Provided by: libgraphviz-dev_2.26.3-10ubuntu1_amd64 bug

NAME

       libcgraph - abstract graph library

SYNOPSIS

       #include <graphviz/cgraph.h>

   TYPES
       Agraph_t;
       Agnode_t;
       Agedge_t;
       Agdesc_t;
       Agdisc_t;
       Agsym_t;

   GRAPHS
       Agraph_t        *agopen(char *name, Agdesc_t kind, Agdisc_t *disc);
       int             agclose(Agraph_t *g);
       Agraph_t        *agread(void *channel, Agdisc_t *);
       void           agreadline(int line_no);
       void           agsetfile(char *file_name);
       Agraph_t       *agconcat(Agraph_t *g, void *channel, Agdisc_t *disc)
       int             agwrite(Agraph_t *g, void *channel);
       int                 agnnodes(Agraph_t *g),agnedges(Agraph_t *g);
       int                 agisdirected(Agraph_t * g),agisundirected(Agraph_t * g),agisstrict(Agraph_t * g), agissimple(Agraph_t * g);

   SUBGRAPHS
       Agraph_t        *agsubg(Agraph_t *g, char *name, int createflag);
       Agraph_t       *agidsubg(Agraph_t * g, unsigned long id, int cflag);
       Agraph_t        *agfstsubg(Agraph_t *g), agnxtsubg(Agraph_t *);
       Agraph_t        *agparent(Agraph_t *g);
       int                 agdelsubg(Agraph_t * g, Agraph_t * sub);     /* same as agclose() */

   NODES
       Agnode_t        *agnode(Agraph_t *g, char *name, int createflag);
       Agnode_t        *agidnode(Agraph_t *g, ulong id, int createflag);
       Agnode_t        *agsubnode(Agraph_t *g, Agnode_t *n, int createflag);
       Agnode_t        *agfstnode(Agraph_t *g);
       Agnode_t        *agnxtnode(Agraph_t *g, Agnode_t *n);
       Agnode_t        *agprvnode(Agraph_t *g, Agnode_t *n);
       Agnode_t        *aglstnode(Agraph_t *g);
       int             agdelnode(Agraph_t *g, Agnode_t *n);
       int                 agdegree(Agnode_t *n, int use_inedges, int use_outedges);

   EDGES
       Agedge_t        *agedge(Agraph_t* g, Agnode_t *t, Agnode_t *h, char *name, int createflag);
       Agedge_t       *agidedge(Agraph_t * g, Agnode_t * t, Agnode_t * h, unsigned long id, int createflag);
       Agedge_t        *agsubedge(Agraph_t *g, Agedge_t *e, int createflag);
       Agnode_t        *aghead(Agedge_t *e), *agtail(Agedge_t *e);
       Agedge_t        *agfstedge(Agraph_t* g, Agnode_t *n);
       Agedge_t        *agnxtedge(Agraph_t* g, Agedge_t *e, Agnode_t *n);
       Agedge_t        *agfstin(Agraph_t* g, Agnode_t *n);
       Agedge_t        *agnxtin(Agraph_t* g, Agedge_t *e);
       Agedge_t        *agfstout(Agraph_t* g, Agnode_t *n);
       Agedge_t        *agnxtout(Agraph_t* g, Agedge_t *e);
       int             agdeledge(Agraph_t *g, Agedge_t *e);

   STRING ATTRIBUTES
       Agsym_t             *agattr(Agraph_t *g, int kind, char *name, char *value);
       Agsym_t             *agattrsym(void *obj, char *name);
       Agsym_t             *agnxtattr(Agraph_t *g, int kind, Agsym_t *attr);
       char           *agget(void *obj, char *name);
       char           *agxget(void *obj, Agsym_t *sym);
       int                 agset(void *obj, char *name, char *value);
       int                 agxset(void *obj, Agsym_t *sym, char *value);
       int                 agsafeset(void *obj, char *name, char *value, char *def);

   RECORDS
       void      *agbindrec(void *obj, char *name, unsigned int size, move_to_front);
       Agrec_t     *aggetrec(void *obj, char *name, int move_to_front);
       int         agdelrec(Agraph_t *g, void *obj, char *name);
       int            agcopyattr(void *, void *);
       void      aginit(Agraph_t * g, int kind, char *rec_name, int rec_size, int move_to_front);
       void      agclean(Agraph_t * g, int kind, char *rec_name);

