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NAME

       Tk::Photo - Full-color images

SYNOPSIS

           $widget->Photo(?name??, options?)

DESCRIPTION

       A photo is an image whose pixels can display any color or be transparent.  A photo image
       is stored internally in full color (32 bits per pixel), and is displayed using dithering
       if necessary.  Image data for a photo image can be obtained from a file or a string, or it
       can be supplied from C code through a procedural interface.  At present, only GIF, XBM,
       XPM, BMP, JPEG, PNG and PPM/PGM formats are supported, but an interface exists to allow
       additional image file formats to be added easily.  A photo image is transparent in regions
       where no image data has been supplied or where it has been set transparent by the
       transparencySet subcommand.

CREATING PHOTOS

       Photos are created using the Photo method.  Photo supports the following options:

       -data => string
           Specifies the contents of the image as a string.  The string can contain base64
           encoded data or binary data.  The format of the string must be one of those for which
           there is an image file format handler that will accept string data.  If both the -data
           and -file options are specified, the -file option takes precedence.

       -format => format-name
           Specifies the name of the file format for the data specified with the -data or -file
           option.

       -file => name
           name gives the name of a file that is to be read to supply data for the photo image.
           The file format must be one of those for which there is an image file format handler
           that can read data.

       -gamma => value
           Specifies that the colors allocated for displaying this image in a window should be
           corrected for a non-linear display with the specified gamma exponent value.  (The
           intensity produced by most CRT displays is a power function of the input value, to a
           good approximation; gamma is the exponent and is typically around 2).  The value
           specified must be greater than zero.  The default value is one (no correction).  In
           general, values greater than one will make the image lighter, and values less than one
           will make it darker.

       -height => number
           Specifies the height of the image, in pixels.  This option is useful primarily in
           situations where the user wishes to build up the contents of the image piece by piece.
           A value of zero (the default) allows the image to expand or shrink vertically to fit
           the data stored in it.

       -palette => palette-spec
           Specifies the resolution of the color cube to be allocated for displaying this image,
           and thus the number of colors used from the colormaps of the windows where it is
           displayed.  The palette-spec string may be either a single decimal number, specifying
           the number of shades of gray to use, or three decimal numbers separated by slashes
           (/), specifying the number of shades of red, green and blue to use, respectively.  If
           the first form (a single number) is used, the image will be displayed in monochrome
           (i.e., grayscale).

       -width => number
           Specifies the width of the image, in pixels.    This option is useful primarily in
           situations where the user wishes to build up the contents of the image piece by piece.
           A value of zero (the default) allows the image to expand or shrink horizontally to fit
           the data stored in it.

IMAGE METHODS

       When a photo image is created, Tk also creates a new object.  This object supports the
       configure and cget methods described in Tk::options which can be used to enquire and
       modify the options described above.

       Those options that write data to the image generally expand the size of the image, if
       necessary, to accommodate the data written to the image, unless the user has specified
       non-zero values for the -width and/or -height configuration options, in which case the
       width and/or height, respectively, of the image will not be changed.

       The following addition methods are available for photo images:

       $image->blank
           Blank the image; that is, set the entire image to have no data, so it will be
           displayed as transparent, and the background of whatever window it is displayed in
           will show through.

       $image->copy(sourceImage ?,option value(s) ...?)
           Copies a region from the image called $sourceImage (which must be a photo image) to
           the image called $image, possibly with pixel zooming and/or subsampling.  If no
           options are specified, this method copies the whole of $sourceImage into $image,
           starting at coordinates (0,0) in $image.  The following options may be specified:

           -from => x1, y1, ? ,x2, y2?
                   Specifies a rectangular sub-region of the source image to be copied.  (x1,y1)
                   and (x2,y2) specify diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle.  If x2 and
                   y2 are not specified, the default value is the bottom-right corner of the
                   source image.  The pixels copied will include the left and top edges of the
                   specified rectangle but not the bottom or right edges.  If the -from option is
                   not given, the default is the whole source image.

           -to => x1, y1, ?, x2, y2?
                   Specifies a rectangular sub-region of the destination image to be affected.
                   (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) specify diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle.  If
                   x2 and y2 are not specified, the default value is (x1,y1) plus the size of the
                   source region (after subsampling and zooming, if specified).  If x2 and y2 are
                   specified, the source region will be replicated if necessary to fill the
                   destination region in a tiled fashion.

           -shrink Specifies that the size of the destination image should be reduced, if
                   necessary, so that the region being copied into is at the bottom-right corner
                   of the image.  This option will not affect the width or height of the image if
                   the user has specified a non-zero value for the -width or -height
                   configuration option, respectively.

