Provided by: ncurses-doc_5.9-4_all bug


       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package


       #include <curses.h>


       The  ncurses  library  routines  give  the  user a terminal-independent method of updating
       character screens with reasonable optimization.  This  implementation  is  ``new  curses''
       (ncurses)  and  is  the  approved  replacement  for  4.4BSD classic curses, which has been
       discontinued.  This describes ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20110404).

       The ncurses library emulates the curses library of System  V  Release  4  UNIX,  and  XPG4
       (X/Open  Portability  Guide)  curses  (also  known  as XSI curses).  XSI stands for X/Open
       System Interfaces Extension.  The ncurses library  is  freely  redistributable  in  source
       form.   Differences  from  the  SVr4  curses  are  summarized  under  the  EXTENSIONS  and
       PORTABILITY  sections  below  and  described  in  detail  in  the  respective  EXTENSIONS,
       PORTABILITY and BUGS sections of individual man pages.

       The  ncurses  library also provides many useful extensions, i.e., features which cannot be
       implemented by a simple add-on library but which require access to the  internals  of  the

       A  program  using  these  routines must be linked with the -lncurses option, or (if it has
       been generated) with the debugging library -lncurses_g.  (Your system integrator may  also
       have  installed  these  libraries under the names -lcurses and -lcurses_g.)  The ncurses_g
       library generates trace logs (in a file called 'trace'  in  the  current  directory)  that
       describe curses actions.  See also the section on ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS.

       The  ncurses  package  supports:  overall  screen,  window and pad manipulation; output to
       windows and pads; reading terminal input; control  over  terminal  and  curses  input  and
       output  options;  environment  query routines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys;
       terminfo capabilities; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       The library uses the locale which the calling program has initialized.  That  is  normally
       done with setlocale:

             setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

       If  the locale is not initialized, the library assumes that characters are printable as in
       ISO-8859-1, to work with certain legacy programs.  You should initialize  the  locale  and
       not rely on specific details of the library when the locale has not been setup.

       The function initscr or newterm must be called to initialize the library before any of the
       other routines that deal with windows and screens are used.  The routine  endwin  must  be
       called before exiting.

       To  get  character-at-a-time  input  without  echoing  (most  interactive, screen oriented
       programs want this), the following sequence should be used:

             initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

             intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
             keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of  the  terminal  should  be  set  and  its
       initialization  strings,  if  defined,  must be output.  This can be done by executing the
       tput init command after the shell environment variable TERM has been exported.  tset(1) is
       usually responsible for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The  ncurses library permits manipulation of data structures, called windows, which can be
       thought of as two-dimensional arrays of characters representing  all  or  part  of  a  CRT
       screen.   A  default  window  called  stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is
       supplied.  Others may be created with newwin.

       Note that curses does not handle overlapping windows, that's done  by  the  panel(3CURSES)
       library.   This  means  that  you  can  either  use stdscr or divide the screen into tiled
       windows and not using stdscr at all.  Mixing the two will  result  in  unpredictable,  and
       undesired, effects.

       Windows  are  referred  to  by  variables declared as WINDOW *.  These data structures are
       manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere in the ncurses manual pages.  Among
       those,  the  most  basic  routines  are  move  and  addch.  More general versions of these
       routines are included with names beginning with w, allowing the user to specify a  window.
       The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.

       After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling curses to make the
       user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The characters in  a  window  are  actually  of  type
       chtype,  (character  and attribute data) so that other information about the character may
       also be stored with each character.

       Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These  are  windows  which  are  not
       constrained to the size of the screen and whose contents need not be completely displayed.
       See pad(3NCURSES) for more information.

       In addition to drawing characters on the  screen,  video  attributes  and  colors  may  be
       supported,  causing  the  characters  to  show  up in such modes as underlined, in reverse
       video, or in color on terminals that support  such  display  enhancements.   Line  drawing
       characters  may  be  specified  to  be output.  On input, curses is also able to translate
       arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences  into  single  values.   The  video
       attributes,  line  drawing  characters, and input values use names, defined in <curses.h>,
       such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and KEY_LEFT.

