parameter, or the -A
              flag to create an associative array.  If the type of an existing parameter does not
              match the type to be created, the parameter is unset and recreated.

              If an array or array slice is being edited, separator characters as defined in $IFS
              will be shown quoted with a backslash, as will backslashes themselves.  Conversely,
              when  the  edited  text  is  split into an array, a backslash quotes an immediately
              following  separator  character  or  backslash;  no  other  special   handling   of
              backslashes, or any handling of quotes, is performed.

              Individual elements of existing array or associative array parameters may be edited
              by using subscript syntax on name.  New elements are  created  automatically,  even
              without -c.

              If  the  -p  flag  is  given,  the  following string will be taken as the prompt to
              display at the left.  If the -r flag is  given,  the  following  string  gives  the
              prompt  to  display  at the right.  If the -h flag is specified, the history can be
              accessed from ZLE. If the -e flag is given, typing ^D (Control-D) on an empty  line
              causes vared to exit immediately with a non-zero return value.

              The  -M option gives a keymap to link to the main keymap during editing, and the -m
              option gives a keymap to link to the vicmd keymap  during  editing.   For  vi-style
              editing,  this  allows  a  pair  of  keymaps  to  override  viins  and  vicmd.  For
              emacs-style editing, only -M is normally needed but the  -m  option  may  still  be
              used.  On exit, the previous keymaps will be restored.

              If  `-t  tty'  is given, tty is the name of a terminal device to be used instead of
              the default /dev/tty.  If tty does not refer to a terminal an error is reported.

       zle
       zle -l [ -L | -a ] [ string ... ]
       zle -D widget ...
       zle -A old-widget new-widget
       zle -N widget [ function ]
       zle -C widget completion-widget function
       zle -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
       zle -M string
       zle -U string
       zle -K keymap
       zle -F [ -L ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
       zle -I
       zle -T [ tc function | -r tc | -L ]
       zle widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
              The zle builtin performs a number of different actions concerning ZLE.

              With no options and no arguments, only the return status will be set.  It  is  zero
              if  ZLE is currently active and widgets could be invoked using this builtin command
              and non-zero otherwise.  Note that even if non-zero status  is  returned,  zle  may
              still  be active as part of the completion system; this does not allow direct calls
              to ZLE widgets.

              Otherwise, which operation it performs depends on its options:

              -l [ -L | -a ]
                     List all existing user-defined widgets.  If the -L option is used,  list  in
                     the form of zle commands to create the widgets.

                     When combined with the -a option, all widget names are listed, including the
                     builtin ones. In this case the -L option is ignored.

                     If at least one string is given, and -a  is  present  or  -L  is  not  used,
                     nothing  will be printed.  The return status will be zero if all strings are
                     names of existing widgets and non-zero if at least one string is not a  name
                     of  a  defined widget.  If -a is also present, all widget names are used for
                     the comparison including builtin widgets, else only user-defined widgets are
                     used.

                     If  at  least  one string is present and the -L option is used, user-defined
                     widgets matching any string are listed in the form of zle commands to create
                     the widgets.

              -D widget ...
                     Delete the named widgets.

              -A old-widget new-widget
                     Make  the  new-widget name an alias for old-widget, so that both names refer
                     to the same widget.  The names have equal standing; if  either  is  deleted,
                     the  other  remains.  If there is already a widget with the new-widget name,
                     it is deleted.

              -N widget [ function ]
                     Create a user-defined widget.   If  there  is  already  a  widget  with  the
                     specified  name,  it  is  overwritten.   When the new widget is invoked from
                     within the editor, the specified shell function is called.  If  no  function
                     name  is specified, it defaults to the same name as the widget.  For further
                     information, see the section Widgets in zshzle(1).

              -C widget completion-widget function
                     Create a user-defined completion widget named widget. The completion  widget
                     will  behave  like  the  built-in  completion-widget  whose name is given as
                     completion-widget. To generate the completions, the shell function  function
                     will be called.  For further information, see zshcompwid(1).

              -R [ -c ] [ display-string ] [ string ... ]
                     Redisplay  the command line; this is to be called from within a user-defined
                     widget to allow changes to become visible.  If a display-string is given and
                     not  empty,  this  is  shown  in the status line (immediately below the line
                     being edited).

                     If the optional strings are given they are listed below the  prompt  in  the
                     same way as completion lists are printed. If no strings are given but the -c
                     option is used such a list is cleared.

                     Note that  this  option  is  only  useful  for  widgets  that  do  not  exit
                     immediately  after  using  it  because  the strings displayed will be erased
                     immediately after return from the widget.

                     This command can safely be called outside user defined widgets;  if  zle  is
                     active,  the  display  will  be  refreshed,  while if zle is not active, the
                     command has no effect.   In  this  case  there  will  usually  be  no  other
                     arguments.

                     The status is zero if zle was active, else one.

              -M string
                     As  with the -R option, the string will be displayed below the command line;
                     unlike the -R option, the string will not be put into the  status  line  but
                     will  instead  be  printed  normally  below the prompt.  This means that the
                     string will still be  displayed  after  the  widget  returns  (until  it  is
                     overwritten by subsequent commands).

              -U string
                     This pushes the characters in the string onto the input stack of ZLE.  After
                     the widget currently executed finishes ZLE will behave as if the  characters
                     in the string were typed by the user.

                     As  ZLE  uses  a  stack,  if  this option is used repeatedly the last string
                     pushed onto the stack will be processed first.  However, the  characters  in
                     each  string  will  be  processed  in  the order in which they appear in the
                     string.

              -K keymap
                     Selects the keymap named keymap.  An error  message  will  be  displayed  if
                     there is no such keymap.

                     This  keymap  selection  affects  the interpretation of following keystrokes
                     within this invocation of ZLE.  Any following  invocation  (e.g.,  the  next
                     command line) will start as usual with the `main' keymap selected.

              -F [ -L ] [ fd [ handler ] ]
                     Only  available if your system supports one of the `poll' or `select' system
                     calls; most modern systems do.

                     Installs handler (the name of a shell function) to handle  input  from  file
                     descriptor  fd.   When  zle is attempting to read data, it will examine both
                     the terminal and the list of handled fd's.  If data becomes available  on  a
                     handled  fd, zle will call handler with the fd which is ready for reading as
                     the only argument.  If the handler  produces  output  to  the  terminal,  it
                     should  call  `zle  -I' before doing so (see below).  The handler should not
                     attempt to read from the terminal.  Note that zle makes no attempt to  check
                     whether  this fd is actually readable when installing the handler.  The user
                     must make their own arrangements for handling the file descriptor  when  zle
                     is not active.

                     Any  number  of  handlers for any number of readable file descriptors may be
                     installed.  Installing a handler for an fd which is already  handled  causes
                     the existing handler to be replaced.

                     If  no  handler  is  given, but an fd is present, any handler for that fd is
                     removed.  If there is none, an error message is  printed  and  status  1  is
                     returned.

                     If  no arguments are given, or the -L option is supplied, a list of handlers
                     is printed in a form which can be stored for later execution.

                     An fd (but not a handler) may optionally be given with  the  -L  option;  in
                     this  case,  the function will list the handler if any, else silently return
                     status 1.

                     Note that this feature should be used with care.  Activity  on  one  of  the
                     fd's  which  is  not  properly  handled  can  cause  the  terminal to become
                     unusable.