           -zoom => x, y
                   Specifies that the source region should be magnified by a factor of x in the X
                   direction and y in the Y direction.  If y is not given, the default value is
                   the same as x.  With this option, each pixel in the source image will be
                   expanded into a block of x x y pixels in the destination image, all the same
                   color.  x and y must be greater than 0.

           -subsample => x, y
                   Specifies that the source image should be reduced in size by using only every
                   xth pixel in the X direction and yth pixel in the Y direction.  Negative
                   values will cause the image to be flipped about the Y or X axes, respectively.
                   If y is not given, the default value is the same as x.

           -compositingrule => rule
                   Specifies how transparent pixels in the source image are combined with the
                   destination image.  When a compositing rule of overlay is set, the old
                   contents of the destination image are visible, as if the source image were
                   printed on a piece of transparent film and placed over the top of the
                   destination.  When a compositing rule of set is set, the old contents of the
                   destination image are discarded and the source image is used as-is.  The
                   default compositing rule is overlay.

       $image->data(?option value(s), ...?)
           Returns image data in the form of a string.  The following options may be specified:

           -background =>  color
                   If the color is specified, the data will not contain any transparency
                   information. In all transparent pixels the color will be replaced by the
                   specified color.

           -format => format-name
                   Specifies the name of the image file format handler to be used.  Specifically,
                   this method searches for the first handler whose name matches a initial
                   substring of format-name and which has the capability to read this image data.
                   If this option is not given, this method uses the first handler that has the
                   capability to read the image data.

           -from => x1, y1, ?, x2, y2?
                   Specifies a rectangular region of $image to be returned.  If only x1 and y1
                   are specified, the region extends from (x1,y1) to the bottom-right corner of
                   $image.  If all four coordinates are given, they specify diagonally opposite
                   corners of the rectangular region, including x1,y1 and excluding x2,y2.  The
                   default, if this option is not given, is the whole image.

           -grayscale
                   If this options is specified, the data will not contain color information. All
                   pixel data will be transformed into grayscale.

       $image->get(x, y)
           Returns the color of the pixel at coordinates (x,y) in the image as a list of three
           integers between 0 and 255, representing the red, green and blue components
           respectively.

       $image->put(data ?,-format=>format-name? ?,-to=> x1 y1 ?x2 y2??)
           Sets pixels in $image to the data specified in data.  This command first searches the
           list of image file format handlers for a handler that can interpret the data in data,
           and then reads the image encoded within into $image (the destination image).  If data
           does not match any known format, an attempt to interpret it as a (top-to-bottom) list
           of scan-lines is made, with each scan-line being a (left-to-right) list of pixel
           colors (see Tk_GetColor for a description of valid colors.)  Every scan-line must be
           of the same length.  Note that when data is a single color name, you are instructing
           Tk to fill a rectangular region with that color.  The following options may be
           specified:

           -format =>format-name
               Specifies the format of the image data in data.  Specifically, only image file
               format handlers whose names begin with format-name will be used while searching
               for an image data format handler to read the data.

           -to =>x, y ?, x2, y2?
               Specifies the coordinates of the top-left corner (x1,y1) of the region of $image
               into which data from filename are to be read.  The default is (0,0).  If x2,y2 is
               given and data is not large enough to cover the rectangle specified by this
               option, the image data extracted will be tiled so it covers the entire destination
               rectangle.  Note that if data specifies a single color value, then a region
               extending to the bottom-right corner represented by (x2,y2) will be filled with
               that color.

       $image->read(filename ?,option value(s), ...?)
           Reads image data from the file named filename into the image.  This method first
           searches the list of image file format handlers for a handler that can interpret the
           data in filename, and then reads the image in filename into $image (the destination
           image).  The following options may be specified:

           -format => format-name
                   Specifies the format of the image data in filename.  Specifically, only image
                   file format handlers whose names begin with format-name will be used while
                   searching for an image data format handler to read the data.

           -from => x1, y1, x2, y2
                   Specifies a rectangular sub-region of the image file data to be copied to the
                   destination image.  If only x1 and y1 are specified, the region extends from
                   (x1,y1) to the bottom-right corner of the image in the image file.  If all
                   four coordinates are specified, they specify diagonally opposite corners or
                   the region.  The default, if this option is not specified, is the whole of the
                   image in the image file.

           -shrink If this option is specified, the size of $image will be reduced, if necessary,
                   so that the region into which the image file data are read is at the bottom-
                   right corner of the $image.  This option will not affect the width or height
                   of the image if the user has specified a non-zero value for the -width or
                   -height configuration option, respectively.

           -to => x, y
                   Specifies the coordinates of the top-left corner of the region of $image into
                   which data from filename are to be read.  The default is (0,0).