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the program is executing  in
       a  window  environment,  line  and  column  information  in  the environment will override
       information read by terminfo.  This would affect a program running in an AT&T  630  layer,
       for example, where the size of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       If  the  environment  variable  TERMINFO is defined, any program using curses checks for a
       local terminal definition before checking in the standard place.  For example, if TERM  is
       set to att4424, then the compiled terminal definition is found in


       (The  a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation of huge directories.)
       However, if TERMINFO is set to $HOME/myterms, curses first checks


       and if that fails, it then checks


       This is useful for  developing  experimental  definitions  or  when  write  permission  in
       /usr/share/terminfo is not available.

       The  integer  variables  LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and will be filled in by
       initscr with the size of the screen.  The constants TRUE and FALSE have the values  1  and
       0, respectively.

       The  curses  routines  also  define the WINDOW * variable curscr which is used for certain
       low-level operations like clearing and redrawing a screen containing garbage.  The  curscr
       can be used in only a few routines.

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many  curses  routines  have two or more versions.  The routines prefixed with w require a
       window argument.  The routines prefixed with p require a pad argument.   Those  without  a
       prefix generally use stdscr.

       The  routines  prefixed  with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to before performing
       the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply a call to move before the call to the other
       routine.   The  coordinate y always refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers
       to the column.  The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y  coordinates.   The
       window argument is always specified before the coordinates.

       In  each  case,  win  is the window affected, and pad is the pad affected; win and pad are
       always pointers to type WINDOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the value  TRUE  or  FALSE;  bf  is
       always of type bool.  Most of the data types used in the library routines, such as WINDOW,
       SCREEN, bool, and chtype are defined in <curses.h>.  Types used for the terminfo  routines
       such as TERMINAL are defined in <term.h>.

       This manual page describes functions which may appear in any configuration of the library.
       There are two common configurations of the library:

                   the "normal" library, which handles  8-bit  characters.   The  normal  (8-bit)
                   library stores characters combined with attributes in chtype data.

                   Attributes  alone  (no corresponding character) may be stored in chtype or the
                   equivalent attr_t data.  In either case, the data is stored in something  like
                   an integer.

                   Each cell (row and column) in a WINDOW is stored as a chtype.

                   the  so-called  "wide"  library,  which  handles multibyte characters (see the
                   section on ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS).  The "wide" library includes all of  the
                   calls  from  the  "normal"  library.  It adds about one third more calls using
                   data types which store multibyte characters:

                        corresponds to chtype.  However it is a structure, because more  data  is
                        stored  than can fit into an integer.  The characters are large enough to
                        require a full integer value - and there may be more than  one  character
                        per  cell.   The video attributes and color are stored in separate fields
                        of the structure.

                        Each cell (row and column) in a WINDOW is stored as a cchar_t.

                        stores a "wide" character.  Like chtype, this may be an integer.

                        stores a wchar_t or WEOF - not the same, though both may  have  the  same

                   The  "wide" library provides new functions which are analogous to functions in
                   the "normal" library.  There is a naming convention which relates many of  the
                   normal/wide  variants:  a "_w" is inserted into the name.  For example, waddch
                   becomes wadd_wch.

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name of the manual page on which  it
       is  described.   Routines  flagged with `*' are ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or
       present in SVr4.

                           curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
                           COLOR_PAIR              color(3NCURSES)
                           PAIR_NUMBER             attr(3NCURSES)