   CALLBACKS
       Agcbdisc_t    *agpopdisc(Agraph_t *g);
       void        agpushdisc(Agraph_t *g, Agcbdisc_t *disc);
       void        agmethod(Agraph_t *g, void *obj, Agcbdisc_t *disc, int initflag);

   MEMORY
       void      *agalloc(Agraph_t *g, size_t request);
       void      *agrealloc(Agraph_t *g, void *ptr, size_t oldsize, size_t newsize);
       void      agfree(Agraph_t *g, void *ptr);

   STRINGS
       char      *agstrdup(Agraph_t *, char *);
       char      *agstrdup_html(Agraph_t *, char *);
       int       aghtmlstr(char *);
       char      *agstrbind(Agraph_t * g, char *);
       int       strfree(Agraph_t *, char *);
       char      *agcanonStr(char *);
       char      *agstrcanon(char *, char *);

   GENERIC OBJECTS
       Agraph_t  *agraphof(void*);
       Agraph_t  *agroot(void*);
       int            agcontains(Agraph_t*, void*);
       char      *agnameof(void*);
       void      agdelete(Agraph_t *g, void *obj);
       int       agobjkind(void *obj);
       Agrec_t        *AGDATA(void *obj);
       ulong          AGID(void *obj);
       int            AGTYPE(void *obj);

DESCRIPTION

       Libcgraph  supports  graph  programming  by  maintaining  graphs in memory and reading and
       writing graph files.  Graphs are composed of nodes, edges, and  nested  subgraphs.   These
       graph  objects  may  be  attributed  with  string  name-value pairs and programmer-defined
       records (see Attributes).

       All of Libcgraph's global symbols have the prefix ag (case varying).

GRAPH AND SUBGRAPHS

       A ``main'' or ``root'' graph defines  a  namespace  for  a  collection  of  graph  objects
       (subgraphs, nodes, edges) and their attributes.  Objects may be named by unique strings or
       by 32-bit IDs.

       agopen creates a new graph with the given name and kind.   (Graph  kinds  are  Agdirected,
       Agundirected, Agstrictdirected, and Agstrictundirected.  A strict graph cannot have multi-
       edges or self-arcs.)  agclose deletes a graph, freeing its  associated  storage.   agread,
       agwrite,  and  agconcat  perform  file  I/O using the graph file language described below.
       agread constructs a new graph while agconcat merges the file contents with a  pre-existing
       graph.   Though I/O methods may be overridden, the default is that the channel argument is
       a stdio FILE pointer. agsetfile and agreadline are helper functions that  simply  set  the
       current file name and input line number for subsequent error reporting.

       agsubg  finds  or creates a subgraph by name.  A new subgraph is is initially empty and is
       of the same kind as its parent.  Nested subgraph trees may be created.  A subgraph's  name
       is  only  interpreted  relative to its parent.  A program can scan subgraphs under a given
       graph using agfstsubg and agnxtsubg.  A subgraph is deleted with agdelsubg (or agclose).

       By default, nodes are stored in ordered sets for efficient random access to insert,  find,
       and  delete  nodes.   The  edges  of a node are also stored in ordered sets.  The sets are
       maintained internally as splay tree dictionaries using Phong Vo's cdt library.

       agnnodes, agnedges, and agdegree return the sizes of node and edge sets of a  graph.   The
       agdegree  returns the size of the edge set of a nodes, and takes flags to select in-edges,
       out-edges, or both.

       An Agdisc_t defines callbacks to be invoked by libcgraph when initializing, modifying,  or
       finalizing  graph  objects.  (Casual users can ignore the following.) Disciplines are kept
       on a stack.  Libcgraph automatically calls the methods on the stack, top-down.   Callbacks
       are  installed  with  agpushdisc,  uninstalled  with agpopdisc, and can be held pending or
       released via agcallbacks.

       (Casual users may ignore the following.  When Libcgraph is compiled with Vmalloc (which is
       not  the  default),  each  graph  has its own heap.  Programmers may allocate application-
       dependent data within the same heap as the rest of the graph.  The  advantage  is  that  a
       graph  can  be  deleted  by  atomically  freeing  its  entire  heap  without scanning each
       individual node and edge.

