Provided by: libcrypt-ssleay-perl_0.57-2ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       Crypt::SSLeay - OpenSSL support for LWP



         use LWP::UserAgent;
         my $ua  = LWP::UserAgent->new;
         my $req = HTTP::Request->new('GET', '');
         my $res = $ua->request($req);
         print $res->content, "\n";


       This document describes "Crypt::SSLeay" version 0.57, released 2007-09-17.

       This perl module provides support for the https protocol under LWP, to allow an
       "LWP::UserAgent" object to perform GET, HEAD and POST requests. Please see LWP for more
       information on POST requests.

       The "Crypt::SSLeay" package provides "Net::SSL", which is loaded by "LWP::Protocol::https"
       for https requests and provides the necessary SSL glue.

       This distribution also makes following deprecated modules available:


       Work on Crypt::SSLeay has been continued only to provide https support for the LWP
       (libwww-perl) libraries.


       The following environment variables change the way "Crypt::SSLeay" and "Net::SSL" behave.

         # proxy support
         $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY} = 'http://proxy_hostname_or_ip:port';

         # proxy_basic_auth
         $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_USERNAME} = 'username';
         $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_PASSWORD} = 'password';

         # debugging (SSL diagnostics)
         $ENV{HTTPS_DEBUG} = 1;

         # default ssl version
         $ENV{HTTPS_VERSION} = '3';

         # client certificate support
         $ENV{HTTPS_CERT_FILE} = 'certs/notacacert.pem';
         $ENV{HTTPS_KEY_FILE}  = 'certs/notacakeynopass.pem';

         # CA cert peer verification
         $ENV{HTTPS_CA_FILE}   = 'certs/ca-bundle.crt';
         $ENV{HTTPS_CA_DIR}    = 'certs/';

         # Client PKCS12 cert support
         $ENV{HTTPS_PKCS12_FILE}     = 'certs/pkcs12.pkcs12';


       You must have OpenSSL or SSLeay installed before compiling this module. You can get the
       latest OpenSSL package from:

       On Debian systems, you will need to install the libssl-dev package, at least for the
       duration of the build (it may be removed afterwards).

       Other package-based systems may require something similar. The key is that Crypt::SSLeay
       makes calls to the OpenSSL library, and how to do so is specified in the C header files
       that come with the library.  Some systems break out the header files into a separate
       package from that of the libraries. Once the program has been built, you don't need the
       headers any more.

       When installing openssl make sure your config looks like:

         ./config --openssldir=/usr/local/openssl
         ./config --openssldir=/usr/local/ssl

       If you are planning on upgrading the default OpenSSL libraries on a system like RedHat,
       (not recommended), then try something like:

         ./config --openssldir=/usr --shared

       The --shared option to config will set up building the .so shared libraries which is
       important for such systems. This is followed by:

         make test
         make install

       This way Crypt::SSLeay will pick up the includes and libraries automatically. If your
       includes end up going into a separate directory like /usr/local/include, then you may need
       to symlink /usr/local/openssl/include to /usr/local/include

       The latest Crypt::SSLeay can be found at your nearest CPAN, as well as:

       Once you have downloaded it, Crypt::SSLeay installs easily using the "make" * commands as
       shown below.

         perl Makefile.PL
         make test
         make install

         * use nmake or dmake on Win32

       For unattended (batch) installations, to be absolutely certain that Makefile.PL does not
       prompt for questions on STDIN, set the following environment variable beforehand:


       (This is true for any CPAN module that uses "ExtUtils::MakeMaker").


       "Crypt::SSLeay" builds correctly with Strawberry Perl.

       For Activestate users, the ActiveState company does not have a permit from the Canadian
       Federal Government to distribute cryptographic software. This prevents "Crypt::SSLeay"
       from being distributed as a PPM package from their repository. See
       faq2.html#crypto_packages> for more information on this issue.

       You may download it from Randy Kobes's PPM repository by using the following command:

         ppm install

       An alternative is to add the PPM repository to your local installation. See
       <> for more details.


       It is assumed that the OpenSSL installation is located at "/ssl$root". Define this logical
       to point to the appropriate place in the filesystem.


       LWP::UserAgent and Crypt::SSLeay have their own versions of proxy support. Please read
       these sections to see which one is appropriate.

   LWP::UserAgent proxy support
       LWP::UserAgent has its own methods of proxying which may work for you and is likely to be
       incompatible with Crypt::SSLeay proxy support.  To use LWP::UserAgent proxy support, try
       something like:

         my $ua = new LWP::UserAgent;
         $ua->proxy([qw( https http )], "$proxy_ip:$proxy_port");

       At the time of this writing, libwww v5.6 seems to proxy https requests fine with an Apache
       mod_proxy server.  It sends a line like:

         GET HTTP/1.1

       to the proxy server, which is not the CONNECT request that some proxies would expect, so
       this may not work with other proxy servers than mod_proxy. The CONNECT method is used by
       Crypt::SSLeay's internal proxy support.

   Crypt::SSLeay proxy support
       For native Crypt::SSLeay proxy support of https requests, you need to set the environment
       variable "HTTPS_PROXY" to your proxy server and port, as in:

         # proxy support
         $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY} = 'http://proxy_hostname_or_ip:port';
         $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY} = '';

       Use of the "HTTPS_PROXY" environment variable in this way is similar to
       "LWP::UserAgent-"env_proxy()> usage, but calling that method will likely override or break
       the Crypt::SSLeay support, so do not mix the two.