                     Here is a simple example of using this feature.  A connection  to  a  remote
                     TCP  port  is  created  using  the  ztcp command; see the description of the
                     zsh/net/tcp module in zshmodules(1).  Then  a  handler  is  installed  which
                     simply  prints  out  any  data  which arrives on this connection.  Note that
                     `select' will indicate that the file descriptor needs handling if the remote
                     side has closed the connection; we handle that by testing for a failed read.
                            if ztcp pwspc 2811; then
                              tcpfd=$REPLY
                              handler() {
                                zle -I
                                local line
                                if ! read -r line <&$1; then
                                  # select marks this fd if we reach EOF,
                                  # so handle this specially.
                                  print "[Read on fd $1 failed, removing.]" >&2
                                  zle -F $1
                                  return 1
                                fi
                                print -r - $line
                              }
                              zle -F $tcpfd handler
                            fi

              -I     Unusually,  this  option  is  most useful outside ordinary widget functions,
                     though it may be used within if normal output to the terminal  is  required.
                     It  invalidates the current zle display in preparation for output; typically
                     this will be from a trap function.  It has no effect if zle is  not  active.
                     When  a  trap exits, the shell checks to see if the display needs restoring,
                     hence the following will print output in such a way as not  to  disturb  the
                     line being edited:

                            TRAPUSR1() {
                                # Invalidate zle display
                              [[ -o zle ]] && zle -I
                                # Show output
                              print Hello
                            }

                     In  general, the trap function may need to test whether zle is active before
                     using this method (as shown in the example), since the  zsh/zle  module  may
                     not even be loaded; if it is not, the command can be skipped.

                     It  is possible to call `zle -I' several times before control is returned to
                     the editor; the display will only be invalidated the first time to  minimise
                     disruption.

                     Note  that  there  are normally better ways of manipulating the display from
                     within zle widgets; see, for example, `zle -R' above.

                     The returned status is zero if zle was invalidated,  even  though  this  may
                     have  been  by  a previous call to `zle -I' or by a system notification.  To
                     test if a zle widget may be called  at  this  point,  execute  zle  with  no
                     arguments and examine the return status.

              -T     This  is  used  to  add,  list  or  remove  internal  transformations on the
                     processing performed by the line editor.  It  is  typically  used  only  for
                     debugging  or  testing  and  is  therefore of little interest to the general
                     user.

                     `zle -T transformation func' specifies that the  given  transformation  (see
                     below) is effected by shell function func.

                     `zle  -Tr transformation' removes the given transformation if it was present
                     (it is not an error if none was).

                     `zle -TL' can be used to list all transformations currently in operation.

                     Currently the only transformation is tc.  This is used instead of outputting
                     termcap  codes to the terminal.  When the transformation is in operation the
                     shell function is passed the termcap code that would be output as its  first
                     argument;  if the operation required a numeric argument, that is passed as a
                     second argument.  The function should set the shell variable  REPLY  to  the
                     transformed  termcap  code.   Typically  this is used to produce some simply
                     formatted version of  the  code  and  optional  argument  for  debugging  or
                     testing.  Note that this transformation is not applied to other non-printing
                     characters such as carriage returns and newlines.

              widget [ -n num ] [ -Nw ] [ -K keymap ] args ...
                     Invoke the specified widget.  This can only be  done  when  ZLE  is  active;
                     normally this will be within a user-defined widget.

                     With the options -n and -N, the current numerical argument will be saved and
                     then restored after the call to widget; `-n num' sets the numerical argument
                     temporarily to num, while `-N' sets it to the default, i.e. as if there were
                     none.

                     With the option -K, keymap will be used as the  current  keymap  during  the
                     execution  of  the  widget.   The  previous keymap will be restored when the
                     widget exits.

                     Normally, calling a widget in this way does not set  the  special  parameter
                     WIDGET  and  related  parameters,  so that the environment appears as if the
                     top-level widget called by the user were still active.  With the option  -w,
                     WIDGET  and  related parameters are set to reflect the widget being executed
                     by the zle call.

                     Any further arguments will be passed to the widget; note  that  as  standard
                     argument handling is performed, any general argument list should be preceded
                     by --.  If it is a shell function,  these  are  passed  down  as  positional
                     parameters;  for  builtin widgets it is up to the widget in question what it
                     does  with  them.    Currently   arguments   are   only   handled   by   the
                     incremental-search  commands,  the  history-search-forward and -backward and
                     the corresponding functions prefixed by vi-, and by universal-argument.   No
                     error  is  flagged  if  the command does not use the arguments, or only uses
                     some of them.

                     The return status reflects the success or failure of the  operation  carried
                     out  by  the  widget, or if it is a user-defined widget the return status of
                     the shell function.

                     A non-zero return status causes the shell to beep  when  the  widget  exits,
                     unless  the  BEEP  options  was  unset  or the widget was called via the zle
                     command.  Thus if a user defined  widget  requires  an  immediate  beep,  it
                     should call the beep widget directly.

WIDGETS

       All actions in the editor are performed by `widgets'.  A widget's job is simply to perform
       some small action.  The ZLE commands that key sequences in keymaps are  bound  to  are  in
       fact widgets.  Widgets can be user-defined or built in.

       The  standard widgets built into ZLE are listed in Standard Widgets below.  Other built-in
       widgets can be defined by other modules (see zshmodules(1)).  Each built-in widget has two
       names:  its  normal  canonical name, and the same name preceded by a `.'.  The `.' name is
       special: it can't be rebound to a different widget.  This makes the widget available  even
       when its usual name has been redefined.

       User-defined widgets are defined using `zle -N', and implemented as shell functions.  When
       the widget is executed, the corresponding shell function  is  executed,  and  can  perform
       editing  (or  other) actions.  It is recommended that user-defined widgets should not have
       names starting with `.'.

USER-DEFINED WIDGETS

       User-defined widgets, being implemented as shell functions, can execute any  normal  shell
       command.  They can also run other widgets (whether built-in or user-defined) using the zle
       builtin command.  The standard input  of  the  function  is  closed  to  prevent  external
       commands  from  unintentionally  blocking ZLE by reading from the terminal, but read -k or
       read -q can be used to read characters.  Finally, they can examine and edit the ZLE buffer
       being edited by reading and setting the special parameters described below.

       These  special parameters are always available in widget functions, but are not in any way
       special outside ZLE.   If  they  have  some  normal  value  outside  ZLE,  that  value  is
       temporarily  inaccessible,  but will return when the widget function exits.  These special
       parameters in fact have local scope, like parameters created in a function using local.

       Inside completion widgets and traps called while  ZLE  is  active,  these  parameters  are
       available read-only.

       BUFFER (scalar)
              The entire contents of the edit buffer.  If it is written to, the cursor remains at
              the same offset, unless that would put it outside the buffer.

       BUFFERLINES (integer)
              The number of screen lines needed for the edit buffer currently displayed on screen
              (i.e.  without  any  changes  to  the  preceding  parameters  done  after  the last
              redisplay); read-only.

       CONTEXT (scalar)
              The context in which zle was called to read a line; read-only.  One of the values:
       start  The start of a command line (at prompt PS1).

       cont   A continuation to a command line (at prompt PS2).

       select In a select loop.

       vared  Editing a variable in vared.

       CURSOR (integer)
              The offset of the cursor, within the edit buffer.   This  is  in  the  range  0  to
              $#BUFFER,  and  is  by  definition equal to $#LBUFFER.  Attempts to move the cursor
              outside the buffer will result in the cursor being moved to the appropriate end  of
              the buffer.

       CUTBUFFER (scalar)
              The last item cut using one of the `kill-' commands; the string which the next yank
              would insert in the line.  Later  entries  in  the  kill  ring  are  in  the  array
              killring.   Note  that  the command `zle copy-region-as-kill string' can be used to
              set the text of the cut buffer from a shell function and cycle the kill ring in the
              same way as interactively killing text.

       HISTNO (integer)
              The  current history number.  Setting this has the same effect as moving up or down
              in the history to the corresponding history line.  An attempt to set it is  ignored
              if  the  line  is  not  stored  in  the  history.  Note this is not the same as the
              parameter HISTCMD, which always gives the number of the history line being added to
              the main shell's history.  HISTNO refers to the line being retrieved within zle.