NODES

       A node is created by giving a unique string name or programmer defined 32-bit ID,  and  is
       represented   by  a  unique  internal  object.  (Node  equality  can  checked  by  pointer
       comparison.)

       agnode searches in a graph or subgraph for a node with the given name, and returns  it  if
       found.   If  not  found, if createflag is boolean true a new node is created and returned,
       otherwise a nil pointer is returned.  agidnode allows a programmer to specify the node  by
       a  unique  32-bit  ID.   agsubnode  performs a similar operation on an existing node and a
       subgraph.

       agfstnode and agnxtnode scan node lists.  agprvnode and aglstnode are symmetric  but  scan
       backward.   The  default  sequence  is  order  of  creation (object timestamp.)  agdelnode
       removes a node from a graph or subgraph.

EDGES

       An abstract edge has two endpoint nodes called tail and head where the all outedges of the
       same  node have it as the tail value and similarly all inedges have it as the head.  In an
       undirected graph, head and tail are interchangeable.  If a graph has  multi-edges  between
       the same pair of nodes, the edge's string name behaves as a secondary key.

       agedge  searches  in  a graph of subgraph for an edge between the given endpoints (with an
       optional multi-edge selector name) and returns it if found.  Otherwise, if  createflag  is
       boolean true, a new edge is created and returned: otherwise a nil pointer is returned.  If
       the name is NULL, then an  anonymous  internal  value  is  generated.  agidedge  allows  a
       programmer to create an edge by giving its unique 32-bit ID.  agfstin, agnxtint, agfstout,
       and agnxtout visit directed in- and out- edge lists, and ordinarily apply only in directed
       graphs.   agfstedge  and  agnxtedge visit all edges incident to a node.  agtail and aghead
       get the endpoint of an edge.

INTERNAL ATTRIBUTES

       Programmer-defined values may be dynamically attached to  graphs,  subgraphs,  nodes,  and
       edges.   Such  values  are either uninterpreted binary records (for implementing efficient
       algorithms) or character string data (for I/O).

STRING ATTRIBUTES

       String attributes are handled automatically in reading and writing graph files.  A  string
       attribute is identified by name and by an internal symbol table entry (Agsym_t) created by
       Libcgraph.  Attributes of nodes, edges, and graphs (with their  subgraphs)  have  separate
       namespaces.  The contents of an Agsym_t is listed below, followed by primitives to operate
       on string attributes.
       typedef struct Agsym_s {        /* symbol in one of the above dictionaries */
           Dtlink_t        link;
           char            *name;      /* attribute's name */
           char            *defval;    /* its default value for initialization */
           int             id;         /* its index in attr[] */
           unsigned char   kind;          /* referent object type */
           unsigned char   fixed;         /* immutable value */
       } Agsym_t;

       agattr creates or looks up attributes.  kind may be AGRAPH, AGNODE, or AGEDGE.   If  value
       is  (char*)0),  the  request  is to search for an existing attribute of the given kind and
       name.  Otherwise, if the attribute already exists, its default for creating new objects is
       set  to  the  given value; if it does not exist, a new attribute is created with the given
       default, and the default is applied to all pre-existing objects of the given kind. If g is
       NIL,  the  default  is  set  for  all  graphs created subsequently.  agattrsym is a helper
       function that looks up an attribute for a graph object given as  an  argument.   agnxtattr
       permits  traversing  the  list  of  attributes  of  a  given type.  If NIL is passed as an
       argument it gets the first attribute, otherwise it returns the next one in  succession  or
       returns  NIL at the end of the list.  agget and agset allow fetching and updating a string
       attribute for an object taking the attribute name as an argument.  agxget  and  agxset  do
       this  but  with  an  attribute symbol table entry as an argument (to avoid the cost of the
       string lookup).  agsafeset is a convenience function that ensures the given  attribute  is
       declared before setting it locally on an object.

STRINGS

       Libcgraph  performs  its  own  storage management of strings as reference-counted strings.
       The caller does not need to dynamically allocate storage.

       agstrdup returns a pointer to a reference-counted copy of the  argument  string,  creating
       one  if necessary. agstrbind returns a pointer to a reference-counted string if it exists,
       or NULL if not.  All uses of cgraph strings need to be freed using agstrfree in  order  to
       correctly maintain the reference count.

       agcanonStr returns a pointer to a version of the input string canonicalized for output for
       later re-parsing. This includes quoting special characters and keywords. It uses  its  own
       internal  buffer, so the value will be lost on the next call to agcanonStr.  agstrcanon is
       an unsafe version of agcanonStr, in which the application passes in a buffer as the second
       argument.  Note that the buffer may not be used; if the input string is in canonical form,
       the function will just return a pointer to it.

