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NAME

     wait, waitpid, wait4, wait3 — wait for process termination

LIBRARY

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/wait.h>

     pid_t
     wait(int *status);

     #include <sys/time.h>
     #include <sys/resource.h>

     pid_t
     waitpid(pid_t wpid, int *status, int options);

     pid_t
     wait3(int *status, int options, struct rusage *rusage);

     pid_t
     wait4(pid_t wpid, int *status, int options, struct rusage *rusage);

DESCRIPTION

     The wait() function suspends execution of its calling process until status information is
     available for a terminated child process, or a signal is received.  On return from a
     successful wait() call, the status area contains termination information about the process
     that exited as defined below.

     The wait4() system call provides a more general interface for programs that need to wait for
     certain child processes, that need resource utilization statistics accumulated by child
     processes, or that require options.  The other wait functions are implemented using wait4().

     The wpid argument specifies the set of child processes for which to wait.  If wpid is -1,
     the call waits for any child process.  If wpid is 0, the call waits for any child process in
     the process group of the caller.  If wpid is greater than zero, the call waits for the
     process with process id wpid.  If wpid is less than -1, the call waits for any process whose
     process group id equals the absolute value of wpid.

     The status argument is defined below.

     The options argument contains the bitwise OR of any of the following options.  The
     WCONTINUED option indicates that children of the current process that have continued from a
     job control stop, by receiving a SIGCONT signal, should also have their status reported.
     The WNOHANG option is used to indicate that the call should not block if there are no
     processes that wish to report status.  If the WUNTRACED option is set, children of the
     current process that are stopped due to a SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, SIGTSTP, or SIGSTOP signal also
     have their status reported.  The WSTOPPED option is an alias for WUNTRACED.  The WNOWAIT
     option keeps the process whose status is returned in a waitable state.  The process may be
     waited for again after this call completes.

     If rusage is non-zero, a summary of the resources used by the terminated process and all its
     children is returned (this information is currently not available for stopped or continued
     processes).

     When the WNOHANG option is specified and no processes wish to report status, wait4() returns
     a process id of 0.

     The waitpid() function is identical to wait4() with an rusage value of zero.  The older
     wait3() call is the same as wait4() with a wpid value of -1.

     The following macros may be used to test the manner of exit of the process.  One of the
     first three macros will evaluate to a non-zero (true) value:

     WIFCONTINUED(status)
             True if the process has not terminated, and has continued after a job control stop.
             This macro can be true only if the wait call specified the WCONTINUED option).

     WIFEXITED(status)
             True if the process terminated normally by a call to _exit(2) or exit(3).

     WIFSIGNALED(status)
             True if the process terminated due to receipt of a signal.

     WIFSTOPPED(status)
             True if the process has not terminated, but has stopped and can be restarted.  This
             macro can be true only if the wait call specified the WUNTRACED option or if the
             child process is being traced (see ptrace(2)).

     Depending on the values of those macros, the following macros produce the remaining status
     information about the child process:

     WEXITSTATUS(status)
             If WIFEXITED(status) is true, evaluates to the low-order 8 bits of the argument
             passed to _exit(2) or exit(3) by the child.

     WTERMSIG(status)
             If WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the signal that caused
             the termination of the process.

     WCOREDUMP(status)
             If WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates as true if the termination of the process
             was accompanied by the creation of a core file containing an image of the process
             when the signal was received.

     WSTOPSIG(status)
             If WIFSTOPPED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the signal that caused the
             process to stop.

NOTES

     See sigaction(2) for a list of termination signals.  A status of 0 indicates normal
     termination.

     If a parent process terminates without waiting for all of its child processes to terminate,
     the remaining child processes are assigned the parent process 1 ID (the init process ID).

     If a signal is caught while any of the wait() calls are pending, the call may be interrupted
     or restarted when the signal-catching routine returns, depending on the options in effect
     for the signal; see discussion of SA_RESTART in sigaction(2).

     The implementation queues one SIGCHLD signal for each child process whose status has
     changed, if wait() returns because the status of a child process is available, the pending
     SIGCHLD signal associated with the process ID of the child process will be discarded.  Any
     other pending SIGCHLD signals remain pending.

     If SIGCHLD is blocked, wait() returns because the status of a child process is available,
     the pending SIGCHLD signal will be cleared unless another status of the child process is
     available.

RETURN VALUES

     If wait() returns due to a stopped, continued, or terminated child process, the process ID
     of the child is returned to the calling process.  Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and
     errno is set to indicate the error.

     If wait4(), wait3(), or waitpid() returns due to a stopped, continued, or terminated child
     process, the process ID of the child is returned to the calling process.  If there are no
     children not previously awaited, -1 is returned with errno set to ECHILD.  Otherwise, if
     WNOHANG is specified and there are no stopped, continued or exited children, 0 is returned.
     If an error is detected or a caught signal aborts the call, a value of -1 is returned and
     errno is set to indicate the error.

ERRORS

     The wait() function will fail and return immediately if:

     [ECHILD]           The calling process has no existing unwaited-for child processes.

     [ECHILD]           No status from the terminated child process is available because the
                        calling process has asked the system to discard such status by ignoring
                        the signal SIGCHLD or setting the flag SA_NOCLDWAIT for that signal.

     [EFAULT]           The status or rusage argument points to an illegal address.  (May not be
                        detected before exit of a child process.)

     [EINTR]            The call was interrupted by a caught signal, or the signal did not have
                        the SA_RESTART flag set.

SEE ALSO

     _exit(2), ptrace(2), sigaction(2), exit(3), siginfo(3)

STANDARDS

     The wait() and waitpid() functions are defined by POSIX; wait4() and wait3() are not
     specified by POSIX.  The WCOREDUMP() macro and the ability to restart a pending wait() call
     are extensions to the POSIX interface.

HISTORY

     The wait() function appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.