Provided by: libspreadsheet-writeexcel-perl_2.37-1_all bug

NAME

       Utility - Helper functions for Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.

SYNOPSIS

       Functions to help with some common tasks when using Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.

       These functions mainly relate to dealing with rows and columns in A1 notation and to
       handling dates and times.

           use Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Utility;               # Import everything

           ($row, $col)    = xl_cell_to_rowcol('C2');          # (1, 2)
           $str            = xl_rowcol_to_cell(1, 2);          # C2
           $str            = xl_inc_col('Z1'  );               # AA1
           $str            = xl_dec_col('AA1' );               # Z1

           $date           = xl_date_list(2002, 1, 1);         # 37257
           $date           = xl_parse_date("11 July 1997");    # 35622
           $time           = xl_parse_time('3:21:36 PM');      # 0.64
           $date           = xl_decode_date_EU("13 May 2002"); # 37389

DESCRIPTION

       This module provides a set of functions to help with some common tasks encountered when
       using the Spreadsheet::WriteExcel module. The two main categories of function are:

       Row and column functions: these are used to deal with Excel's A1 representation of cells.
       The functions in this category are:

           xl_rowcol_to_cell
           xl_cell_to_rowcol
           xl_range_formula
           xl_inc_row
           xl_dec_row
           xl_inc_col
           xl_dec_col

       Date and Time functions: these are used to convert dates and times to the numeric format
       used by Excel. The functions in this category are:

           xl_date_list
           xl_date_1904
           xl_parse_time
           xl_parse_date
           xl_parse_date_init
           xl_decode_date_EU
           xl_decode_date_US

       All of these functions are exported by default. However, you can use import lists if you
       wish to limit the functions that are imported:

           use Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Utility;                  # Import everything
           use Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Utility qw(xl_date_list); # xl_date_list only
           use Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Utility qw(:rowcol);      # Row/col functions
           use Spreadsheet::WriteExcel::Utility qw(:dates);       # Date functions

ROW AND COLUMN FUNCTIONS

       Spreadsheet::WriteExcel supports two forms of notation to designate the position of cells:
       Row-column notation and A1 notation.

       Row-column notation uses a zero based index for both row and column while A1 notation uses
       the standard Excel alphanumeric sequence of column letter and 1-based row. Columns range
       from A to IV i.e. 0 to 255, rows range from 1 to 16384 in Excel 5 and 65536 in Excel 97.
       For example:

           (0, 0)      # The top left cell in row-column notation.
           ('A1')      # The top left cell in A1 notation.

           (1999, 29)  # Row-column notation.
           ('AD2000')  # The same cell in A1 notation.

       Row-column notation is useful if you are referring to cells programmatically:

           for my $i (0 .. 9) {
               $worksheet->write($i, 0, 'Hello'); # Cells A1 to A10
           }

       A1 notation is useful for setting up a worksheet manually and for working with formulas:

           $worksheet->write('H1', 200);
           $worksheet->write('H2', '=H7+1');

       The functions in the following sections can be used for dealing with A1 notation, for
       example:

           ($row, $col)    = xl_cell_to_rowcol('C2');  # (1, 2)
           $str            = xl_rowcol_to_cell(1, 2);  # C2

       Cell references in Excel can be either relative or absolute. Absolute references are
       prefixed by the dollar symbol as shown below:

           A1      # Column and row are relative
           $A1     # Column is absolute and row is relative
           A$1     # Column is relative and row is absolute
           $A$1    # Column and row are absolute

       An absolute reference only has an effect if the cell is copied. Refer to the Excel
       documentation for further details. All of the following functions support absolute
       references.

   xl_rowcol_to_cell($row, $col, $row_absolute, $col_absolute)
           Parameters: $row:           Integer
                       $col:           Integer
                       $row_absolute:  Boolean (1/0) [optional, default is 0]
                       $col_absolute:  Boolean (1/0) [optional, default is 0]

           Returns:    A string in A1 cell notation

       This function converts a zero based row and column cell reference to a A1 style string:

           $str = xl_rowcol_to_cell(0, 0); # A1
           $str = xl_rowcol_to_cell(0, 1); # B1
           $str = xl_rowcol_to_cell(1, 0); # A2

       The optional parameters $row_absolute and $col_absolute can be used to indicate if the row
       or column is absolute:

           $str = xl_rowcol_to_cell(0, 0, 0, 1); # $A1
           $str = xl_rowcol_to_cell(0, 0, 1, 0); # A$1
           $str = xl_rowcol_to_cell(0, 0, 1, 1); # $A$1

