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NAME

       Cgetopt_long - get long options from command line argument list

SYNOPSIS

       #include <Cgetopt.h>

       int Cgetopt (int argc, char **argv, char *optstring)
       int  Cgetopt_long  (int  argc, char **argv, char *optstring, Coptions_t *long_options, int
       *index)

DESCRIPTION

       The Cgetopt function incrementally parses a command line argument list  argv  and  returns
       the  next known option character. An option character is known if it has been specified in
       the string of accepted option characters optstring.

       The Cgetopt_long function is similar to Cgetopt but it accepts options in two forms: words
       and  characters.  The  Cgetopt_long  function  provides a superset of the functionality of
       Cgetopt.  The additional functionality is described in the section CGETOPT_LONG.

       The option string optstring may contain the following elements: individual characters, and
       characters  followed  by a colon to indicate an option argument is to follow. For example,
       an option string x recognizes an option x , and an option string x: recognizes an option x
       taking  an  argument.   It  does not matter to Cgetopt if a following argument has leading
       white space.

       On return from Cgetopt, Coptarg points to an option argument, if it  is  anticipated,  and
       the variable Coptind contains the index to the next argv argument for a subsequent call to
       Cgetopt.  The variable Coptopt saves the last known option character returned by Cgetopt.

       The variables Copterr and Coptind are both initialized to 1.  The Coptind variable may  be
       set  to  another value before a set of calls to Cgetopt in order to skip over more or less
       argv entries.

       In order to use Cgetopt to evaluate multiple sets of arguments, or to  evaluate  a  single
       set of arguments multiple times, the variable Coptreset must be set to 1 before the second
       and  each  additional  set  of  calls  to  Cgetopt  and  the  variable  Coptind  must   be
       reinitialized.

       The  Cgetopt  function returns -1 when the argument list is exhausted, or a non-recognized
       option is encountered.  The  interpretation  of  options  in  the  argument  list  may  be
       cancelled  by  the  option  --  (double  dash)  which  causes Cgetopt to signal the end of
       argument processing and returns -1. When all options have been processed (i.e., up to  the
       first  non-option argument), Cgetopt returns -1.  .P Cgetopt_long can be used in two ways.
       In the first way, every long option understood by the program  has  a  coresponding  short
       option,  and  the  option  structure  is  only used to translate from long option to short
       options. When used in this fashion, Cgetopt_long behaves identically to Cgetopt.  This  is
       good  way  to  add  long  option  processing  to  an  existing program with the minimum of
       rewriting.

       In the second mechanism, a long option set a flag in the Coptions_t structure  passed,  or
       will store a pointer to the command line argument in the Coptions_t structure passed to it
       for options that take arguments. Additionally, the long option's argument may be specified
       as a single argument with an equal sign, e.g myprogram --myoption=somevalue

       When  a  long option is processed the call to Cgetopt_long will return 0. For this reason,
       long option processing without shortcuts are not backwards compatible with Cgetopt.

       It is possible to combine these methods, providing for long options processing with  short
       option  equivalents  for  some options. Less frequently used options would be processed as
       long options only.

USAGE OF CGETOPT_LONG

       The Cgetopt_long call requires a structure to be initialized describing the long  options.
       The structure is:

       Coptions_t {
           char *name;
           int has_arg;
           int *flag;
           int val;
       };

       The name field should contain the option name without the leading double dash.

       The  has_arg field should be one of: NO_ARGUMENT if no argument to the option is expected,
       REQUIRED_ARGUMENT if an argument to the option is  required  or  OPTIONAL_ARGUMENT  if  an
       argument to the option may be presented.

       If  flag  is  non-NULL, then the integer pointed to by it will set to the value in the val
       field. If the flag field is NULL, then the val field will be  returned.  Setting  flag  to
       NULL  and  setting  val to the corresponding short option will make this function act just
       like Cgetopt.

DIAGNOSTICS

       If the Cgetopt function encounters a character  not  found  in  the  string  optstring  or
       detects  a  missing  option  argument  it writes an error message to stderr and returns ?.
       Setting Copterr to a zero will disable these error messages.  If optstring has a leading :
       then  a  missing  option argument causes a : to be returned in addition to suppressing any
       error messages.

       Option arguments are allowed to begin with - ; this is reasonable but reduces  the  amount
       of error checking possible.

CGETOPT_LONG EXTENSIONS

       The Coptreset variable was added to make it possible to call the Cgetopt function multiple
       times.  This is an extension to the -p1003.2 specification.