       KEYMAP (scalar)
              The name of the currently selected keymap; read-only.

       KEYS (scalar)
              The keys typed to invoke this widget, as a literal string; read-only.

       killring (array)
              The  array  of  previously killed items, with the most recently killed first.  This
              gives the items that would be retrieved by a yank-pop in  the  same  order.   Note,
              however,  that  the most recently killed item is in $CUTBUFFER; $killring shows the
              array of previous entries.

              The default size for the kill ring is eight, however the length may be  changed  by
              normal  array  operations.   Any  empty  string  in the kill ring is ignored by the
              yank-pop command, hence the size of the array effectively sets the  maximum  length
              of  the  kill  ring, while the number of non-zero strings gives the current length,
              both as seen by the user at the command line.

       LASTABORTEDSEARCH (scalar)
              The last search string used by an interactive search that was aborted by  the  user
              (status 3 returned by the search widget).

       LASTSEARCH (scalar)
              The  last search string used by an interactive search; read-only.  This is set even
              if the search failed (status 0, 1 or 2 returned by the search widget), but  not  if
              it was aborted by the user.

       LASTWIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the last widget that was executed; read-only.

       LBUFFER (scalar)
              The  part  of  the  buffer  that lies to the left of the cursor position.  If it is
              assigned to, only that part of the buffer  is  replaced,  and  the  cursor  remains
              between the new $LBUFFER and the old $RBUFFER.

       MARK (integer)
              Like CURSOR, but for the mark.

       NUMERIC (integer)
              The  numeric  argument.  If no numeric argument was given, this parameter is unset.
              When this is set inside a widget function, builtin  widgets  called  with  the  zle
              builtin  command  will  use  the  value  assigned.  If  it is unset inside a widget
              function, builtin widgets called behave as if no numeric argument was given.

       PENDING (integer)
              The number of bytes pending for input, i.e. the number of bytes which have  already
              been  typed  and can immediately be read. On systems where the shell is not able to
              get this information, this parameter will always have a value of zero.  Read-only.

       PREBUFFER (scalar)
              In a multi-line input at the secondary prompt, this  read-only  parameter  contains
              the contents of the lines before the one the cursor is currently in.

       PREDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text  to  be displayed before the start of the editable text buffer.  This does not
              have to be a complete line; to display a complete line, a newline must be  appended
              explicitly.   The  text  is  reset  on  each  new  invocation  (but  not  recursive
              invocation) of zle.

       POSTDISPLAY (scalar)
              Text to be displayed after the end of the editable text buffer.  This does not have
              to  be  a  complete  line;  to display a complete line, a newline must be prepended
              explicitly.   The  text  is  reset  on  each  new  invocation  (but  not  recursive
              invocation) of zle.

       RBUFFER (scalar)
              The  part  of  the  buffer that lies to the right of the cursor position.  If it is
              assigned to, only that part of the buffer  is  replaced,  and  the  cursor  remains
              between the old $LBUFFER and the new $RBUFFER.

       REGION_ACTIVE (integer)
              Indicates  if  the  region  is  currently  active.   It  can  be assigned 0 or 1 to
              deactivate and activate the region respectively; see Character Highlighting below.

       region_highlight (array)
              Each element of this array may be set to a string that describes  highlighting  for
              an  arbitrary  region  of  the command line that will take effect the next time the
              command line is redisplayed.  Highlighting of the non-editable parts of the command
              line in PREDISPLAY and POSTDISPLAY are possible, but note that the P flag is needed
              for character indexing to include PREDISPLAY.

              Each string consists of the following parts:

              Optionally, a `P' to signify that the start and end offset that
                     follow include any string set by the PREDISPLAY special parameter;  this  is
                     needed if the predisplay string itself is to be highlighted.  Whitespace may
                     follow the `P'.
              A start offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.
              An end offset in the same units as CURSOR, terminated by
                     whitespace.
              A highlight specification in the same format as
                     used for contexts in the parameter zle_highlight, see Character Highlighting
                     below; for example, standout or fg=red,bold.

              For example,

                     region_highlight=("P0 20 bold")

              specifies  that  the  first  twenty characters of the text including any predisplay
              string should be highlighted in bold.

              Note that the effect of region_highlight is not saved and disappears as soon as the
              line is accepted.

       WIDGET (scalar)
              The name of the widget currently being executed; read-only.

       WIDGETFUNC (scalar)
              The  name of the shell function that implements a widget defined with either zle -N
              or zle -C.  In the former case, this is the second argument to the zle  -N  command
              that defined the widget, or the first argument if there was no second argument.  In
              the latter case this is the third argument to the zle -C command that  defined  the
              widget.  Read-only.

       WIDGETSTYLE (scalar)
              Describes the implementation behind the completion widget currently being executed;
              the second argument that followed zle -C when the widget was defined.  This is  the
              name  of  a builtin completion widget.  For widgets defined with zle -N this is set
              to the empty string.  Read-only.

       ZLE_STATE (scalar)
              Contains a set of space-separated words that describe the current zle state.

              Currently, the only state shown is the insert mode as set by the overwrite-mode  or
              vi-replace  widgets.   The string contains `insert' if characters to be inserted on
              the command line move existing characters to the right, `overwrite'  if  characters
              to be inserted overwrite existing characters.

   Special Widgets
       There  are  a  few  user-defined  widgets  which are special to the shell.  If they do not
       exist, no special action is taken.  The environment provided is identical to that for  any
       other editing widget.

       zle-isearch-exit
              Executed  at the end of incremental search at the point where the isearch prompt is
              removed from the display.  See zle-isearch-update for an example.

       zle-isearch-update
              Executed within incremental search  when  the  display  is  about  to  be  redrawn.
              Additional  output  below  the  incremental search prompt can be generated by using
              `zle -M' within the widget.  For example,

                     zle-isearch-update() { zle -M "Line $HISTNO"; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-update

              Note the line output by `zle -M' is not deleted on exit  from  incremental  search.
              This can be done from a zle-isearch-exit widget:

                     zle-isearch-exit() { zle -M ""; }
                     zle -N zle-isearch-exit

       zle-line-init
              Executed  every  time  the line editor is started to read a new line of input.  The
              following example puts the line editor into vi command mode when it starts up.

                     zle-line-init() { zle -K vicmd; }
                     zle -N zle-line-init

              (The command inside the function sets the keymap directly; it is equivalent to  zle
              vi-cmd-mode.)

       zle-line-finish
              This  is  similar  to  zle-line-init but is executed every time the line editor has
              finished reading a line of input.

       zle-history-line-set
              Executed when the history line changes.

       zle-keymap-select
              Executed every time the keymap changes, i.e. the special parameter KEYMAP is set to
              a  different  value, while the line editor is active.  Initialising the keymap when
              the line editor starts does not cause the widget to be called.

              The value $KEYMAP within the function reflects the new keymap.  The old  keymap  is
              passed as the sole argument.

              This  can  be used for detecting switches between the vi command (vicmd) and insert
              (usually main) keymaps.

STANDARD WIDGETS

       The following is a list of all the standard widgets, and their default bindings  in  emacs
       mode,  vi  command  mode  and  vi  insert  mode (the `emacs', `vicmd' and `viins' keymaps,
       respectively).

       Note that cursor keys are bound to movement keys in all three keymaps; the  shell  assumes
       that  the  cursor  keys  send  the key sequences reported by the terminal-handling library
       (termcap or terminfo).  The key sequences shown in the list are those based on the  VT100,
       common on many modern terminals, but in fact these are not necessarily bound.  In the case
       of the viins keymap, the initial escape character of the sequences serves also  to  return
       to  the  vicmd keymap: whether this happens is determined by the KEYTIMEOUT parameter, see
       zshparam(1).