       See "ROW AND COLUMN FUNCTIONS" for an explanation of absolute cell references.

   xl_cell_to_rowcol($string)
           Parameters: $string         String in A1 format

           Returns:    List            ($row, $col)

       This function converts an Excel cell reference in A1 notation to a zero based row and
       column. The function will also handle Excel's absolute, "$", cell notation.

           my ($row, $col) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('A1');     # (0, 0)
           my ($row, $col) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('B1');     # (0, 1)
           my ($row, $col) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('C2');     # (1, 2)
           my ($row, $col) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('$C2' );   # (1, 2)
           my ($row, $col) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('C$2' );   # (1, 2)
           my ($row, $col) = xl_cell_to_rowcol('$C$2');   # (1, 2)

   xl_range_formula($sheetname, $row_1, $row_2, $col_1, $col_2)
           Parameters: $sheetname      String
                       $row_1:         Integer
                       $row_2:         Integer
                       $col_1:         Integer
                       $col_2:         Integer

           Returns:    A worksheet range formula as a string.

       This function converts zero based row and column cell references to an A1 style formula
       string:

           my $str = xl_range_formula('Sheet1',   0,  9, 0, 0); # =Sheet1!$A$1:$A$10
           my $str = xl_range_formula('Sheet2',   6, 65, 1, 1); # =Sheet2!$B$7:$B$66
           my $str = xl_range_formula('New data', 1,  8, 2, 2); # ='New data'!$C$2:$C$9

       This is useful for setting ranges in Chart objects:

           $chart->add_series(
               categories    => xl_range_formula('Sheet1', 1, 9, 0, 0),
               values        => xl_range_formula('Sheet1', 1, 9, 1, 1);,
           );

           # Which is the same as:

           $chart->add_series(
               categories    => '=Sheet1!$A$2:$A$10',
               values        => '=Sheet1!$B$2:$B$10',
           );

   xl_inc_row($string)
           Parameters: $string, a string in A1 format

           Returns:    Incremented string in A1 format

       This functions takes a cell reference string in A1 notation and increments the row. The
       function will also handle Excel's absolute, "$", cell notation:

           my $str = xl_inc_row('A1'  ); # A2
           my $str = xl_inc_row('B$2' ); # B$3
           my $str = xl_inc_row('$C3' ); # $C4
           my $str = xl_inc_row('$D$4'); # $D$5

   xl_dec_row($string)
           Parameters: $string, a string in A1 format

           Returns:    Decremented string in A1 format

       This functions takes a cell reference string in A1 notation and decrements the row. The
       function will also handle Excel's absolute, "$", cell notation:

           my $str = xl_dec_row('A2'  ); # A1
           my $str = xl_dec_row('B$3' ); # B$2
           my $str = xl_dec_row('$C4' ); # $C3
           my $str = xl_dec_row('$D$5'); # $D$4

   xl_inc_col($string)
           Parameters: $string, a string in A1 format

           Returns:    Incremented string in A1 format

       This functions takes a cell reference string in A1 notation and increments the column. The
       function will also handle Excel's absolute, "$", cell notation:

           my $str = xl_inc_col('A1'  ); # B1
           my $str = xl_inc_col('Z1'  ); # AA1
           my $str = xl_inc_col('$B1' ); # $C1
           my $str = xl_inc_col('$D$5'); # $E$5

   xl_dec_col($string)
           Parameters: $string, a string in A1 format

           Returns:    Decremented string in A1 format

       This functions takes a cell reference string in A1 notation and decrements the column. The
       function will also handle Excel's absolute, "$", cell notation:

           my $str = xl_dec_col('B1'  ); # A1
           my $str = xl_dec_col('AA1' ); # Z1
           my $str = xl_dec_col('$C1' ); # $B1
           my $str = xl_dec_col('$E$5'); # $D$5

TIME AND DATE FUNCTIONS

       Dates and times in Excel are represented by real numbers, for example "Jan 1 2001 12:30
       AM" is represented by the number 36892.521.

       The integer part of the number stores the number of days since the epoch and the
       fractional part stores the percentage of the day in seconds.

       The epoch can be either 1900 or 1904. Excel for Windows uses 1900 and Excel for Macintosh
       uses 1904. The epochs are:

           1900: 0 January 1900 i.e. 31 December 1899
           1904: 1 January 1904

       Excel on Windows and the Macintosh will convert automatically between one system and the
       other. By default Spreadsheet::WriteExcel uses the 1900 format. To use the 1904 epoch you
       must use the "set_1904()" workbook method, see the Spreadsheet::WriteExcel documentation.

