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       dialyzer - The Dialyzer, a DIscrepancy AnalYZer for ERlang programs


       The  Dialyzer  is  a  static  analysis tool that identifies software discrepancies such as
       definite type errors, code which has become dead or unreachable due  to  some  programming
       error,  unnecessary tests, etc. in single Erlang modules or entire (sets of) applications.
       Dialyzer starts its analysis from either  debug-compiled  BEAM  bytecode  or  from  Erlang
       source  code.  The  file  and  line  number  of  a  discrepancy  is reported along with an
       indication of what the discrepancy is about. Dialyzer bases its analysis on the concept of
       success typings which allows for sound warnings (no false positives).

       Read more about Dialyzer and about how to use it from the GUI in Dialyzer User's Guide.


       Dialyzer  also  has a command line version for automated use. Below is a brief description
       of the list of its options. The same information can be obtained by writing

             dialyzer --help

       in a shell. Please refer to the GUI description for  more  details  on  the  operation  of

       The exit status of the command line version is:

             0 - No problems were encountered during the analysis and no
                 warnings were emitted.
             1 - Problems were encountered during the analysis.
             2 - No problems were encountered, but warnings were emitted.


              dialyzer [--help] [--version] [--shell] [--quiet] [--verbose]
                 [-pa dir]* [--plt plt] [--plts plt*] [-Ddefine]*
                       [-I include_dir]* [--output_plt file] [-Wwarn]*
                       [--src] [--gui | --wx] [files_or_dirs] [-r dirs]
                       [--apps applications] [-o outfile]
                 [--build_plt] [--add_to_plt] [--remove_from_plt]
                 [--check_plt] [--no_check_plt] [--plt_info] [--get_warnings]
                       [--no_native] [--fullpath]


         files_or_dirs (for backwards compatibility also as: -c files_or_dirs:
           Use  Dialyzer  from  the  command  line  to  detect  defects in the specified files or
           directories containing .erl or .beam files, depending on the type of the analysis.

         -r dirs:
           Same as the previous but  the  specified  directories  are  searched  recursively  for
           subdirectories  containing  .erl  or  .beam  files  in  them, depending on the type of

         --apps applications:
           Option typically used when building or modifying a plt as in:

                    dialyzer --build_plt --apps erts kernel stdlib mnesia ...

                    dialyzer --apps inets ssl ./ebin ../other_lib/ebin/my_module.beam

         -o outfile (or --output outfile):
           When using Dialyzer from the command line, send the analysis results to the  specified
           outfile rather than to stdout.

           When  using  Dialyzer  from  the command line, output the raw analysis results (Erlang
           terms) instead of the formatted result. The raw format is easier to post-process  (for
           instance, to filter warnings or to output HTML pages).

           Override the default, which is to analyze BEAM files, and analyze starting from Erlang
           source code instead.

         -Dname (or -Dname=value):
           When analyzing from source, pass the define to Dialyzer. (**)

         -I include_dir:
           When analyzing from source, pass the include_dir to Dialyzer. (**)

         -pa dir:
           Include  dir  in  the  path  for  Erlang  (useful  when  analyzing  files  that   have
           '-include_lib()' directives).

         --output_plt file:
           Store the plt at the specified file after building it.

         --plt plt:
           Use  the specified plt as the initial plt (if the plt was built during setup the files
           will be checked for consistency).

         --plts plt*:
           Merge the specified plts to create the initial plt  --  requires  that  the  plts  are
           disjoint  (i.e.,  do not have any module appearing in more than one plt). The plts are
           created in the usual way:

                    dialyzer --build_plt --output_plt plt_1 files_to_include
                    dialyzer --build_plt --output_plt plt_n files_to_include

                    dialyzer files_to_analyze --plts plt_1 ... plt_n

                    dialyzer --plts plt_1 ... plt_n -- files_to_analyze

           A family of options which selectively turn on/off warnings (for help on the  names  of
           warnings use dialyzer -Whelp).

           Do not disable the Erlang shell while running the GUI.

         --version (or -v):
           Print the Dialyzer version and some more information and exit.

         --help (or -h):
           Print this message and exit.

         --quiet (or -q):
           Make Dialyzer a bit more quiet.

           Make Dialyzer a bit more verbose.

           The  analysis  starts from an empty plt and creates a new one from the files specified
           with -c and -r. Only works for beam files. Use --plt or --output_plt to  override  the
           default plt location.

           The  plt  is extended to also include the files specified with -c and -r. Use --plt to
           specify which plt to start from, and --output_plt to specify where  to  put  the  plt.
           Note  that  the  analysis  might  include files from the plt if they depend on the new
           files. This option only works with beam files.