   Movement
       vi-backward-blank-word (unbound) (B) (unbound)
              Move backward one  word,  where  a  word  is  defined  as  a  series  of  non-blank
              characters.

       backward-char (^B ESC-[D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move backward one character.

       vi-backward-char (unbound) (^H h ^?) (ESC-[D)
              Move backward one character, without changing lines.

       backward-word (ESC-B ESC-b) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       emacs-backward-word
              Move to the beginning of the previous word.

       vi-backward-word (unbound) (b) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the previous word, vi-style.

       beginning-of-line (^A) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to  the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning of the line, move
              to the beginning of the previous line, if any.

       vi-beginning-of-line
              Move to the beginning of the line, without changing lines.

       end-of-line (^E) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the line, move to the end of
              the next line, if any.

       vi-end-of-line (unbound) ($) (unbound)
              Move  to  the end of the line.  If an argument is given to this command, the cursor
              will be moved to the end of the line (argument - 1) lines down.

       vi-forward-blank-word (unbound) (W) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       vi-forward-blank-word-end (unbound) (E) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the current word, or, if at the end of the current word, to  the
              end of the next word, where a word is defined as a series of non-blank characters.

       forward-char (^F ESC-[C) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-forward-char (unbound) (space l) (ESC-[C)
              Move forward one character.

       vi-find-next-char (^X^F) (f) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from the keyboard, and move to the next occurrence of it in the
              line.

       vi-find-next-char-skip (unbound) (t) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard, and move to the position just before  the  next
              occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-find-prev-char (unbound) (F) (unbound)
              Read  a  character  from the keyboard, and move to the previous occurrence of it in
              the line.

       vi-find-prev-char-skip (unbound) (T) (unbound)
              Read a character from the keyboard,  and  move  to  the  position  just  after  the
              previous occurrence of it in the line.

       vi-first-non-blank (unbound) (^) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character in the line.

       vi-forward-word (unbound) (w) (unbound)
              Move forward one word, vi-style.

       forward-word (ESC-F ESC-f) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to  the beginning of the next word.  The editor's idea of a word is specified
              with the WORDCHARS parameter.

       emacs-forward-word
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-forward-word-end (unbound) (e) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the next word.

       vi-goto-column (ESC-|) (|) (unbound)
              Move to the column specified by the numeric argument.

       vi-goto-mark (unbound) (`) (unbound)
              Move to the specified mark.

       vi-goto-mark-line (unbound) (') (unbound)
              Move to beginning of the line containing the specified mark.

       vi-repeat-find (unbound) (;) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command.

       vi-rev-repeat-find (unbound) (,) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi-find command in the opposite direction.

   History Control
       beginning-of-buffer-or-history (ESC-<) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move to the beginning of the buffer, or if already there, move to the  first  event
              in the history list.

       beginning-of-line-hist
              Move to the beginning of the line.  If already at the beginning of the buffer, move
              to the previous history line.

       beginning-of-history
              Move to the first event in the history list.

       down-line-or-history (^N ESC-[B) (j) (ESC-[B)
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, move to the  next
              event in the history list.

       vi-down-line-or-history (unbound) (+) (unbound)
              Move  down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, move to the next
              event in the history list.  Then move to the first non-blank character on the line.

       down-line-or-search
              Move down a line in the buffer, or if already at the bottom line, search forward in
              the history for a line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

              If  called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is
              taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       down-history (unbound) (^N) (unbound)
              Move to the next event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-backward
              Search backward in the history for a line beginning with the current line up to the
              cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its original position.

       end-of-buffer-or-history (ESC->) (unbound) (unbound)
              Move  to  the end of the buffer, or if already there, move to the last event in the
              history list.

       end-of-line-hist
              Move to the end of the line.  If already at the end of the buffer, move to the next
              history line.

       end-of-history
              Move to the last event in the history list.

       vi-fetch-history (unbound) (G) (unbound)
              Fetch  the  history  line  specified by the numeric argument.  This defaults to the
              current history line (i.e. the one that isn't history yet).

       history-incremental-search-backward (^R ^Xr) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  backward  incrementally  for   a   specified   string.    The   search   is
              case-insensitive  if  the  search  string  does  not  have uppercase letters and no
              numeric argument was given.  The string may begin with `^' to anchor the search  to
              the  beginning  of  the line.  When called from a user-defined function returns the
              following statuses: 0, if the search succeeded; 1, if the search failed; 2, if  the
              search  term  was  a  bad  pattern;  3, if the search was aborted by the send-break
              command.

              A restricted set of editing functions is available in the  mini-buffer.   Keys  are
              looked  up in the special isearch keymap, and if not found there in the main keymap
              (note that by default the isearch  keymap  is  empty).   An  interrupt  signal,  as
              defined by the stty setting, will stop the search and go back to the original line.
              An undefined key will have the same effect.  Note that the following always perform
              the  same  task  within incremental searches and cannot be replaced by user defined
              widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The supported functions are:

              accept-and-hold
              accept-and-infer-next-history
              accept-line
              accept-line-and-down-history
                     Perform the usual function after exiting incremental  search.   The  command
                     line displayed is executed.

              backward-delete-char
              vi-backward-delete-char
                     Back  up  one  place in the search history.  If the search has been repeated
                     this does not immediately erase a character in the minibuffer.

              accept-search
                     Exit incremental search,  retaining  the  command  line  but  performing  no
                     further  action.  Note that this function is not bound by default and has no
                     effect outside incremental search.

              backward-delete-word
              backward-kill-word
              vi-backward-kill-word
                     Back up one character in the minibuffer;  if  multiple  searches  have  been
                     performed  since the character was inserted the search history is rewound to
                     the point just before the character was entered.  Hence this has the  effect
                     of repeating backward-delete-char.

              clear-screen
                     Clear the screen, remaining in incremental search mode.

              history-incremental-search-backward
                     Find the next occurrence of the contents of the mini-buffer.

              history-incremental-search-forward
                     Invert the sense of the search.

              magic-space
                     Inserts a non-magical space.

              quoted-insert
              vi-quoted-insert
                     Quote the character to insert into the minibuffer.

              redisplay
                     Redisplay the command line, remaining in incremental search mode.

              vi-cmd-mode
                     Toggle  between  the  `main'  and `vicmd' keymaps; the `main' keymap (insert
                     mode) will be selected initially.

              vi-repeat-search
              vi-rev-repeat-search
                     Repeat the search.   The  direction  of  the  search  is  indicated  in  the
                     mini-buffer.

              Any  character  that  is not bound to one of the above functions, or self-insert or
              self-insert-unmeta, will cause the mode to be exited.  The character is then looked
              up and executed in the keymap in effect at that point.

              When  called  from  a  widget  function  by the zle command, the incremental search
              commands can take a string argument.  This will be treated as a string of keys,  as
              for  arguments  to  the bindkey command, and used as initial input for the command.
              Any characters in the string which are unused by the  incremental  search  will  be
              silently ignored.  For example,

                     zle history-incremental-search-backward forceps

              will  search  backwards  for  forceps, leaving the minibuffer containing the string
              `forceps'.

       history-incremental-search-forward (^S ^Xs) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  forward  incrementally   for   a   specified   string.    The   search   is
              case-insensitive  if  the  search  string  does  not  have uppercase letters and no
              numeric argument was given.  The string may begin with `^' to anchor the search  to
              the beginning of the line.  The functions available in the mini-buffer are the same
              as for history-incremental-search-backward.

       history-incremental-pattern-search-backward
       history-incremental-pattern-search-forward
              These widgets behave similarly to the corresponding widgets with no  -pattern,  but
              the search string typed by the user is treated as a pattern, respecting the current
              settings  of  the  various  options  affecting  pattern  matching.   See   FILENAME
              GENERATION in zshexpn(1) for a description of patterns.  If no numeric argument was
              given lowercase letters in the search string may match  uppercase  letters  in  the
              history.   The  string  may begin with `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of
              the line.