       There are two things to note about the 1900 date format. The first is that the epoch
       starts on 0 January 1900. The second is that the year 1900 is erroneously but deliberately
       treated as a leap year. Therefore you must add an extra day to dates after 28 February
       1900. The functions in the following section will deal with these issues automatically.
       The reason for this anomaly is explained at
       http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q181/3/70.asp

       Note, a date or time in Excel is like any other number. To display the number as a date
       you must apply a number format to it: Refer to the "set_num_format()" method in the
       Spreadsheet::WriteExcel documentation:

           $date = xl_date_list(2001, 1, 1, 12, 30);
           $format->set_num_format('mmm d yyyy hh:mm AM/PM');
           $worksheet->write('A1', $date , $format); # Jan 1 2001 12:30 AM

       To use these functions you must install the "Date::Manip" and "Date::Calc" modules. See
       REQUIREMENTS and the individual requirements of each functions.

       See also the DateTime::Format::Excel
       module,http://search.cpan.org/search?dist=DateTime-Format-Excel which is part of the
       DateTime project and which deals specifically with converting dates and times to and from
       Excel's format.

   xl_date_list($years, $months, $days, $hours, $minutes, $seconds)
           Parameters: $years:         Integer
                       $months:        Integer [optional, default is 1]
                       $days:          Integer [optional, default is 1]
                       $hours:         Integer [optional, default is 0]
                       $minutes:       Integer [optional, default is 0]
                       $seconds:       Float   [optional, default is 0]

           Returns:    A number that represents an Excel date
                       or undef for an invalid date.

           Requires:   Date::Calc

       This function converts an array of data into a number that represents an Excel date. All
       of the parameters are optional except for $years.

           $date1 = xl_date_list(2002, 1, 2);              # 2 Jan 2002
           $date2 = xl_date_list(2002, 1, 2, 12);          # 2 Jan 2002 12:00 pm
           $date3 = xl_date_list(2002, 1, 2, 12, 30);      # 2 Jan 2002 12:30 pm
           $date4 = xl_date_list(2002, 1, 2, 12, 30, 45);  # 2 Jan 2002 12:30:45 pm

       This function can be used in conjunction with functions that parse date and time strings.
       In fact it is used in most of the following functions.

   xl_parse_time($string)
           Parameters: $string, a textual representation of a time

           Returns:    A number that represents an Excel time
                       or undef for an invalid time.

       This function converts a time string into a number that represents an Excel time. The
       following time formats are valid:

           hh:mm       [AM|PM]
           hh:mm       [AM|PM]
           hh:mm:ss    [AM|PM]
           hh:mm:ss.ss [AM|PM]

       The meridian, AM or PM, is optional and case insensitive. A 24 hour time is assumed if the
       meridian is omitted

           $time1 = xl_parse_time('12:18');
           $time2 = xl_parse_time('12:18:14');
           $time3 = xl_parse_time('12:18:14 AM');
           $time4 = xl_parse_time('1:18:14 AM');

       Time in Excel is expressed as a fraction of the day in seconds. Therefore you can
       calculate an Excel time as follows:

           $time = ($hours*3600 +$minutes*60 +$seconds)/(24*60*60);

   xl_parse_date($string)
           Parameters: $string, a textual representation of a date and time

           Returns:    A number that represents an Excel date
                       or undef for an invalid date.

           Requires:   Date::Manip and Date::Calc

       This function converts a date and time string into a number that represents an Excel date.

       The parsing is performed using the "ParseDate()" function of the Date::Manip module. Refer
       to the Date::Manip documentation for further information about the date and time formats
       that can be parsed. In order to use this function you will probably have to initialise
       some Date::Manip variables via the "xl_parse_date_init()" function, see below.

           xl_parse_date_init("TZ=GMT","DateFormat=non-US");

           $date1 = xl_parse_date("11/7/97");
           $date2 = xl_parse_date("Friday 11 July 1997");
           $date3 = xl_parse_date("10:30 AM Friday 11 July 1997");
           $date4 = xl_parse_date("Today");
           $date5 = xl_parse_date("Yesterday");

       Note, if you parse a string that represents a time but not a date this function will add
       the current date. If you want the time without the date you can do something like the
       following:

           $time  = xl_parse_date("10:30 AM");
           $time -= int($time);

   xl_parse_date_init("variable=value", ...)
           Parameters: A list of Date::Manip variable strings

           Returns:    A list of all the Date::Manip strings

           Requires:   Date::Manip

       This function is used to initialise variables required by the Date::Manip module. You
       should call this function before calling "xl_parse_date()". It need only be called once.