           The information from the files specified with -c and -r is removed from the plt.  Note
           that this may cause a re-analysis of the remaining dependent files.

           Check the plt for consistency and rebuild it if it is not up-to-date.

           Skip the plt check when running Dialyzer. Useful when working with installed plts that
           never change.

           Make Dialyzer print information about the plt and then quit. The plt can be  specified
           with --plt(s).

           Make  Dialyzer emit warnings even when manipulating the plt. Warnings are only emitted
           for files that are actually analyzed.

         --dump_callgraph file:
           Dump the call graph into the specified file whose format is  determined  by  the  file
           name  extension. Supported extensions are: raw, dot, and ps. If something else is used
           as file name extension, default format '.raw' will be used.

         --no_native (or -nn):
           Bypass the native code compilation of  some  key  files  that  Dialyzer  heuristically
           performs when dialyzing many files; this avoids the compilation time but it may result
           in (much) longer analysis time.

           Display the full path names of files for which warnings are emitted.

           Use the gs-based GUI.

           Use the wx-based GUI.

       * denotes that multiple occurrences of these options are possible.

       ** options -D and -I work both from command-line and in the Dialyzer GUI;  the  syntax  of
       defines and includes is the same as that used by erlc.

       Warning options:

           Suppress warnings for functions that will never return a value.

           Suppress warnings for unused functions.

           Suppress warnings for construction of improper lists.

           Suppress warnings for using tuples instead of funs.

           Suppress warnings for fun applications that will fail.

           Suppress warnings for patterns that are unused or cannot match.

           Suppress warnings for violations of opaqueness of data types.

           Include  warnings  for function calls which ignore a structured return value or do not
           match against one of many possible return value(s).

           Include warnings for functions that only return by means of an exception.

           Include warnings for possible race conditions.

           Include warnings about behaviour callbacks which drift from the published  recommended

           Warn  about  underspecified  functions  (the  -spec is strictly more allowing than the
           success typing).

       The following options are also available but their  use  is  not  recommended:  (they  are
       mostly for Dialyzer developers and internal debugging)

           Warn  about  overspecified  functions  (the  -spec  is strictly less allowing than the
           success typing).

           Warn when the -spec is different than the success typing.

       *** Identifies options that turn on warnings rather than turning them off.


       You can also use Dialyzer directly from Erlang. Both the GUI and the command line versions
       are  available. The options are similar to the ones given from the command line, so please
       refer to the sections above for a description of these.


       gui() -> ok | {error, Msg}
       gui(OptList) -> ok | {error, Msg}


                 OptList -- see below

              Dialyzer GUI version.

              OptList  :: [Option]
              Option   :: {files,          [Filename :: string()]}
                        | {files_rec,      [DirName :: string()]}
                        | {defines,        [{Macro: atom(), Value : term()}]}
                        | {from,           src_code | byte_code} %% Defaults to byte_code
                        | {init_plt,       FileName :: string()}  %% If changed from default
                        | {plts,           [FileName :: string()]} %% If changed from default
                        | {include_dirs,   [DirName :: string()]}
                        | {output_file,    FileName :: string()}
                        | {output_plt,     FileName :: string()}
                        | {analysis_type,  'succ_typings' | 'plt_add' | 'plt_build' | 'plt_check' | 'plt_remove'}
                        | {warnings,       [WarnOpts]}
                        | {get_warnings,   bool()}

              WarnOpts :: no_return
                        | no_unused
                        | no_improper_lists
                        | no_fun_app
                        | no_match
                        | no_opaque
                        | no_fail_call
                        | error_handling
                        | race_conditions
                        | behaviours
                        | unmatched_returns
                        | overspecs
                        | underspecs
                        | specdiffs

       run(OptList) -> Warnings


                 OptList -- see gui/0,1
                 Warnings -- see below

              Dialyzer command line version.

              Warnings :: [{Tag, Id, Msg}]
              Tag :: 'warn_return_no_exit' | 'warn_return_only_exit'
                   | 'warn_not_called' | 'warn_non_proper_list'
                   | 'warn_fun_app' | 'warn_matching'
                   | 'warn_failing_call' | 'warn_contract_types'
                   | 'warn_contract_syntax' | 'warn_contract_not_equal'
                   | 'warn_contract_subtype' | 'warn_contract_supertype'
              Id = {File :: string(), Line :: integer()}
              Msg = msg() -- Undefined

       format_warning(Msg) -> string()


                 Msg = {Tag, Id, msg()} -- See run/1

              Get a string from warnings as returned by dialyzer:run/1.

       plt_info(string()) -> {'ok', [{atom(), any()}]} | {'error', atom()}

              Returns information about the specified plt.