              The prompt changes to indicate an invalid pattern; this  may  simply  indicate  the
              pattern is not yet complete.

              Note  that  only  non-overlapping  matches  are  reported,  so  an  expression with
              wildcards may return fewer matches on a line than are visible by inspection.

       history-search-backward (ESC-P ESC-p) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a line beginning with  the  first  word  in  the
              buffer.

              If  called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is
              taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-backward (unbound) (/) (unbound)
              Search backward in the history for a specified string.  The string may  begin  with
              `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line.

              A  restricted  set  of  editing  functions  is  available  in  the mini-buffer.  An
              interrupt signal, as defined by the stty  setting,   will  stop  the  search.   The
              functions  available  in  the  mini-buffer  are: accept-line, backward-delete-char,
              vi-backward-delete-char, backward-kill-word,  vi-backward-kill-word,  clear-screen,
              redisplay, quoted-insert and vi-quoted-insert.

              vi-cmd-mode  is  treated  the  same as accept-line, and magic-space is treated as a
              space.  Any other character that is not bound to self-insert or  self-insert-unmeta
              will  beep  and  be  ignored.  If  the function is called from vi command mode, the
              bindings of the current insert mode will be used.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
              taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       history-search-forward (ESC-N ESC-n) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search  forward  in  the  history  for  a line beginning with the first word in the
              buffer.

              If called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument  is
              taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       vi-history-search-forward (unbound) (?) (unbound)
              Search  forward  in  the history for a specified string.  The string may begin with
              `^' to anchor the search to the beginning of the line. The functions  available  in
              the  mini-buffer are the same as for vi-history-search-backward.  Argument handling
              is also the same as for that command.

       infer-next-history (^X^N) (unbound) (unbound)
              Search in the history list for a line matching the current one and fetch the  event
              following it.

       insert-last-word (ESC-_ ESC-.) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert  the last word from the previous history event at the cursor position.  If a
              positive numeric argument is given, insert that word from the end of  the  previous
              history  event.  If the argument is zero or negative insert that word from the left
              (zero inserts the previous command word).  Repeating this command replaces the word
              just inserted with the last word from the history event prior to the one just used;
              numeric arguments can be used in the same way to pick a word from that event.

              When called from a shell function invoked from a user-defined widget,  the  command
              can  take  one  to  three arguments.  The first argument specifies a history offset
              which applies to successive calls  to  this  widget:  if  it  is  -1,  the  default
              behaviour  is  used,  while if it is 1, successive calls will move forwards through
              the history.  The value 0 can be used to indicate that the history line examined by
              the  previous  execution  of  the  command  will be reexamined.  Note that negative
              numbers should be preceded by a `--' argument to avoid confusing them with options.

              If two arguments are given, the second specifies the word on the  command  line  in
              normal array index notation (as a more natural alternative to the prefix argument).
              Hence 1 is the first word, and -1 (the default) is the last word.

              If a third argument is given, its value is ignored, but it is used to signify  that
              the  history  offset  is  relative to the current history line, rather than the one
              remembered after the previous invocations of insert-last-word.

              For example, the default behaviour of the command corresponds to

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 -1

              while the command

                     zle insert-last-word -- -1 1 -

              always copies the first word of the line in the history immediately before the line
              being  edited.   This has the side effect that later invocations of the widget will
              be relative to that line.

       vi-repeat-search (unbound) (n) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search.

       vi-rev-repeat-search (unbound) (N) (unbound)
              Repeat the last vi history search, but in reverse.

       up-line-or-history (^P ESC-[A) (k) (ESC-[A)
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, move to  the  previous
              event in the history list.

       vi-up-line-or-history (unbound) (-) (unbound)
              Move  up  a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, move to the previous
              event in the history list.  Then move to the first non-blank character on the line.

       up-line-or-search
              Move up a line in the buffer, or if already at the top line, search backward in the
              history for a line beginning with the first word in the buffer.

              If  called from a function by the zle command with arguments, the first argument is
              taken as the string for which to search, rather than the first word in the buffer.

       up-history (unbound) (^P) (unbound)
              Move to the previous event in the history list.

       history-beginning-search-forward
              Search forward in the history for a line beginning with the current line up to  the
              cursor.  This leaves the cursor in its original position.

   Modifying Text
       vi-add-eol (unbound) (A) (unbound)
              Move to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-add-next (unbound) (a) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode after the current cursor position, without changing lines.

       backward-delete-char (^H ^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-delete-char (unbound) (X) (^H)
              Delete the character behind the cursor, without changing lines.  If in insert mode,
              this won't delete past the point where insert mode was last entered.

       backward-delete-word
              Delete the word behind the cursor.

       backward-kill-line
              Kill from the beginning of the line to the cursor position.

       backward-kill-word (^W ESC-^H ESC-^?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the word behind the cursor.

       vi-backward-kill-word (unbound) (unbound) (^W)
              Kill the word behind the cursor, without going past the point where insert mode was
              last entered.

       capitalize-word (ESC-C ESC-c) (unbound) (unbound)
              Capitalize the current word and move past it.

       vi-change (unbound) (c) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the cursor position to the
              endpoint of the movement.  Then enter insert mode.  If the  command  is  vi-change,
              change the current line.

       vi-change-eol (unbound) (C) (unbound)
              Kill to the end of the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-change-whole-line (unbound) (S) (unbound)
              Kill the current line and enter insert mode.

       copy-region-as-kill (ESC-W ESC-w) (unbound) (unbound)
              Copy the area from the cursor to the mark to the kill buffer.

              If  called  from a ZLE widget function in the form `zle copy-region-as-kill string'
              then string will be taken as the text to copy to the kill buffer.  The cursor,  the
              mark and the text on the command line are not used in this case.

       copy-prev-word (ESC-^_) (unbound) (unbound)
              Duplicate the word to the left of the cursor.

       copy-prev-shell-word
              Like  copy-prev-word,  but  the  word  is  found  by  using  shell parsing, whereas
              copy-prev-word looks for blanks. This makes a difference when the  word  is  quoted
              and contains spaces.

       vi-delete (unbound) (d) (unbound)
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and kill from the cursor position to the
              endpoint of the movement.  If the command is vi-delete, kill the current line.

       delete-char
              Delete the character under the cursor.

       vi-delete-char (unbound) (x) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor, without going past the end of the line.

       delete-word
              Delete the current word.

       down-case-word (ESC-L ESC-l) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all lowercase and move past it.

       kill-word (ESC-D ESC-d) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current word.

       gosmacs-transpose-chars
              Exchange the two characters behind the cursor.

       vi-indent (unbound) (>) (unbound)
              Indent a number of lines.

       vi-insert (unbound) (i) (unbound)
              Enter insert mode.

       vi-insert-bol (unbound) (I) (unbound)
              Move to the first non-blank character on the line and enter insert mode.

       vi-join (^X^J) (J) (unbound)
              Join the current line with the next one.

       kill-line (^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.  If already on the end  of  the  line,
              kill the newline character.

       vi-kill-line (unbound) (unbound) (^U)
              Kill from the cursor back to wherever insert mode was last entered.

       vi-kill-eol (unbound) (D) (unbound)
              Kill from the cursor to the end of the line.

       kill-region
              Kill from the cursor to the mark.

       kill-buffer (^X^K) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the entire buffer.

       kill-whole-line (^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Kill the current line.

       vi-match-bracket (^X^B) (%) (unbound)
              Move  to the bracket character (one of {}, () or []) that matches the one under the
              cursor.  If the cursor is not on a bracket character, move  forward  without  going
              past the end of the line to find one, and then go to the matching bracket.