                           _nc_free_and_exit       memleaks(3NCURSES)*
                           _nc_freeall             memleaks(3NCURSES)*
                           _nc_tracebits           trace(3NCURSES)*
                           _traceattr              trace(3NCURSES)*
                           _traceattr2             trace(3NCURSES)*
                           _tracechar              trace(3NCURSES)*
                           _tracechtype            trace(3NCURSES)*
                           _tracechtype2           trace(3NCURSES)*
                           _tracedump              trace(3NCURSES)*
                           _tracef                 trace(3NCURSES)*
                           _tracemouse             trace(3NCURSES)*
                           add_wch                 add_wch(3NCURSES)
                           add_wchnstr             add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           add_wchstr              add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           addch                   addch(3NCURSES)
                           addchnstr               addchstr(3NCURSES)
                           addchstr                addchstr(3NCURSES)
                           addnstr                 addstr(3NCURSES)
                           addnwstr                addwstr(3NCURSES)
                           addstr                  addstr(3NCURSES)
                           addwstr                 addwstr(3NCURSES)
                           assume_default_colors   default_colors(3NCURSES)*
                           attr_get                attr(3NCURSES)
                           attr_off                attr(3NCURSES)
                           attr_on                 attr(3NCURSES)
                           attr_set                attr(3NCURSES)
                           attroff                 attr(3NCURSES)
                           attron                  attr(3NCURSES)
                           attrset                 attr(3NCURSES)
                           baudrate                termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           beep                    beep(3NCURSES)
                           bkgd                    bkgd(3NCURSES)
                           bkgdset                 bkgd(3NCURSES)
                           bkgrnd                  bkgrnd(3NCURSES)
                           bkgrndset               bkgrnd(3NCURSES)
                           border                  border(3NCURSES)
                           border_set              border_set(3NCURSES)
                           box                     border(3NCURSES)
                           box_set                 border_set(3NCURSES)
                           can_change_color        color(3NCURSES)
                           cbreak                  inopts(3NCURSES)
                           chgat                   attr(3NCURSES)
                           clear                   clear(3NCURSES)
                           clearok                 outopts(3NCURSES)
                           clrtobot                clear(3NCURSES)
                           clrtoeol                clear(3NCURSES)
                           color_content           color(3NCURSES)
                           color_set               attr(3NCURSES)
                           copywin                 overlay(3NCURSES)
                           curs_set                kernel(3NCURSES)
                           curses_version          extensions(3NCURSES)*
                           def_prog_mode           kernel(3NCURSES)
                           def_shell_mode          kernel(3NCURSES)
                           define_key              define_key(3NCURSES)*
                           del_curterm             terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           delay_output            util(3NCURSES)
                           delch                   delch(3NCURSES)
                           deleteln                deleteln(3NCURSES)
                           delscreen               initscr(3NCURSES)
                           delwin                  window(3NCURSES)
                           derwin                  window(3NCURSES)
                           doupdate                refresh(3NCURSES)
                           dupwin                  window(3NCURSES)
                           echo                    inopts(3NCURSES)
                           echo_wchar              add_wch(3NCURSES)
                           echochar                addch(3NCURSES)
                           endwin                  initscr(3NCURSES)

                           erase                   clear(3NCURSES)
                           erasechar               termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           erasewchar              termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           filter                  util(3NCURSES)
                           flash                   beep(3NCURSES)
                           flushinp                util(3NCURSES)
                           get_wch                 get_wch(3NCURSES)
                           get_wstr                get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           getattrs                attr(3NCURSES)
                           getbegx                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                           getbegy                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                           getbegyx                getyx(3NCURSES)
                           getbkgd                 bkgd(3NCURSES)
                           getbkgrnd               bkgrnd(3NCURSES)
                           getcchar                getcchar(3NCURSES)
                           getch                   getch(3NCURSES)
                           getcurx                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                           getcury                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                           getmaxx                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                           getmaxy                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                           getmaxyx                getyx(3NCURSES)
                           getmouse                mouse(3NCURSES)*
                           getn_wstr               get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           getnstr                 getstr(3NCURSES)
                           getparx                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                           getpary                 legacy(3NCURSES)*
                           getparyx                getyx(3NCURSES)
                           getstr                  getstr(3NCURSES)
                           getsyx                  kernel(3NCURSES)
                           getwin                  util(3NCURSES)
                           getyx                   getyx(3NCURSES)
                           halfdelay               inopts(3NCURSES)
                           has_colors              color(3NCURSES)
                           has_ic                  termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           has_il                  termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           has_key                 getch(3NCURSES)*
                           hline                   border(3NCURSES)
                           hline_set               border_set(3NCURSES)
                           idcok                   outopts(3NCURSES)
                           idlok                   outopts(3NCURSES)
                           immedok                 outopts(3NCURSES)
                           in_wch                  in_wch(3NCURSES)
                           in_wchnstr              in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           in_wchstr               in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           inch                    inch(3NCURSES)
                           inchnstr                inchstr(3NCURSES)
                           inchstr                 inchstr(3NCURSES)
                           init_color              color(3NCURSES)
                           init_pair               color(3NCURSES)
                           initscr                 initscr(3NCURSES)
                           innstr                  instr(3NCURSES)
                           innwstr                 inwstr(3NCURSES)
                           ins_nwstr               ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           ins_wch                 ins_wch(3NCURSES)
                           ins_wstr                ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           insch                   insch(3NCURSES)
                           insdelln                deleteln(3NCURSES)
                           insertln                deleteln(3NCURSES)
                           insnstr                 insstr(3NCURSES)
                           insstr                  insstr(3NCURSES)
                           instr                   instr(3NCURSES)
                           intrflush               inopts(3NCURSES)
                           inwstr                  inwstr(3NCURSES)
                           is_cleared              opaque(3NCURSES)*
                           is_idcok                opaque(3NCURSES)*
                           is_idlok                opaque(3NCURSES)*
                           is_immedok              opaque(3NCURSES)*