       Basic auth credentials to the proxy server can be provided this way:

         # proxy_basic_auth
         $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_USERNAME} = 'username';
         $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_PASSWORD} = 'password';

       For an example of LWP scripting with "Crypt::SSLeay" native proxy support, please look at
       the eg/lwp-ssl-test script in the "Crypt::SSLeay" distribution.


       Client certificates are supported. PEM0encoded certificate and private key files may be
       used like this:

         $ENV{HTTPS_CERT_FILE} = 'certs/notacacert.pem';
         $ENV{HTTPS_KEY_FILE}  = 'certs/notacakeynopass.pem';

       You may test your files with the eg/net-ssl-test program, bundled with the distribution,
       by issuing a command like:

         perl eg/net-ssl-test -cert=certs/notacacert.pem \
           -key=certs/notacakeynopass.pem -d GET $HOST_NAME

       Additionally, if you would like to tell the client where the CA file is, you may set

         $ENV{HTTPS_CA_FILE} = "some_file";
         $ENV{HTTPS_CA_DIR}  = "some_dir";

       There is no sample CA cert file at this time for testing, but you may configure
       eg/net-ssl-test to use your CA cert with the -CAfile option. (TODO: then what is the
       ./certs directory in the distribution?)

   Creating a test certificate
       To create simple test certificates with OpenSSL, you may run the following command:

         openssl req -config /usr/local/openssl/openssl.cnf \
           -new -days 365 -newkey rsa:1024 -x509 \
           -keyout notacakey.pem -out notacacert.pem

       To remove the pass phrase from the key file, run:

         openssl rsa -in notacakey.pem -out notacakeynopass.pem

   PKCS12 support
       The directives for enabling use of PKCS12 certificates is:

         $ENV{HTTPS_PKCS12_FILE}     = 'certs/pkcs12.pkcs12';

       Use of this type of certificate takes precedence over previous certificate settings
       described. (TODO: unclear? Meaning "the presence of this type of certificate??)

SSL versions

       Crypt::SSLeay tries very hard to connect to any SSL web server accomodating servers that
       are buggy, old or simply not standards-compliant. To this effect, this module will try SSL
       connections in this order:

         SSL v23 - should allow v2 and v3 servers to pick their best type
         SSL v3  - best connection type
         SSL v2  - old connection type

       Unfortunately, some servers seem not to handle a reconnect to SSL v3 after a failed
       connect of SSL v23 is tried, so you may set before using LWP or Net::SSL:

         $ENV{HTTPS_VERSION} = 3;

       to force a version 3 SSL connection first. At this time only a version 2 SSL connection
       will be tried after this, as the connection attempt order remains unchanged by this


       Many thanks to Gisle Aas for writing this module and many others including libwww, for
       perl. The web will never be the same :)

       Ben Laurie deserves kudos for his excellent patches for better error handling, SSL
       information inspection, and random seeding.

       Thanks to Dongqiang Bai for host name resolution fix when using a proxy.

       Thanks to Stuart Horner of Core Communications, Inc. who found the need for building
       --shared OpenSSL libraries.

       Thanks to Pavel Hlavnicka for a patch for freeing memory when using a pkcs12 file, and for
       inspiring more robust read() behavior.

       James Woodyatt is a champ for finding a ridiculous memory leak that has been the bane of
       many a Crypt::SSLeay user.

       Thanks to Bryan Hart for his patch adding proxy support, and thanks to Tobias Manthey for
       submitting another approach.

       Thanks to Alex Rhomberg for Alpha linux ccc patch.

       Thanks to Tobias Manthey for his patches for client certificate support.

       Thanks to Daisuke Kuroda for adding PKCS12 certificate support.

       Thanks to Gamid Isayev for CA cert support and insights into error messaging.

       Thanks to Jeff Long for working through a tricky CA cert SSLClientVerify issue.

       Thanks to Chip Turner for patch to build under perl 5.8.0.

       Thanks to Joshua Chamas for the time he spent maintaining the module.

       Thanks to Jeff Lavallee for help with alarms on read failures (CPAN bug #12444).

       Thanks to Guenter Knauf for significant improvements in configuring things in Win32 and
       Netware lands and Jan Dubois for various suggestions for improvements.


           If you have downloaded this distribution as of a dependency of another distribution,
           it's probably due to this module (which is included in this distribution).

           A module that offers access to the OpenSSL API directly from Perl.

           Pointers on where to find OpenSSL binary packages (Windows).


       For use of Crypt::SSLeay & Net::SSL with perl's LWP, please send email to

       For OpenSSL or general SSL support please email the openssl user mailing list at
       "".  This includes issues associated with building and installing
       OpenSSL on one's system.

       Please report all bugs at

       This module was originally written by Gisle Aas, and was subsequently maintained by Joshua
       Chamas. It is currently maintained by David Landgren.


        Copyright (c) 2006-2007 David Landgren.
        Copyright (c) 1999-2003 Joshua Chamas.
        Copyright (c) 1998 Gisle Aas.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.