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NAME

       setpgid, getpgid, setpgrp, getpgrp - set/get process group

SYNOPSIS

       #include <unistd.h>

       int setpgid(pid_t pid, pid_t pgid);
       pid_t getpgid(pid_t pid);

       pid_t getpgrp(void);                 /* POSIX.1 version */
       pid_t getpgrp(pid_t pid);            /* BSD version */

       int setpgrp(void);                   /* System V version */
       int setpgrp(pid_t pid, pid_t pgid);  /* BSD version */

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       getpgid():
           _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 || _XOPEN_SOURCE && _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED
           || /* Since glibc 2.12: */ _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200809L

       setpgrp() (POSIX.1):
           _SVID_SOURCE || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500 ||
           _XOPEN_SOURCE && _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED

       setpgrp() (BSD), getpgrp() (BSD):
           _BSD_SOURCE &&
               ! (_POSIX_SOURCE || _POSIX_C_SOURCE || _XOPEN_SOURCE ||
                  _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED || _GNU_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE)

DESCRIPTION

       All  of  these interfaces are available on Linux, and are used for getting and setting the
       process group ID (PGID) of a process.  The preferred, POSIX.1-specified ways of doing this
       are:  getpgrp(void), for retrieving the calling process's PGID; and setpgid(), for setting
       a process's PGID.

       setpgid() sets the PGID of the process specified by pid to pgid.  If pid is zero, then the
       process  ID of the calling process is used.  If pgid is zero, then the PGID of the process
       specified by pid is made the same as its process ID.  If  setpgid()  is  used  to  move  a
       process  from  one  process  group  to  another  (as  is done by some shells when creating
       pipelines), both process groups must be part  of  the  same  session  (see  setsid(2)  and
       credentials(7)).   In this case, the pgid specifies an existing process group to be joined
       and the session ID of that group must match the session ID of the joining process.

       The POSIX.1 version of getpgrp(), which takes  no  arguments,  returns  the  PGID  of  the
       calling process.

       getpgid()  returns  the PGID of the process specified by pid.  If pid is zero, the process
       ID of the calling process is used.  (Retrieving the PGID  of  a  process  other  than  the
       caller is rarely necessary, and the POSIX.1 getpgrp() is preferred for that task.)

       The System V-style setpgrp(), which takes no arguments, is equivalent to setpgid(0, 0).

       The  BSD-specific  setpgrp()  call,  which  takes arguments pid and pgid, is equivalent to
       setpgid(pid, pgid).

       The BSD-specific getpgrp() call, which takes a  single  pid  argument,  is  equivalent  to
       getpgid(pid).

RETURN VALUE

       On  success,  setpgid() and setpgrp() return zero.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is
       set appropriately.

       The POSIX.1 getpgrp() always returns the PGID of the caller.

       getpgid(), and the BSD-specific getpgrp() return a process group on success.  On error, -1
       is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS

       EACCES An  attempt  was  made to change the process group ID of one of the children of the
              calling process and the  child  had  already  performed  an  execve(2)  (setpgid(),
              setpgrp()).

       EINVAL pgid is less than 0 (setpgid(), setpgrp()).

       EPERM  An  attempt was made to move a process into a process group in a different session,
              or to change the process group ID of one of the children of the calling process and
              the  child  was  in  a  different  session,  or to change the process group ID of a
              session leader (setpgid(), setpgrp()).

       ESRCH  For getpgid(): pid does not match any process.   For  setpgid():  pid  is  not  the
              calling process and not a child of the calling process.

CONFORMING TO

       setpgid() and the version of getpgrp() with no arguments conform to POSIX.1-2001.

       POSIX.1-2001  also  specifies  getpgid()  and  the  version  of  setpgrp()  that  takes no
       arguments.  (POSIX.1-2008 marks this setpgrp() specification as obsolete.)

       The version of getpgrp() with one argument and the version of  setpgrp()  that  takes  two
       arguments derive from 4.2BSD, and are not specified by POSIX.1.

NOTES

       A child created via fork(2) inherits its parent's process group ID.  The PGID is preserved
       across an execve(2).

       Each process group is a member of a session and each process is a member of the session of
       which its process group is a member.

       A session can have a controlling terminal.  At any time, one (and only one) of the process
       groups in the session can be the foreground process group for the terminal; the  remaining
       process  groups  are in the background.  If a signal is generated from the terminal (e.g.,
       typing the interrupt key to generate SIGINT),  that  signal  is  sent  to  the  foreground
       process  group.   (See  termios(3)  for  a  description  of  the  characters that generate
       signals.)  Only the  foreground  process  group  may  read(2)  from  the  terminal;  if  a
       background  process  group  tries  to  read(2) from the terminal, then the group is sent a
       SIGTSTP signal, which suspends it.  The tcgetpgrp(3) and tcsetpgrp(3) functions  are  used
       to get/set the foreground process group of the controlling terminal.

       The  setpgid()  and getpgrp() calls are used by programs such as bash(1) to create process
       groups in order to implement shell job control.

       If a session has a controlling terminal, and the CLOCAL flag for that terminal is not set,
       and  a  terminal  hangup occurs, then the session leader is sent a SIGHUP.  If the session
       leader exits, then a SIGHUP signal will also be sent to each  process  in  the  foreground
       process group of the controlling terminal.

       If the exit of the process causes a process group to become orphaned, and if any member of
       the newly orphaned process group is stopped, then a SIGHUP signal followed  by  a  SIGCONT
       signal  will  be  sent  to  each process in the newly orphaned process group.  An orphaned
       process group is one in which the parent of every member of process group is either itself
       also  a  member  of  the  process  group  or is a member of a process group in a different
       session (see also credentials(7)).

SEE ALSO

       getuid(2), setsid(2), tcgetpgrp(3), tcsetpgrp(3), termios(3), credentials(7)

COLOPHON

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