Provided by: libunicode-string-perl_2.09-4build2_amd64 bug

NAME

       Unicode::String - String of Unicode characters (UTF-16BE)

SYNOPSIS

        use Unicode::String qw(utf8 latin1 utf16be);

        $u = utf8("string");
        $u = latin1("string");
        $u = utf16be("\0s\0t\0r\0i\0n\0g");

        print $u->utf32be;   # 4 byte characters
        print $u->utf16le;   # 2 byte characters + surrogates
        print $u->utf8;      # 1-4 byte characters

DESCRIPTION

       A "Unicode::String" object represents a sequence of Unicode characters.  Methods are
       provided to convert between various external formats (encodings) and "Unicode::String"
       objects, and methods are provided for common string manipulations.

       The functions utf32be(), utf32le(), utf16be(), utf16le(), utf8(), utf7(), latin1(),
       uhex(), uchr() can be imported from the "Unicode::String" module and will work as
       constructors initializing strings of the corresponding encoding.

       The "Unicode::String" objects overload various operators, which means that they in most
       cases can be treated like plain strings.

       Internally a "Unicode::String" object is represented by a string of 2 byte numbers in
       network byte order (big-endian). This representation is not visible by the API provided,
       but it might be useful to know in order to predict the efficiency of the provided methods.

   METHODS
   Class methods
       The following class methods are available:

       Unicode::String->stringify_as
       Unicode::String->stringify_as( $enc )
           This method is used to specify which encoding will be used when "Unicode::String"
           objects are implicitly converted to and from plain strings.

           If an argument is provided it sets the current encoding.  The argument should have one
           of the following: "ucs4", "utf32", "utf32be", "utf32le", "ucs2", "utf16", "utf16be",
           "utf16le", "utf8", "utf7", "latin1" or "hex".  The default is "utf8".

           The stringify_as() method returns a reference to the current encoding function.

       $us = Unicode::String->new
       $us = Unicode::String->new( $initial_value )
           This is the object constructor.  Without argument, it creates an empty
           "Unicode::String" object.  If an $initial_value argument is given, it is decoded
           according to the specified stringify_as() encoding, UTF-8 by default.

           In general it is recommended to import and use one of the encoding specific
           constructor functions instead of invoking this method.

   Encoding methods
       These methods get or set the value of the "Unicode::String" object by passing strings in
       the corresponding encoding.  If a new value is passed as argument it will set the value of
       the "Unicode::String", and the previous value is returned.  If no argument is passed then
       the current value is returned.

       To illustrate the encodings we show how the 2 character sample string of "Xm" (micro
       meter) is encoded for each one.

       $us->utf32be
       $us->utf32be( $newval )
           The string passed should be in the UTF-32 encoding with bytes in big endian order.
           The sample "Xm" is "\0\0\0\xB5\0\0\0m" in this encoding.

           Alternative names for this method are utf32() and ucs4().

       $us->utf32le
       $us->utf32le( $newval )
           The string passed should be in the UTF-32 encoding with bytes in little endian order.
           The sample "Xm" is is "\xB5\0\0\0m\0\0\0" in this encoding.

       $us->utf16be
       $us->utf16be( $newval )
           The string passed should be in the UTF-16 encoding with bytes in big endian order. The
           sample "Xm" is "\0\xB5\0m" in this encoding.

           Alternative names for this method are utf16() and ucs2().

           If the string passed to utf16be() starts with the Unicode byte order mark in little
           endian order, the result is as if utf16le() was called instead.

       $us->utf16le
       $us->utf16le( $newval )
           The string passed should be in the UTF-16 encoding with bytes in little endian order.
           The sample "Xm" is is "\xB5\0m\0" in this encoding.  This is the encoding used by the
           Microsoft Windows API.

           If the string passed to utf16le() starts with the Unicode byte order mark in big
           endian order, the result is as if utf16le() was called instead.

       $us->utf8
       $us->utf8( $newval )
           The string passed should be in the UTF-8 encoding. The sample "Xm" is "\xC2\xB5m" in
           this encoding.

       $us->utf7
       $us->utf7( $newval )
           The string passed should be in the UTF-7 encoding. The sample "Xm" is "+ALU-m" in this
           encoding.

           The UTF-7 encoding only use plain US-ASCII characters for the encoding.  This makes it
           safe for transport through 8-bit stripping protocols.  Characters outside the US-ASCII
           range are base64-encoded and '+' is used as an escape character.  The UTF-7 encoding
           is described in RFC 1642.

           If the (global) variable $Unicode::String::UTF7_OPTIONAL_DIRECT_CHARS is TRUE, then a
           wider range of characters are encoded as themselves.  It is even TRUE by default.  The
           characters affected by this are:

              ! " # $ % & * ; < = > @ [ ] ^ _ ` { | }

       $us->latin1
       $us->latin1( $newval )
           The string passed should be in the ISO-8859-1 encoding. The sample "Xm" is "\xB5m" in
           this encoding.