       vi-open-line-above (unbound) (O) (unbound)
              Open a line above the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-open-line-below (unbound) (o) (unbound)
              Open a line below the cursor and enter insert mode.

       vi-oper-swap-case
              Read a movement command from the keyboard, and swap the case of all characters from
              the cursor position to the endpoint of the movement.  If the  movement  command  is
              vi-oper-swap-case, swap the case of all characters on the current line.

       overwrite-mode (^X^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Toggle between overwrite mode and insert mode.

       vi-put-before (unbound) (P) (unbound)
              Insert  the  contents  of  the  kill  buffer before the cursor.  If the kill buffer
              contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to characters), paste it above the current
              line.

       vi-put-after (unbound) (p) (unbound)
              Insert  the  contents  of  the  kill  buffer  after the cursor.  If the kill buffer
              contains a sequence of lines (as opposed to characters), paste it below the current
              line.

       quoted-insert (^V) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert  the next character typed into the buffer literally.  An interrupt character
              will not be inserted.

       vi-quoted-insert (unbound) (unbound) (^Q ^V)
              Display a `^' at the cursor position, and insert the next character typed into  the
              buffer literally.  An interrupt character will not be inserted.

       quote-line (ESC-') (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote  the current line; that is, put a `'' character at the beginning and the end,
              and convert all `'' characters to `'\'''.

       quote-region (ESC-") (unbound) (unbound)
              Quote the region from the cursor to the mark.

       vi-replace (unbound) (R) (unbound)
              Enter overwrite mode.

       vi-repeat-change (unbound) (.) (unbound)
              Repeat the last  vi  mode  text  modification.   If  a  count  was  used  with  the
              modification,  it is remembered.  If a count is given to this command, it overrides
              the remembered count, and is remembered for future uses of this command.   The  cut
              buffer specification is similarly remembered.

       vi-replace-chars (unbound) (r) (unbound)
              Replace the character under the cursor with a character read from the keyboard.

       self-insert  (printable  characters)  (unbound)  (printable  characters  and  some control
       characters)
              Insert a character into the buffer at the cursor position.

       self-insert-unmeta (ESC-^I ESC-^J ESC-^M) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert a character into the buffer after stripping the meta bit and  converting  ^M
              to ^J.

       vi-substitute (unbound) (s) (unbound)
              Substitute the next character(s).

       vi-swap-case (unbound) (~) (unbound)
              Swap the case of the character under the cursor and move past it.

       transpose-chars (^T) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange  the  two  characters  to  the  left of the cursor if at end of line, else
              exchange the character under the cursor with the character to the left.

       transpose-words (ESC-T ESC-t) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange the current word with the one before it.

       vi-unindent (unbound) (<) (unbound)
              Unindent a number of lines.

       up-case-word (ESC-U ESC-u) (unbound) (unbound)
              Convert the current word to all caps and move past it.

       yank (^Y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Insert the contents of the kill buffer at the cursor position.

       yank-pop (ESC-y) (unbound) (unbound)
              Remove the text just yanked, rotate the kill-ring (the history of previously killed
              text) and yank the new top.  Only works following yank or yank-pop.

       vi-yank (unbound) (y) (unbound)
              Read  a  movement  command  from  the keyboard, and copy the region from the cursor
              position to the endpoint of the movement into the kill buffer.  If the  command  is
              vi-yank, copy the current line.

       vi-yank-whole-line (unbound) (Y) (unbound)
              Copy the current line into the kill buffer.

       vi-yank-eol
              Copy  the  region  from  the  cursor  position to the end of the line into the kill
              buffer.  Arguably, this is what Y should do in vi, but it isn't  what  it  actually
              does.

   Arguments
       digit-argument (ESC-0..ESC-9) (1-9) (unbound)
              Start   a   new   numeric   argument,   or  add  to  the  current  one.   See  also
              vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line.  This only works if bound to a key  sequence  ending
              in a decimal digit.

              Inside  a  widget  function, a call to this function treats the last key of the key
              sequence which called the widget as the digit.

       neg-argument (ESC--) (unbound) (unbound)
              Changes the sign of the following argument.

       universal-argument
              Multiply the argument of the next command by 4.  Alternatively, if this command  is
              followed  by  an  integer  (positive or negative), use that as the argument for the
              next command.  Thus digits cannot be repeated using this command.  For example,  if
              this  command  occurs  twice,  followed  immediately  by forward-char, move forward
              sixteen spaces; if instead it is followed by -2, then forward-char,  move  backward
              two spaces.

              Inside a widget function, if passed an argument, i.e. `zle universal-argument num',
              the numerical argument will be set to num; this is equivalent to `NUMERIC=num'.

       argument-base
              Use the existing numeric argument as a numeric base, which must be in the  range  2
              to  36  inclusive.   Subsequent  use  of digit-argument and universal-argument will
              input a new prefix in the given base.  The usual hexadecimal  convention  is  used:
              the  letter  a  or  A  corresponds  to 10, and so on.  Arguments in bases requiring
              digits from 10 upwards are more conveniently input with  universal-argument,  since
              ESC-a etc. are not usually bound to digit-argument.

              The function can be used with a command argument inside a user-defined widget.  The
              following code sets the base to 16 and lets the user input a  hexadecimal  argument
              until a key out of the digit range is typed:

                     zle argument-base 16
                     zle universal-argument

   Completion
       accept-and-menu-complete
              In a menu completion, insert the current completion into the buffer, and advance to
              the next possible completion.

       complete-word
              Attempt completion on the current word.

       delete-char-or-list (^D) (unbound) (unbound)
              Delete the character under the cursor.  If the cursor is at the end  of  the  line,
              list possible completions for the current word.

       expand-cmd-path
              Expand the current command to its full pathname.

       expand-or-complete (TAB) (unbound) (TAB)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.  If that fails, attempt completion.

       expand-or-complete-prefix
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word up to cursor.

       expand-history (ESC-space ESC-!) (unbound) (unbound)
              Perform history expansion on the edit buffer.

       expand-word (^X*) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt shell expansion on the current word.

       list-choices (ESC-^D) (^D =) (^D)
              List possible completions for the current word.

       list-expand (^Xg ^XG) (^G) (^G)
              List the expansion of the current word.

       magic-space
              Perform  history expansion and insert a space into the buffer.  This is intended to
              be bound to space.

       menu-complete
              Like complete-word, except that menu completion is  used.   See  the  MENU_COMPLETE
              option.

       menu-expand-or-complete
              Like expand-or-complete, except that menu completion is used.

       reverse-menu-complete
              Perform  menu  completion,  like menu-complete, except that if a menu completion is
              already in progress, move to the previous completion rather than the next.

       end-of-list
              When a previous completion displayed a list below the prompt, this  widget  can  be
              used to move the prompt below the list.

   Miscellaneous
       accept-and-hold (ESC-A ESC-a) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the contents of the buffer on the buffer stack and execute it.

       accept-and-infer-next-history
              Execute  the  contents  of  the  buffer.   Then  search the history list for a line
              matching the current one and push the event following onto the buffer stack.

       accept-line (^J ^M) (^J ^M) (^J ^M)
              Finish editing the buffer.  Normally this causes the buffer to  be  executed  as  a
              shell command.

       accept-line-and-down-history (^O) (unbound) (unbound)
              Execute the current line, and push the next history event on the buffer stack.

       auto-suffix-remove
              If  the  previous  action  added  a  suffix (space, slash, etc.) to the word on the
              command line, remove it.  Otherwise do  nothing.   Removing  the  suffix  ends  any
              active menu completion or menu selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from user-defined widgets to enforce a desired
              suffix-removal behavior.

       auto-suffix-retain
              If the previous action added a suffix (space, slash,  etc.)  to  the  word  on  the
              command  line,  force  it  to  be  preserved.  Otherwise do nothing.  Retaining the
              suffix ends any active menu completion or menu selection.