EXAMPLE

       #include <Cgetopt.h>
       int bflag, ch, fd;

       Coptind = 1;            /* Required */
       Copterr = 1;            /* Some stderr output if you want */

       bflag = 0;
       while ((ch = Cgetopt(argc, argv, "bf:")) != -1)
            switch(ch) {
            case 'b':
                 bflag = 1;
                 break;
            case 'f':
                 if ((fd = open(Coptarg, O_RDONLY, 0)) < 0) {
                      (void)fprintf(stderr,
                          "myname: %s: %s\n", Coptarg, strerror(errno));
                      exit(1);
                 }
                 break;
            case '?':
            default:
                 usage();
       }
       argc -= Coptind;
       argv += Coptind;

LONG EXAMPLE

       #include <Cgetopt.h>
       int bflag, ch, fd;
       int daggerset;

       /* options descriptor */
       Coptions_t longopts[] =
       {
         {"buffy",       NO_ARGUMENT,        NULL,      'b'},
         {"floride",     REQUIRED_ARGUMENT,  NULL,      'f'},
         {"daggerset",   NO_ARGUMENT,        &daggerset,  1},
         {NULL,          0,                  NULL,        0}
       };

       Coptind = 1;            /* Required */
       Copterr = 1;            /* Some stderr output if you want */

       bflag = 0;
       while ((ch = Cgetopt_long(argc, argv, "bf:", longopts, NULL)) != -1)
            switch(ch) {
            case 'b':
                 bflag = 1;
                 break;
            case 'f':
                 if ((fd = open(Coptarg, O_RDONLY, 0)) < 0) {
                      (void)fprintf(stderr,
                          "myname: %s: %s\n", Coptarg, strerror(errno));
                      exit(1);
                 }
                 break;
            case 0:
                 if(daggerset) {
                      fprintf(stderr,"Buffy will put use her dagger"
                                  "to apply floride to dracula's teeth");
                 }
                 break;
            case '?':
            default:
                 usage();
       }
       argc -= Coptind;
       argv += Coptind;

HISTORY

       The Cgetopt function appeared in BSD 4.3.  The Cgetopt_long function first appeared in GNU
       library. This implementation was imported to NetBSD from a Kerberos distribution.

BUGS

       The  Cgetopt  function was once specified to return EOF instead of -1. This was changed by
       -p1003.2-92 to decouple Cgetopt from <stdio.h>.

       A single dash - may be specified as an character in optstring,  however  it  should  never
       have  an  argument  associated with it.  This allows Cgetopt to be used with programs that
       expect - as an option flag.  This practice is wrong, and should not be used in any current
       development.   It  is provided for backward compatibility only.  By default, a single dash
       causes Cgetopt to return -1.  This is, we believe, compatible with System V.

       It is also possible to handle digits as option letters.  This allows Cgetopt  to  be  used
       with  programs  that  expect a number -3 as an option.  This practice is wrong, and should
       not be used in any current development.  It is provided for backward  compatibility  only.
       The following code fragment works in most cases.

       int length;
       char *p;

       Coptind = 1;            /* Required */
       Copterr = 1;            /* Some stderr output if you want */

       while ((c = Cgetopt(argc, argv, "0123456789")) != -1)
            switch (c) {
            case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
            case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
                 p = argv[Coptind - 1];
                 if (p[0] == '-' && p[1] == ch && !p[2])
                      length = atoi(++p);
                 else
                      length = atoi(argv[Coptind] + 1);
                 break;
            }
       }

       The  OPTIONAL_ARGUMENT  always eats the following argument unless the argument is included
       via the --option=argument notation.

AUTHOR

       Copyright (c) 1988, 1991, 1993 The Regents of the University of  California.   All  rights
       reserved.
       Redistribution  and  use  in  source  and  binary forms, with or without modification, are
       permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
       1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright  notice,  this  list  of
       conditions and the following disclaimer.
       2.  Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of
       conditions and the following  disclaimer  in  the  documentation  and/or  other  materials
       provided with the distribution.
       3.  All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the
       following acknowledgement: This product includes software developed by the  University  of
       California, Berkeley and its contributors.
       4.  Neither  the  name  of the University nor the names of its contributors may be used to
       endorse or promote products derived from this  software  without  specific  prior  written
       permission.
       THIS  SOFTWARE  IS  PROVIDED  BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
       IMPLIED  WARRANTIES,  INCLUDING,  BUT  NOT  LIMITED  TO,   THE   IMPLIED   WARRANTIES   OF
       MERCHANTABILITY  AND  FITNESS  FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL
       THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE  FOR  ANY  DIRECT,  INDIRECT,  INCIDENTAL,  SPECIAL,
       EXEMPLARY,  OR  CONSEQUENTIAL  DAMAGES  (INCLUDING,  BUT  NOT  LIMITED  TO, PROCUREMENT OF
       SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR  PROFITS;  OR  BUSINESS  INTERRUPTION)
       HOWEVER  CAUSED  AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
       TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN  ANY  WAY  OUT  OF  THE  USE  OF  THIS
       SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.