       The cgraph parser handles HTML-like strings. These should be indistinguishable from  other
       strings for most purposes. To create an HTML-like string, use agstrdup_html. The aghtmlstr
       function can be used to query if a string is an ordinary string or an HTML-like string.

RECORDS

       Uninterpreted records may be attached to graphs, subgraphs, nodes, and edges for efficient
       operations  on  values  such as marks, weights, counts, and pointers needed by algorithms.
       Application programmers define the fields of these records, but they must be declared with
       a common header as shown below.
       typedef struct Agrec_s {
           Agrec_t         header;
           /* programmer-defined fields follow */
       } Agrec_t;
       Records  are created and managed by Libcgraph. A programmer must explicitly attach them to
       the objects in a graph, either to individual objects one at a time via  agbindrec,  or  to
       all the objects of the same class in a graph via aginit.  (Note that for graphs, aginit is
       applied recursively to the graph and its subgraphs if rec_size is negative (of the  actual
       rec_size.))   The  name  argument  a record distinguishes various types of records, and is
       programmer defined (Libcgraph reserves the prefix  _ag).   If  size  is  0,  the  call  to
       agbindrec  is  simply  a  lookup.  agdelrec is the deletes records one at a time.  agclean
       does the same for all objects of the same class in an entire graph.

       Internally, records are maintained in circular linked lists attached to graph objects.  To
       allow  referencing  application-dependent data without function calls or search, Libcgraph
       allows setting and locking the list pointer of a graph, node,  or  edge  on  a  particular
       record.   This  pointer  can  be  obtained  with the macro AGDATA(obj).  A cast, generally
       within a macro or inline function, is usually applied to convert the list  pointer  to  an
       appropriate programmer-defined type.

       To  control  the  setting  of  this  pointer,  the move_to_front flag may be AG_MTF_FALSE,
       AG_MTF_SOFT, or AG_MTF_HARD accordingly.  The  AG_MTF_SOFT  field  is  only  a  hint  that
       decreases overhead in subsequent calls of aggetrec; AG_MTF_HARD guarantees that a lock was
       obtained.  To release locks, use AG_MTF_SOFT or AG_MTF_FALSE.  Use of this feature implies
       cooperation  or  at  least  isolation  from  other  functions also using the move-to-front
       convention.

DISCIPLINES

       (The  following  is  not  intended  for  casual  users.)   Programmer-defined  disciplines
       customize  certain  resources-  ID  namespace,  memory,  and I/O - needed by Libcgraph.  A
       discipline struct (or NIL) is passed at graph creation time.
       struct Agdisc_s {             /* user's discipline */
            Agmemdisc_t              *mem;
            Agiddisc_t               *id;
            Agiodisc_t               *io;
       } ;
       A default discipline is supplied when NIL is given for any of these fields.

       An ID allocator discipline allows a client to control  assignment  of  IDs  (uninterpreted
       32-bit values) to objects, and possibly how they are mapped to and from strings.

       struct Agiddisc_s {      /* object ID allocator */
            void *(*open)(Agraph_t *g);   /* associated with a graph */
            int       (*map)(void *state, int objtype, char *str, ulong *id, int createflag);
            int       (*alloc)(void *state, int objtype, ulong id);
            void (*free)(void *state, int objtype, ulong id);
            char *(*print)(void *state, int objtype, ulong id);
            void (*close)(void *state);
       } ;

       open  permits  the  ID  discipline  to  initialize  any data structures that maintains per
       individual graph.  Its return value is then passed as the first argument to all subsequent
       ID manager calls.

       alloc  informs  the  ID  manager  that  Libcgraph is attempting to create an object with a
       specific ID that was given by a client.  The ID manager should return  TRUE  (nonzero)  if
       the ID can be allocated, or FALSE (which aborts the operation).

       free is called to inform the ID manager that the object labeled with the given ID is about
       to go out of existence.