              This widget is intended to be called from user-defined widgets to enforce a desired
              suffix-preservation behavior.

       beep   Beep, unless the BEEP option is unset.

       vi-cmd-mode (^X^V) (unbound) (^[)
              Enter  command  mode;  that  is,  select the `vicmd' keymap.  Yes, this is bound by
              default in emacs mode.

       vi-caps-lock-panic
              Hang until any lowercase key is pressed.  This is for vi users without  the  mental
              capacity to keep track of their caps lock key (like the author).

       clear-screen (^L ESC-^L) (^L) (^L)
              Clear the screen and redraw the prompt.

       describe-key-briefly
              Reads a key sequence, then prints the function bound to that sequence.

       exchange-point-and-mark (^X^X) (unbound) (unbound)
              Exchange  the  cursor  position  (point)  with  the position of the mark.  Unless a
              negative prefix argument is given, the region between point and mark  is  activated
              so  that  it can be highlighted.  If a zero prefix argument is given, the region is
              activated but point and mark are not swapped.

       execute-named-cmd (ESC-x) (:) (unbound)
              Read the name of an editor command and execute it.  A  restricted  set  of  editing
              functions  is  available  in  the  mini-buffer.   Keys are looked up in the special
              command keymap, and if not found there in the main keymap.  An interrupt signal, as
              defined  by  the  stty  setting,  will abort the function.  Note that the following
              always perform the same task within the executed-named-cmd environment  and  cannot
              be replaced by user defined widgets, nor can the set of functions be extended.  The
              allowed functions are: backward-delete-char, vi-backward-delete-char, clear-screen,
              redisplay,        quoted-insert,        vi-quoted-insert,       backward-kill-word,
              vi-backward-kill-word,    kill-whole-line,    vi-kill-line,     backward-kill-line,
              list-choices,  delete-char-or-list,  complete-word, accept-line, expand-or-complete
              and expand-or-complete-prefix.

              kill-region  kills  the  last  word,  and  vi-cmd-mode  is  treated  the  same   as
              accept-line.  The space and tab characters, if not bound to one of these functions,
              will complete the name and then list the possibilities if the AUTO_LIST  option  is
              set.   Any  other  character that is not bound to self-insert or self-insert-unmeta
              will beep and be ignored.  The bindings of the current insert mode will be used.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       execute-last-named-cmd (ESC-z) (unbound) (unbound)
              Redo the last function executed with execute-named-cmd.

              Currently this command may not be redefined or called by name.

       get-line (ESC-G ESC-g) (unbound) (unbound)
              Pop the top line off the buffer stack and insert it at the cursor position.

       pound-insert (unbound) (#) (unbound)
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the buffer, add one to the beginning
              of  each line.  If there is one, remove a # from each line that has one.  In either
              case, accept the current line.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option  must  be  set  for
              this to have any usefulness.

       vi-pound-insert
              If there is no # character at the beginning of the current line, add one.  If there
              is one, remove it.  The INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS option must be set for  this  to  have
              any usefulness.

       push-input
              Push the entire current multiline construct onto the buffer stack and return to the
              top-level (PS1) prompt.  If the current parser construct is  only  a  single  line,
              this  is  exactly like push-line.  Next time the editor starts up or is popped with
              get-line, the construct will be popped off the top of the buffer stack  and  loaded
              into the editing buffer.

       push-line (^Q ESC-Q ESC-q) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push  the current buffer onto the buffer stack and clear the buffer.  Next time the
              editor starts up, the buffer will be popped off the top of  the  buffer  stack  and
              loaded into the editing buffer.

       push-line-or-edit
              At  the  top-level  (PS1)  prompt,  equivalent  to push-line.  At a secondary (PS2)
              prompt, move the entire current multiline construct into the  editor  buffer.   The
              latter is equivalent to push-input followed by get-line.

       read-command
              Only  useful  from  a  user-defined  widget.  A keystroke is read just as in normal
              operation, but instead of the command being executed the name of the  command  that
              would  be executed is stored in the shell parameter REPLY.  This can be used as the
              argument of a future zle command.  If the key sequence is not bound,  status  1  is
              returned;  typically,  however, REPLY is set to undefined-key to indicate a useless
              key sequence.

       recursive-edit
              Only useful from a user-defined widget.  At this point in the function, the  editor
              regains control until one of the standard widgets which would normally cause zle to
              exit (typically an accept-line caused by  hitting  the  return  key)  is  executed.
              Instead,  control  returns  to  the  user-defined  widget.   The status returned is
              non-zero if the return was caused by an error, but  the  function  still  continues
              executing and hence may tidy up.  This makes it safe for the user-defined widget to
              alter the command line or key bindings temporarily.

              The following widget, caps-lock, serves as an example.
                     self-insert-ucase() {
                       LBUFFER+=${(U)KEYS[-1]}
                     }

                     integer stat

                     zle -N self-insert self-insert-ucase
                     zle -A caps-lock save-caps-lock
                     zle -A accept-line caps-lock

                     zle recursive-edit
                     stat=$?

                     zle -A .self-insert self-insert
                     zle -A save-caps-lock caps-lock
                     zle -D save-caps-lock

                     (( stat )) && zle send-break

                     return $stat
              This causes typed letters to be inserted capitalised until either accept-line (i.e.
              typically  the  return  key) is typed or the caps-lock widget is invoked again; the
              later is handled by saving the old definition of caps-lock  as  save-caps-lock  and
              then  rebinding  it  to  invoke accept-line.  Note that an error from the recursive
              edit is detected as a non-zero return status and propagated by using the send-break
              widget.

       redisplay (unbound) (^R) (^R)
              Redisplays the edit buffer.

       reset-prompt (unbound) (unbound) (unbound)
              Force  the prompts on both the left and right of the screen to be re-expanded, then
              redisplay the edit buffer.  This reflects changes  both  to  the  prompt  variables
              themselves and changes in the expansion of the values (for example, changes in time
              or directory, or changes to the value of variables referred to by the prompt).

              Otherwise, the prompt is only expanded each time zle starts, and when  the  display
              as  been  interrupted  by  output  from  another  part  of the shell (such as a job
              notification) which causes the command line to be reprinted.

       send-break (^G ESC-^G) (unbound) (unbound)
              Abort the current  editor  function,  e.g.  execute-named-command,  or  the  editor
              itself,  e.g. if you are in vared. Otherwise abort the parsing of the current line;
              in this case the aborted line is available in the shell variable ZLE_LINE_ABORTED.

       run-help (ESC-H ESC-h) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and  execute  the  command  `run-help  cmd',
              where cmd is the current command.  run-help is normally aliased to man.

       vi-set-buffer (unbound) (") (unbound)
              Specify  a  buffer  to be used in the following command.  There are 35 buffers that
              can be specified: the 26 `named' buffers "a to "z and the nine `queued' buffers  "1
              to "9.  The named buffers can also be specified as "A to "Z.

              When  a  buffer  is  specified  for  a cut command, the text being cut replaces the
              previous contents of the specified buffer.  If a named buffer is specified using  a
              capital, the newly cut text is appended to the buffer instead of overwriting it.