       $image->redither
           The dithering algorithm used in displaying photo images propagates quantization errors
           from one pixel to its neighbors.  If the image data for $image is supplied in pieces,
           the dithered image may not be exactly correct.  Normally the difference is not
           noticeable, but if it is a problem, this method can be used to recalculate the
           dithered image in each window where the image is displayed.

       $image->transparency(subcommand, ?arg, arg ...?);
           Allows examination and manipulation of the transparency information in the photo
           image.  Several subcommands are available:

           $image->transparencyGet(x, y);
               Returns a boolean indicating if the pixel at (x,y) is transparent.

           $image->transparencySet(x, y, boolean);
               Makes the pixel at (x,y) transparent if boolean is true, and makes that pixel
               opaque otherwise.

       $image->write(filename ?,option value(s), ...?)
           Writes image data from $image to a file named filename.  The following options may be
           specified:

           -background =>  color
                   If the color is specified, the data will not contain any transparency
                   information. In all transparent pixels the color will be replaced by the
                   specified color.

           -format => format-name
                   Specifies the name of the image file format handler to be used to write the
                   data to the file.  Specifically, this subcommand searches for the first
                   handler whose name matches a initial substring of format-name and which has
                   the capability to write an image file.  If this option is not given, this
                   subcommand uses the first handler that has the capability to write an image
                   file.

           -from => x1, y1, ?, x2, y2?
                   Specifies a rectangular region of $image to be written to the image file.  If
                   only x1 and y1 are specified, the region extends from (x1,y1) to the bottom-
                   right corner of $image.  If all four coordinates are given, they specify
                   diagonally opposite corners of the rectangular region.  The default, if this
                   option is not given, is the whole image.

           -grayscale
                   If this options is specified, the data will not contain color information. All
                   pixel data will be transformed into grayscale.

IMAGE FORMATS

       The photo image code is structured to allow handlers for additional image file formats to
       be added easily.  The photo image code maintains a list of these handlers.  Handlers are
       added to the list by registering them with a call to Tk_CreatePhotoImageFormat.  The
       standard Tk distribution comes with handlers for XBM, XPM, BMP, JPEG, PNG and PPM/PGM
       formats, which are automatically registered on initialization.

       When reading an image file or processing string data specified with the -data
       configuration option, the photo image code invokes each handler in turn until one is found
       that claims to be able to read the data in the file or string.  Usually this will find the
       correct handler, but if it doesn't, the user may give a format name with the -format
       option to specify which handler to use.  In fact the photo image code will try those
       handlers whose names begin with the string specified for the -format option (the
       comparison is case-insensitive).  For example, if the user specifies -format => gif, then
       a handler named GIF87 or GIF89 may be invoked, but a handler named JPEG may not (assuming
       that such handlers had been registered).

       When writing image data to a file, the processing of the -format option is slightly
       different: the string value given for the -format option must begin with the complete name
       of the requested handler, and may contain additional information following that, which the
       handler can use, for example, to specify which variant to use of the formats supported by
       the handler.  Note that not all image handlers may support writing transparency data to a
       file, even where the target image format does.

COLOR ALLOCATION

       When a photo image is displayed in a window, the photo image code allocates colors to use
       to display the image and dithers the image, if necessary, to display a reasonable
       approximation to the image using the colors that are available.  The colors are allocated
       as a color cube, that is, the number of colors allocated is the product of the number of
       shades of red, green and blue.

       Normally, the number of colors allocated is chosen based on the depth of the window.  For
       example, in an 8-bit PseudoColor window, the photo image code will attempt to allocate
       seven shades of red, seven shades of green and four shades of blue, for a total of 198
       colors.  In a 1-bit StaticGray (monochrome) window, it will allocate two colors, black and
       white.  In a 24-bit DirectColor or TrueColor window, it will allocate 256 shades each of
       red, green and blue.  Fortunately, because of the way that pixel values can be combined in
       DirectColor and TrueColor windows, this only requires 256 colors to be allocated.  If not
       all of the colors can be allocated, the photo image code reduces the number of shades of
       each primary color and tries again.

       The user can exercise some control over the number of colors that a photo image uses with
       the -palette configuration option.  If this option is used, it specifies the maximum
       number of shades of each primary color to try to allocate.  It can also be used to force
       the image to be displayed in shades of gray, even on a color display, by giving a single
       number rather than three numbers separated by slashes.

CREDITS

       The photo image type was designed and implemented by Paul Mackerras, based on his earlier
       photo widget and some suggestions from John Ousterhout.

SEE ALSO

       Tk::Bitmap Tk::Image Tk::Pixmap

KEYWORDS

       photo, image, color