       This function is a thin wrapper for the "Date::Manip::Date_Init()" function. You can use
       "Date_Init()"  directly if you wish. Refer to the Date::Manip documentation for further
       information.

           xl_parse_date_init("TZ=MST","DateFormat=US");
           $date1 = xl_parse_date("11/7/97");  # November 7th 1997

           xl_parse_date_init("TZ=GMT","DateFormat=non-US");
           $date1 = xl_parse_date("11/7/97");  # July 11th 1997

   xl_decode_date_EU($string)
           Parameters: $string, a textual representation of a date and time

           Returns:    A number that represents an Excel date
                       or undef for an invalid date.

           Requires:   Date::Calc

       This function converts a date and time string into a number that represents an Excel date.

       The date parsing is performed using the "Decode_Date_EU()" function of the Date::Calc
       module. Refer to the Date::Calc for further information about the date formats that can be
       parsed. Also note the following from the Date::Calc documentation:

       "If the year is given as one or two digits only (i.e., if the year is less than 100), it
       is mapped to the window 1970 -2069 as follows":

            0 E<lt>= $year E<lt>  70  ==>  $year += 2000;
           70 E<lt>= $year E<lt> 100  ==>  $year += 1900;

       The time portion of the string is parsed using the "xl_parse_time()" function described
       above.

       Note: the EU in the function name means that a European date format is assumed if it is
       not clear from the string. See the first example below.

           $date1 = xl_decode_date_EU("11/7/97"); #11 July 1997
           $date2 = xl_decode_date_EU("Sat 12 Sept 1998");
           $date3 = xl_decode_date_EU("4:30 AM Sat 12 Sept 1998");

   xl_decode_date_US($string)
           Parameters: $string, a textual representation of a date and time

           Returns:    A number that represents an Excel date
                       or undef for an invalid date.

           Requires:   Date::Calc

       This function converts a date and time string into a number that represents an Excel date.

       The date parsing is performed using the "Decode_Date_US()" function of the Date::Calc
       module. Refer to the Date::Calc for further information about the date formats that can be
       parsed. Also note the following from the Date::Calc documentation:

       "If the year is given as one or two digits only (i.e., if the year is less than 100), it
       is mapped to the window 1970 -2069 as follows":

            0 <= $year <  70  ==>  $year += 2000;
           70 <= $year < 100  ==>  $year += 1900;

       The time portion of the string is parsed using the "xl_parse_time()" function described
       above.

       Note: the US in the function name means that an American date format is assumed if it is
       not clear from the string. See the first example below.

           $date1 = xl_decode_date_US("11/7/97"); # 7 November 1997
           $date2 = xl_decode_date_US("12 Sept Saturday 1998");
           $date3 = xl_decode_date_US("4:30 AM 12 Sept Sat 1998");

   xl_date_1904($date)
           Parameters: $date, an Excel date with a 1900 epoch

           Returns:    an Excel date with a 1904 epoch or zero if
                       the $date is before 1904

       This function converts an Excel date based on the 1900 epoch into a date based on the 1904
       epoch.

           $date1 = xl_date_list(2002, 1, 13); # 13 Jan 2002, 1900 epoch
           $date2 = xl_date_1904($date1);      # 13 Jan 2002, 1904 epoch

       See also the "set_1904()" workbook method in the Spreadsheet::WriteExcel documentation.

REQUIREMENTS

       The date and time functions require functions from the "Date::Manip" and "Date::Calc"
       modules. The required functions are "autoused" from these modules so that you do not have
       to install them unless you wish to use the date and time routines. Therefore it is
       possible to use the row and column functions without having "Date::Manip" and "Date::Calc"
       installed.

       For more information about "autousing" refer to the documentation on the "autouse" pragma.

BUGS

       When using the autoused functions from "Date::Manip" and "Date::Calc" on Perl 5.6.0 with
       "-w" you will get a warning like this:

           "Subroutine xxx redefined ..."

       The current workaround for this is to put "use warnings;" near the beginning of your
       program.

AUTHOR

       John McNamara jmcnamara@cpan.org

COPYRIGHT

       X MM-MMX, John McNamara.

       All Rights Reserved. This module is free software. It may be used, redistributed and/or
       modified under the same terms as Perl itself.