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     mmap — allocate memory, or map files or devices into memory


     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)


     #include <sys/mman.h>

     void *
     mmap(void *addr, size_t len, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);


     The mmap() system call causes the pages starting at addr and continuing for at most len
     bytes to be mapped from the object described by fd, starting at byte offset offset.  If len
     is not a multiple of the pagesize, the mapped region may extend past the specified range.
     Any such extension beyond the end of the mapped object will be zero-filled.

     If addr is non-zero, it is used as a hint to the system.  (As a convenience to the system,
     the actual address of the region may differ from the address supplied.)  If addr is zero, an
     address will be selected by the system.  The actual starting address of the region is
     returned.  A successful mmap deletes any previous mapping in the allocated address range.

     The protections (region accessibility) are specified in the prot argument by or'ing the
     following values:

     PROT_NONE   Pages may not be accessed.
     PROT_READ   Pages may be read.
     PROT_WRITE  Pages may be written.
     PROT_EXEC   Pages may be executed.

     The flags argument specifies the type of the mapped object, mapping options and whether
     modifications made to the mapped copy of the page are private to the process or are to be
     shared with other references.  Sharing, mapping type and options are specified in the flags
     argument by or'ing the following values:

     MAP_ANON          Map anonymous memory not associated with any specific file.  The file
                       descriptor used for creating MAP_ANON must be -1.  The offset argument
                       must be 0.

     MAP_FIXED         Do not permit the system to select a different address than the one
                       specified.  If the specified address cannot be used, mmap() will fail.  If
                       MAP_FIXED is specified, addr must be a multiple of the pagesize.  If a
                       MAP_FIXED request is successful, the mapping established by mmap()
                       replaces any previous mappings for the process' pages in the range from
                       addr to addr + len.  Use of this option is discouraged.

     MAP_HASSEMAPHORE  Notify the kernel that the region may contain semaphores and that special
                       handling may be necessary.

     MAP_INHERIT       This flag never operated as advertised and is no longer supported.  Please
                       refer to minherit(2) for further information.

     MAP_NOCORE        Region is not included in a core file.

     MAP_NOSYNC        Causes data dirtied via this VM map to be flushed to physical media only
                       when necessary (usually by the pager) rather than gratuitously.  Typically
                       this prevents the update daemons from flushing pages dirtied through such
                       maps and thus allows efficient sharing of memory across unassociated
                       processes using a file-backed shared memory map.  Without this option any
                       VM pages you dirty may be flushed to disk every so often (every 30-60
                       seconds usually) which can create performance problems if you do not need
                       that to occur (such as when you are using shared file-backed mmap regions
                       for IPC purposes).  Note that VM/file system coherency is maintained
                       whether you use MAP_NOSYNC or not.  This option is not portable across
                       UNIX platforms (yet), though some may implement the same behavior by

                       WARNING!  Extending a file with ftruncate(2), thus creating a big hole,
                       and then filling the hole by modifying a shared mmap() can lead to severe
                       file fragmentation.  In order to avoid such fragmentation you should
                       always pre-allocate the file's backing store by write()ing zero's into the
                       newly extended area prior to modifying the area via your mmap().  The
                       fragmentation problem is especially sensitive to MAP_NOSYNC pages, because
                       pages may be flushed to disk in a totally random order.

                       The same applies when using MAP_NOSYNC to implement a file-based shared
                       memory store.  It is recommended that you create the backing store by
                       write()ing zero's to the backing file rather than ftruncate()ing it.  You
                       can test file fragmentation by observing the KB/t (kilobytes per transfer)
                       results from an “iostat 1” while reading a large file sequentially, e.g.
                       using “dd if=filename of=/dev/null bs=32k”.

                       The fsync(2) system call will flush all dirty data and metadata associated
                       with a file, including dirty NOSYNC VM data, to physical media.  The
                       sync(8) command and sync(2) system call generally do not flush dirty
                       NOSYNC VM data.  The msync(2) system call is obsolete since BSD implements
                       a coherent file system buffer cache.  However, it may be used to associate
                       dirty VM pages with file system buffers and thus cause them to be flushed
                       to physical media sooner rather than later.

     MAP_PRIVATE       Modifications are private.

     MAP_SHARED        Modifications are shared.

     MAP_STACK         MAP_STACK implies MAP_ANON, and offset of 0.  The fd argument must be -1
                       and prot must include at least PROT_READ and PROT_WRITE.  This option
                       creates a memory region that grows to at most len bytes in size, starting
                       from the stack top and growing down.  The stack top is the starting
                       address returned by the call, plus len bytes.  The bottom of the stack at
                       maximum growth is the starting address returned by the call.

     The close(2) system call does not unmap pages, see munmap(2) for further information.

     The current design does not allow a process to specify the location of swap space.  In the
     future we may define an additional mapping type, MAP_SWAP, in which the file descriptor
     argument specifies a file or device to which swapping should be done.


     Although this implementation does not impose any alignment restrictions on the offset
     argument, a portable program must only use page-aligned values.


     Upon successful completion, mmap() returns a pointer to the mapped region.  Otherwise, a
     value of MAP_FAILED is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.


     The mmap() system call will fail if:

     [EACCES]           The flag PROT_READ was specified as part of the prot argument and fd was
                        not open for reading.  The flags MAP_SHARED and PROT_WRITE were specified
                        as part of the flags and prot argument and fd was not open for writing.

     [EBADF]            The fd argument is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EINVAL]           MAP_FIXED was specified and the addr argument was not page aligned, or
                        part of the desired address space resides out of the valid address space
                        for a user process.

     [EINVAL]           The len argument was equal to zero.

     [EINVAL]           MAP_ANON was specified and the fd argument was not -1.

     [EINVAL]           MAP_ANON was specified and the offset argument was not 0.

     [ENODEV]           MAP_ANON has not been specified and fd did not reference a regular or
                        character special file.

     [ENOMEM]           MAP_FIXED was specified and the addr argument was not available.
                        MAP_ANON was specified and insufficient memory was available.  The system
                        has reached the per-process mmap limit specified in the vm.max_proc_mmap


     madvise(2), mincore(2), minherit(2), mlock(2), mprotect(2), msync(2), munlock(2), munmap(2),
     getpagesize(3), make.conf(5)


     The len argument is limited to the maximum file size or available userland address space.
     Files may not be able to be made more than 1TB large on 32 bit systems due to file systems
     restrictions and bugs, but address space is far more restrictive.  Larger files may be
     possible on 64 bit systems.

     The previous documented limit of 2GB was a documentation bug.  That limit has not existed
     since FreeBSD 2.2.