                           is_keypad               opaque(3NCURSES)*
                           is_leaveok              opaque(3NCURSES)*
                           is_linetouched          touch(3NCURSES)
                           is_nodelay              opaque(3NCURSES)*
                           is_notimeout            opaque(3NCURSES)*
                           is_scrollok             opaque(3NCURSES)*
                           is_syncok               opaque(3NCURSES)*
                           is_term_resized         resizeterm(3NCURSES)*
                           is_wintouched           touch(3NCURSES)
                           isendwin                initscr(3NCURSES)
                           key_defined             key_defined(3NCURSES)*
                           key_name                util(3NCURSES)
                           keybound                keybound(3NCURSES)*
                           keyname                 util(3NCURSES)
                           keyok                   keyok(3NCURSES)*
                           keypad                  inopts(3NCURSES)
                           killchar                termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           killwchar               termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           leaveok                 outopts(3NCURSES)
                           longname                termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           mcprint                 print(3NCURSES)*
                           meta                    inopts(3NCURSES)
                           mouse_trafo             mouse(3NCURSES)*
                           mouseinterval           mouse(3NCURSES)*
                           mousemask               mouse(3NCURSES)*
                           move                    move(3NCURSES)
                           mvadd_wch               add_wch(3NCURSES)
                           mvadd_wchnstr           add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvadd_wchstr            add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvaddch                 addch(3NCURSES)
                           mvaddchnstr             addchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvaddchstr              addchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvaddnstr               addstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvaddnwstr              addwstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvaddstr                addstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvaddwstr               addwstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvchgat                 attr(3NCURSES)
                           mvcur                   terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           mvdelch                 delch(3NCURSES)
                           mvderwin                window(3NCURSES)
                           mvget_wch               get_wch(3NCURSES)
                           mvget_wstr              get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvgetch                 getch(3NCURSES)
                           mvgetn_wstr             get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvgetnstr               getstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvgetstr                getstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvhline                 border(3NCURSES)
                           mvhline_set             border_set(3NCURSES)
                           mvin_wch                in_wch(3NCURSES)
                           mvin_wchnstr            in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvin_wchstr             in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvinch                  inch(3NCURSES)
                           mvinchnstr              inchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvinchstr               inchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvinnstr                instr(3NCURSES)
                           mvinnwstr               inwstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvins_nwstr             ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvins_wch               ins_wch(3NCURSES)
                           mvins_wstr              ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvinsch                 insch(3NCURSES)
                           mvinsnstr               insstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvinsstr                insstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvinstr                 instr(3NCURSES)
                           mvinwstr                inwstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvprintw                printw(3NCURSES)
                           mvscanw                 scanw(3NCURSES)
                           mvvline                 border(3NCURSES)

