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NAME

       close - close a file descriptor

SYNOPSIS

       #include <unistd.h>

       int close(int fd);

DESCRIPTION

       close()  closes  a  file  descriptor,  so  that it no longer refers to any file and may be
       reused.  Any record locks (see fcntl(2)) held on the file  it  was  associated  with,  and
       owned  by  the  process,  are  removed (regardless of the file descriptor that was used to
       obtain the lock).

       If fd is the last file descriptor referring to the underlying open file  description  (see
       open(2)),  the  resources  associated  with  the  open  file description are freed; if the
       descriptor was the last reference to a file which has been  removed  using  unlink(2)  the
       file is deleted.

RETURN VALUE

       close()   returns  zero  on  success.   On  error,  -1  is  returned,  and  errno  is  set
       appropriately.

ERRORS

       EBADF  fd isn't a valid open file descriptor.

       EINTR  The close() call was interrupted by a signal; see signal(7).

       EIO    An I/O error occurred.

CONFORMING TO

       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES

       Not checking the return value of close() is a common but nevertheless serious  programming
       error.   It  is  quite  possible  that  errors  on a previous write(2) operation are first
       reported at the final close().  Not checking the return value when closing  the  file  may
       lead  to  silent  loss  of  data.   This can especially be observed with NFS and with disk
       quota.

       A successful close does not guarantee that the data has been successfully saved  to  disk,
       as the kernel defers writes.  It is not common for a file system to flush the buffers when
       the stream is closed.  If you need to be sure that  the  data  is  physically  stored  use
       fsync(2).  (It will depend on the disk hardware at this point.)

       It  is  probably unwise to close file descriptors while they may be in use by system calls
       in other threads in the same process.  Since a file descriptor may be  reused,  there  are
       some obscure race conditions that may cause unintended side effects.

SEE ALSO

       fcntl(2), fsync(2), open(2), shutdown(2), unlink(2), fclose(3)

COLOPHON

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       project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at  http://man7.org/linux/man-
       pages/.