       map is called to create or look-up IDs by string name (if supported by  the  ID  manager).
       Returning  TRUE  (nonzero)  in all cases means that the request succeeded (with a valid ID
       stored through result.  There are four cases:

       name != NULL and createflag == 1: This requests mapping a string (e.g. a name in  a  graph
       file)  into a new ID.  If the ID manager can comply, then it stores the result and returns
       TRUE.  It is then also responsible for being able to print  the  ID  again  as  a  string.
       Otherwise  the  ID  manager may return FALSE but it must implement the following (at least
       for graph file reading and writing to work):

       name == NULL and createflag == 1: The ID manager creates  a  unique  new  ID  of  its  own
       choosing.  Although it may return FALSE if it does not support anonymous objects, but this
       is strongly discouraged (to support "local names" in graph files.)

       name != NULL and createflag == 0: This is a namespace probe.  If the name  was  previously
       mapped  into  an  allocated  ID  by  the ID manager, then the manager must return this ID.
       Otherwise, the ID manager may either return FALSE, or may store any  unallocated  ID  into
       result.  (This is convenient, for example, if names are known to be digit strings that are
       directly converted into 32 bit values.)

       name == NULL and createflag == 0: forbidden.

       print is allowed to return a pointer to a static buffer; a caller must copy its  value  if
       needed  past  subsequent  calls.   NULL  should be returned by ID managers that do not map
       names.

       The map and alloc calls do not pass a pointer to the newly allocated object.  If a  client
       needs  to  install  object  pointers  in a handle table, it can obtain them via new object
       callbacks.
       struct Agiodisc_s {
            int       (*fread)(void *chan, char *buf, int bufsize);
            int       (*putstr)(void *chan, char *str);
            int       (*flush)(void *chan);    /* sync */
            /* error messages? */
       } ;

       struct Agmemdisc_s {     /* memory allocator */
            void *(*open)(void);          /* independent of other resources */
            void *(*alloc)(void *state, size_t req);
            void *(*resize)(void *state, void *ptr, size_t old, size_t req);
            void (*free)(void *state, void *ptr);
            void (*close)(void *state);
       } ;

EXAMPLE PROGRAM

       #include <graphviz/cgraph.h>
       typedef struct mydata_s {Agrec_t hdr; int x,y,z;} mydata;

       main(int argc, char **argv)
       {
           Agraph_t    *g;
           Agnode_t    *v;
           Agedge_t    *e;
           Agsym_t     *attr;
           Dict_t      *d
           int         cnt;
           mydata      *p;

           if (g = agread(stdin,NIL(Agdisc_t*))) {
                 cnt = 0; attr = 0;
                 while (attr = agnxtattr(g, AGNODE, attr)) cnt++;
                 printf("The graph %s has %d attributes0,agnameof(g),cnt);

                 /* make the graph have a node color attribute, default is blue */
               attr = agattr(g,AGNODE,"color","blue");

               /* create a new graph of the same kind as g */
               h = agopen("tmp",g->desc);

               /* this is a way of counting all the edges of the graph */
               cnt = 0;
               for (v = agfstnode(g); v; v = agnxtnode(g,v))
                   for (e = agfstout(g,v); e; e = agnxtout(g,e))
                       cnt++;

               /* attach records to edges */
               for (v = agfstnode(g); v; v = agnxtnode(g,v))
                   for (e = agfstout(g,v); e; e; = agnxtout(g,e)) {
                       p = (mydata*) agbindrec(g,e,"mydata",sizeof(mydata),TRUE);
                       p->x = 27;  /* meaningless data access example */
                           ((mydata*)(AGDATA(e)))->y = 999; /* another example */
               }
           }
       }

EXAMPLE GRAPH FILES

       digraph G {
           a -> b;
           c [shape=box];
           a -> c [weight=29,label="some text];
           subgraph anything {
               /* the following affects only x,y,z */
               node [shape=circle];
               a; x; y -> z; y -> z;  /* multiple edges */
           }
       }

       strict graph H {
           n0 -- n1 -- n2 -- n0;  /* a cycle */
           n0 -- {a b c d};       /* a star */
           n0 -- n3;
           n0 -- n3 [weight=1];   /* same edge because graph is strict */
       }

SEE ALSO

       Libcdt(3)

BUGS

       It is difficult to change endpoints of edges, delete  string  attributes  or  modify  edge
       keys.   The work-around is to create a new object and copy the contents of an old one (but
       new object obviously has a different ID, internal address, and object creation timestamp).

       The API lacks convenient functions to substitute programmer-defined ordering of nodes  and
       edges but in principle this can be supported.

AUTHOR

       Stephen North, north@research.att.com, AT&T Research.

                                           30 JULY 2007                              LIBCGRAPH(3)