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       insque, remque - insert/remove an item from a queue


       #include <search.h>

       void insque(void *elem, void *prev);

       void remque(void *elem);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       insque(), remque():


       The  insque()  and remque() functions manipulate doubly-linked lists.  Each element in the
       list is a structure of which the first two elements are a forward and a backward  pointer.
       The  linked list may be linear (i.e., NULL forward pointer at the end of the list and NULL
       backward pointer at the start of the list) or circular.

       The insque() function inserts the element pointed to by elem immediately after the element
       pointed to by prev.

       If  the list is linear, then the call insque(elem, NULL) can be used to insert the initial
       list element, and the call sets the forward and backward pointers of elem to NULL.

       If the list is circular, the caller should ensure that the forward and  backward  pointers
       of  the  first  element are initialized to point to that element, and the prev argument of
       the insque() call should also point to the element.

       The remque() function removes the element pointed to by elem from the doubly-linked list.




       Traditionally (e.g., SunOS, Linux libc 4 and libc 5), the  arguments  of  these  functions
       were of type struct qelem *, defined as:

           struct qelem {
               struct qelem *q_forw;
               struct qelem *q_back;
               char          q_data[1];

       This is still what you will get if _GNU_SOURCE is defined before including <search.h>.

       The location of the prototypes for these functions differs among several versions of UNIX.
       The above is the POSIX version.  Some systems place them in <string.h>.  Linux  libc4  and
       libc 5 placed them in <stdlib.h>.


       In  glibc  2.4 and earlier, it was not possible to specify prev as NULL.  Consequently, to
       build a linear list, the caller had to build a list using an initial call  that  contained
       the first two elements of the list, with the forward and backward pointers in each element
       suitably initialized.


       The program below demonstrates the use of  insque().   Here  is  an  example  run  of  the

           $ ./a.out -c a b c
           Traversing completed list:
           That was a circular list

   Program source

       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <search.h>

       struct element {
           struct element *forward;
           struct element *backward;
           char *name;

       static struct element *
           struct element *e;

           e = malloc(sizeof(struct element));
           if (e == NULL) {
               fprintf(stderr, "malloc() failed\n");

           return e;

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
           struct element *first, *elem, *prev;
           int circular, opt, errfnd;

           /* The "-c" command-line option can be used to specify that the
              list is circular */

           errfnd = 0;
           circular = 0;
           while ((opt = getopt(argc, argv, "c")) != -1) {
               switch (opt) {
               case 'c':
                   circular = 1;
                   errfnd = 1;

           if (errfnd || optind >= argc) {
               fprintf(stderr,  "Usage: %s [-c] string...\n", argv[0]);

           /* Create first element and place it in the linked list */

           elem = new_element();
           first = elem;

           elem->name = argv[optind];

           if (circular) {
               elem->forward = elem;
               elem->backward = elem;
               insque(elem, elem);
           } else {
               insque(elem, NULL);

           /* Add remaining command-line arguments as list elements */

           while (++optind < argc) {
               prev = elem;

               elem = new_element();
               elem->name = argv[optind];
               insque(elem, prev);

           /* Traverse the list from the start, printing element names */

           printf("Traversing completed list:\n");
           elem = first;
           do {
               printf("    %s\n", elem->name);
               elem = elem->forward;
           } while (elem != NULL && elem != first);

           if (elem == first)
               printf("That was a circular list\n");



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                                            2010-09-09                                  INSQUE(3)