           Characters outside the "\x00" .. "\xFF" range are simply removed from the return value
           of the latin1() method.  If you want more control over the mapping from Unicode to
           ISO-8859-1, use the "Unicode::Map8" class.  This is also the way to deal with other
           8-bit character sets.

       $us->hex
       $us->hex( $newval )
           The string passed should be plain ASCII where each Unicode character is represented by
           the "U+XXXX" string and separated by a single space character.  The "U+" prefix is
           optional when setting the value.  The sample "Xm" is "U+00b5 U+006d" in this encoding.

   String Operations
       The following methods are available:

       $us->as_string
           Converts a "Unicode::String" to a plain string according to the setting of
           stringify_as().  The default stringify_as() encoding is "utf8".

       $us->as_num
           Converts a "Unicode::String" to a number.  Currently only the digits in the range 0x30
           .. 0x39 are recognized.  The plan is to eventually support all Unicode digit
           characters.

       $us->as_bool
           Converts a "Unicode::String" to a boolean value.  Only the empty string is FALSE.  A
           string consisting of only the character U+0030 is considered TRUE, even if Perl
           consider "0" to be FALSE.

       $us->repeat( $count )
           Returns a new "Unicode::String" where the content of $us is repeated $count times.
           This operation is also overloaded as:

             $us x $count

       $us->concat( $other_string )
           Concatenates the string $us and the string $other_string.  If $other_string is not an
           "Unicode::String" object, then it is first passed to the Unicode::String->new
           constructor function.  This operation is also overloaded as:

             $us . $other_string

       $us->append( $other_string )
           Appends the string $other_string to the value of $us.  If $other_string is not an
           "Unicode::String" object, then it is first passed to the Unicode::String->new
           constructor function.  This operation is also overloaded as:

             $us .= $other_string

       $us->copy
           Returns a copy of the current "Unicode::String" object.  This operation is overloaded
           as the assignment operator.

       $us->length
           Returns the length of the "Unicode::String".  Surrogate pairs are still counted as 2.

       $us->byteswap
           This method will swap the bytes in the internal representation of the
           "Unicode::String" object.

           Unicode reserve the character U+FEFF character as a byte order mark.  This works
           because the swapped character, U+FFFE, is reserved to not be valid.  For strings that
           have the byte order mark as the first character, we can guaranty to get the byte order
           right with the following code:

              $ustr->byteswap if $ustr->ord == 0xFFFE;

       $us->unpack
           Returns a list of integers each representing an UCS-2 character code.

       $us->pack( @uchr )
           Sets the value of $us as a sequence of UCS-2 characters with the characters codes
           given as parameter.

       $us->ord
           Returns the character code of the first character in $us.  The ord() method deals with
           surrogate pairs, which gives us a result-range of 0x0 .. 0x10FFFF.  If the $us string
           is empty, undef is returned.

       $us->chr( $code )
           Sets the value of $us to be a string containing the character assigned code $code.
           The argument $code must be an integer in the range 0x0 .. 0x10FFFF.  If the code is
           greater than 0xFFFF then a surrogate pair created.

       $us->name
           In scalar context returns the official Unicode name of the first character in $us.  In
           array context returns the name of all characters in $us.  Also see Unicode::CharName.

       $us->substr( $offset )
       $us->substr( $offset, $length )
       $us->substr( $offset, $length, $subst )
           Returns a sub-string of $us.  Works similar to the builtin substr() function.

       $us->index( $other )
       $us->index( $other, $pos )
           Locates the position of $other within $us, possibly starting the search at position
           $pos.

       $us->chop
           Chops off the last character of $us and returns it (as a "Unicode::String" object).

FUNCTIONS

       The following functions are provided.  None of these are exported by default.

       byteswap2( $str, ... )
           This function will swap 2 and 2 bytes in the strings passed as arguments.  If this
           function is called in void context, then it will modify its arguments in-place.
           Otherwise, the swapped strings are returned.

       byteswap4( $str, ... )
           The byteswap4 function works similar to byteswap2, but will reverse the order of 4 and
           4 bytes.

       latin1( $str )
       utf7( $str )
       utf8( $str )
       utf16le( $str )
       utf16be( $str )
       utf32le( $str )
       utf32be( $str )
           Constructor functions for the various Unicode encodings.  These return new
           "Unicode::String" objects.  The provided argument should be encoded correspondingly.

       uhex( $str )
           Constructs a new "Unicode::String" object from a string of hex values.  See hex()
           method above for description of the format.

       uchar( $num )
           Constructs a new one character "Unicode::String" object from a Unicode character code.
           This works similar to perl's builtin chr() function.

SEE ALSO

       Unicode::CharName, Unicode::Map8

       <http://www.unicode.org/>

       perlunicode

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright 1997-2000,2005 Gisle Aas.

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.