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NAME

       link - make a new name for a file

SYNOPSIS

       #include <unistd.h>

       int link(const char *oldpath, const char *newpath);

DESCRIPTION

       link() creates a new link (also known as a hard link) to an existing file.

       If newpath exists it will not be overwritten.

       This  new  name  may be used exactly as the old one for any operation; both names refer to
       the same file (and so have the same permissions and ownership) and  it  is  impossible  to
       tell which name was the "original".

RETURN VALUE

       On success, zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS

       EACCES Write access to the directory containing newpath is denied, or search permission is
              denied for one of the directories in the path prefix of oldpath or  newpath.   (See
              also path_resolution(7).)

       EEXIST newpath already exists.

       EFAULT oldpath or newpath points outside your accessible address space.

       EIO    An I/O error occurred.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving oldpath or newpath.

       EMLINK The file referred to by oldpath already has the maximum number of links to it.

       ENAMETOOLONG
              oldpath or newpath was too long.

       ENOENT A  directory  component  in  oldpath  or  newpath  does  not exist or is a dangling
              symbolic link.

       ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.

       ENOSPC The device containing the file has no room for the new directory entry.

       ENOTDIR
              A component used as a directory in oldpath or newpath is not, in fact, a directory.

       EPERM  oldpath is a directory.

       EPERM  The file system containing oldpath and newpath does not  support  the  creation  of
              hard links.

       EROFS  The file is on a read-only file system.

       EXDEV  oldpath and newpath are not on the same mounted file system.  (Linux permits a file
              system to be mounted at multiple points, but link() does not work across  different
              mount points, even if the same file system is mounted on both.)

CONFORMING TO

       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001 (but see NOTES).

NOTES

       Hard  links,  as  created  by link(), cannot span file systems.  Use symlink(2) if this is
       required.

       POSIX.1-2001 says that link() should  dereference  oldpath  if  it  is  a  symbolic  link.
       However,  since  kernel  2.0,  Linux  does  not do so: if oldpath is a symbolic link, then
       newpath is created as a (hard) link to the same symbolic link file (i.e., newpath  becomes
       a  symbolic  link  to  the  same file that oldpath refers to).  Some other implementations
       behave in the same manner as Linux.  POSIX.1-2008 changes  the  specification  of  link(),
       making  it  implementation-dependent  whether  or  not  oldpath is dereferenced if it is a
       symbolic link.  For precise control over the treatment of symbolic links when  creating  a
       link, see linkat(2).

BUGS

       On NFS file systems, the return code may be wrong in case the NFS server performs the link
       creation and dies before it can say so.  Use stat(2) to find out if the link got created.

SEE ALSO

       ln(1), linkat(2), open(2), rename(2), stat(2), symlink(2), unlink(2),  path_resolution(7),
       symlink(7)

COLOPHON

       This  page  is  part of release 3.35 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the
       project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at  http://man7.org/linux/man-
       pages/.