              If  no buffer is specified for a cut command, "1 is used, and the contents of "1 to
              "8 are each shifted along one buffer; the contents of "9 is lost.

       vi-set-mark (unbound) (m) (unbound)
              Set the specified mark at the cursor position.

       set-mark-command (^@) (unbound) (unbound)
              Set the mark at the cursor position.  If called with a negative prefix argument, do
              not  set the mark but deactivate the region so that it is no longer highlighted (it
              is still usable for other purposes).  Otherwise the region is marked as active.

       spell-word (ESC-$ ESC-S ESC-s) (unbound) (unbound)
              Attempt spelling correction on the current word.

       undefined-key
              This command is executed when a key sequence that is not bound to  any  command  is
              typed.  By default it beeps.

       undo (^_ ^Xu ^X^U) (unbound) (unbound)
              Incrementally undo the last text modification.

       redo   Incrementally redo undone text modifications.

       vi-undo-change (unbound) (u) (unbound)
              Undo the last text modification.  If repeated, redo the modification.

       what-cursor-position (^X=) (unbound) (unbound)
              Print the character under the cursor, its code as an octal, decimal and hexadecimal
              number, the current cursor position within the buffer and the column of the  cursor
              in the current line.

       where-is
              Read  the  name  of  an  editor command and print the listing of key sequences that
              invoke the specified command.  A restricted set of editing functions  is  available
              in  the  mini-buffer.  Keys are looked up in the special command keymap, and if not
              found there in the main keymap.

       which-command (ESC-?) (unbound) (unbound)
              Push the buffer onto the buffer stack, and execute the command `which-command cmd'.
              where cmd is the current command.  which-command is normally aliased to whence.

       vi-digit-or-beginning-of-line (unbound) (0) (unbound)
              If  the  last  command  executed  was  a digit as part of an argument, continue the
              argument.  Otherwise, execute vi-beginning-of-line.

CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING

       The line editor has the ability to highlight characters or regions of the line that have a
       particular  significance.   This is controlled by the array parameter zle_highlight, if it
       has been set by the user.

       If the parameter contains the single entry none all highlighting is turned off.  Note  the
       parameter is still expected to be an array.

       Otherwise  each  entry  of  the  array  should  consist of a word indicating a context for
       highlighting, then a colon, then a comma-separated list of the types  of  highlighting  to
       apply in that context.

       The contexts available for highlighting are the following:

       default
              Any  text  within  the  command  line not affected by any other highlighting.  Text
              outside the editable area of the command line is not affected.

       isearch
              When one of the incremental history search widgets  is  active,  the  area  of  the
              command line matched by the search string or pattern.

       region The  region  between  the cursor (point) and the mark as set with set-mark-command.
              The  region  is  only  highlighted  if  it  is  active,  which  is  the   case   if
              set-mark-command  or  exchange-point-and-mark  has been called and the line has not
              been  subsequently  modified.   The  region   can   be   deactivated   by   calling
              set-mark-command  with  a  negative  prefix  argument,  or  reactivated  by calling
              exchange-point-and-mark with a zero prefix argument.  Note that whether or not  the
              region  is  active  has  no  effect on its use within widgets, it simply determines
              whether it is highlighted.

       special
              Individual characters that have no direct printable representation but are shown in
              a special manner by the line editor.  These characters are described below.

       suffix This  context is used in completion for characters that are marked as suffixes that
              will be removed if the completion ends at that  point,  the  most  obvious  example
              being   a  slash  (/)  after  a  directory  name.   Note  that  suffix  removal  is
              configurable; the circumstances under which the suffix will be removed  may  differ
              for different completions.

       zle_highlight  may  contain  additional  fields  for controlling how terminal sequences to
       change colours are output.  Each of the following is followed by a colon and a  string  in
       the  same  form  as for key bindings.  This will not be necessary for the vast majority of
       terminals as the defaults shown in parentheses are widely used.

       fg_start_code (\e[3)
              The start of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.  This is followed by an
              ASCII digit representing the colour.

       fg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour to reset the default foreground colour.

       fg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the foreground colour.

       bg_start_code (\e[4)
              The start of the escape sequence for the background colour.  This is followed by an
              ASCII digit representing the colour.

       bg_default_code (9)
              The number to use instead of the colour to reset the default background colour.

       bg_end_code (m)
              The end of the escape sequence for the background colour.

       The available types of highlighting are  the  following.   Note  that  not  all  types  of
       highlighting are available on all terminals:

       none   No  highlighting  is  applied  to  the given context.  It is not useful for this to
              appear with other types of highlighting; it is used to override a default.

       fg=colour
              The foreground colour should be set to colour, a decimal integer or the name of one
              of the eight most widely-supported colours.

              Not all terminals support this and, of those that do, not all provide facilities to
              test the support, hence the user should decide based on the  terminal  type.   Most
              terminals  support  the  colours black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and
              white, which can be set by name.  In addition. default  may  be  used  to  set  the
              terminal's  default  foreground colour.  Abbreviations are allowed; b or bl selects
              black.  Some terminals may generate additional colours if  the  bold  attribute  is
              also present.

              On  recent terminals and on systems with an up-to-date terminal database the number
              of colours supported may be tested by the command `echotc Co'; if this succeeds, it
              indicates  a  limit  on  the  number  of colours which will be enforced by the line
              editor.  The number of colours is in any case limited to 256 (i.e. the range  0  to
              255).

              Colour is also known as color.

       bg=colour
              The  background  colour  should  be  set  to  colour.   This works similarly to the
              foreground colour, except the background  is  not  usually  affected  by  the  bold
              attribute.

       bold   The  characters  in  the given context are shown in a bold font.  Not all terminals
              distinguish bold fonts.

       standout
              The characters in the given context are shown in the terminal's standout mode.  The
              actual  effect  is specific to the terminal; on many terminals it is inverse video.
              On some such terminals, where the cursor does not blink it  appears  with  standout
              mode  negated,  making  it  less  than clear where the cursor actually is.  On such
              terminals one of the other effects may be preferable for  highlighting  the  region
              and matched search string.

       underline
              The  characters in the given context are shown underlined.  Some terminals show the
              foreground in a different colour instead; in  this  case  whitespace  will  not  be
              highlighted.

       The characters described above as `special' are as follows.  The formatting described here
       is used irrespective of whether the characters are highlighted:

       ASCII control characters
              Control characters in the ASCII range  are  shown  as  `^'  followed  by  the  base
              character.

       Unprintable multibyte characters
              This  item  applies  to  control  characters  not  in  the  ASCII range, plus other
              characters as follows.  If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, multibyte  characters
              not  in  the ASCII character set that are reported as having zero width are treated
              as combining characters when the option COMBINING_CHARS is on.  If  the  option  is
              off,  or  if  a  character  appears  where  a combining character is not valid, the
              character is treated as unprintable.

              Unprintable multibyte characters are shown as a hexadecimal  number  between  angle
              brackets.  The number is the code point of the character in the wide character set;
              this may or may not be Unicode, depending on the operating system.

       Invalid multibyte characters
              If the MULTIBYTE option is in effect, any sequence of one or more bytes  that  does
              not  form  a valid character in the current character set is treated as a series of
              bytes each shown as a special character.  This case can be distinguished from other
              unprintable  characters  as  the  bytes  are  represented as two hexadecimal digits
              between angle brackets, as distinct from the four or eight digits that are used for
              unprintable characters that are nonetheless valid in the current character set.

              Not  all  systems support this: for it to work, the system's representation of wide
              characters must be code values from the Universal Character Set, as defined by  IS0
              10646 (also known as Unicode).

       Wrapped double-width characters
              When  a double-width character appears in the final column of a line, it is instead
              shown on the  next  line.  The  empty  space  left  in  the  original  position  is
              highlighted as a special character.

       If  zle_highlight  is  not  set  or no value applies to a particular context, the defaults
       applied are equivalent to

              zle_highlight=(region:standout special:standout
              suffix:bold isearch:underline)

       i.e. both the region and special characters are shown in standout mode.

       Within widgets, arbitrary  regions  may  be  highlighted  by  setting  the  special  array
       parameter region_highlight; see above.