                           mvvline_set             border_set(3NCURSES)
                           mvwadd_wch              add_wch(3NCURSES)
                           mvwadd_wchnstr          add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwadd_wchstr           add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwaddch                addch(3NCURSES)
                           mvwaddchnstr            addchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwaddchstr             addchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwaddnstr              addstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwaddnwstr             addwstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwaddstr               addstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwaddwstr              addwstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwchgat                attr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwdelch                delch(3NCURSES)
                           mvwget_wch              get_wch(3NCURSES)
                           mvwget_wstr             get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwgetch                getch(3NCURSES)
                           mvwgetn_wstr            get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwgetnstr              getstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwgetstr               getstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwhline                border(3NCURSES)
                           mvwhline_set            border_set(3NCURSES)
                           mvwin                   window(3NCURSES)
                           mvwin_wch               in_wch(3NCURSES)
                           mvwin_wchnstr           in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwin_wchstr            in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwinch                 inch(3NCURSES)
                           mvwinchnstr             inchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwinchstr              inchstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwinnstr               instr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwinnwstr              inwstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwins_nwstr            ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwins_wch              ins_wch(3NCURSES)
                           mvwins_wstr             ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwinsch                insch(3NCURSES)
                           mvwinsnstr              insstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwinsstr               insstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwinstr                instr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwinwstr               inwstr(3NCURSES)
                           mvwprintw               printw(3NCURSES)
                           mvwscanw                scanw(3NCURSES)
                           mvwvline                border(3NCURSES)
                           mvwvline_set            border_set(3NCURSES)
                           napms                   kernel(3NCURSES)
                           newpad                  pad(3NCURSES)
                           newterm                 initscr(3NCURSES)
                           newwin                  window(3NCURSES)
                           nl                      outopts(3NCURSES)
                           nocbreak                inopts(3NCURSES)
                           nodelay                 inopts(3NCURSES)
                           noecho                  inopts(3NCURSES)
                           nofilter                util(3NCURSES)*
                           nonl                    outopts(3NCURSES)
                           noqiflush               inopts(3NCURSES)
                           noraw                   inopts(3NCURSES)
                           notimeout               inopts(3NCURSES)
                           overlay                 overlay(3NCURSES)
                           overwrite               overlay(3NCURSES)
                           pair_content            color(3NCURSES)
                           pechochar               pad(3NCURSES)
                           pnoutrefresh            pad(3NCURSES)
                           prefresh                pad(3NCURSES)
                           printw                  printw(3NCURSES)
                           putp                    terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           putwin                  util(3NCURSES)
                           qiflush                 inopts(3NCURSES)
                           raw                     inopts(3NCURSES)
                           redrawwin               refresh(3NCURSES)

                           refresh                 refresh(3NCURSES)
                           reset_prog_mode         kernel(3NCURSES)
                           reset_shell_mode        kernel(3NCURSES)
                           resetty                 kernel(3NCURSES)
                           resizeterm              resizeterm(3NCURSES)*
                           restartterm             terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           ripoffline              kernel(3NCURSES)
                           savetty                 kernel(3NCURSES)
                           scanw                   scanw(3NCURSES)
                           scr_dump                scr_dump(3NCURSES)
                           scr_init                scr_dump(3NCURSES)
                           scr_restore             scr_dump(3NCURSES)
                           scr_set                 scr_dump(3NCURSES)
                           scrl                    scroll(3NCURSES)
                           scroll                  scroll(3NCURSES)
                           scrollok                outopts(3NCURSES)
                           set_curterm             terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           set_term                initscr(3NCURSES)
                           setcchar                getcchar(3NCURSES)
                           setscrreg               outopts(3NCURSES)
                           setsyx                  kernel(3NCURSES)
                           setterm                 terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           setupterm               terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           slk_attr                slk(3NCURSES)*
                           slk_attr_off            slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_attr_on             slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_attr_set            slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_attroff             slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_attron              slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_attrset             slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_clear               slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_color               slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_init                slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_label               slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_noutrefresh         slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_refresh             slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_restore             slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_set                 slk(3NCURSES)
                           slk_touch               slk(3NCURSES)
                           standend                attr(3NCURSES)
                           standout                attr(3NCURSES)
                           start_color             color(3NCURSES)
                           subpad                  pad(3NCURSES)
                           subwin                  window(3NCURSES)
                           syncok                  window(3NCURSES)
                           term_attrs              termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           termattrs               termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           termname                termattrs(3NCURSES)
                           tgetent                 termcap(3NCURSES)
                           tgetflag                termcap(3NCURSES)
                           tgetnum                 termcap(3NCURSES)
                           tgetstr                 termcap(3NCURSES)
                           tgoto                   termcap(3NCURSES)
                           tigetflag               terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           tigetnum                terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           tigetstr                terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           timeout                 inopts(3NCURSES)
                           touchline               touch(3NCURSES)
                           touchwin                touch(3NCURSES)
                           tparm                   terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           tputs                   termcap(3NCURSES)
                           tputs                   terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           trace                   trace(3NCURSES)*
                           typeahead               inopts(3NCURSES)
                           unctrl                  util(3NCURSES)
                           unget_wch               get_wch(3NCURSES)
                           ungetch                 getch(3NCURSES)

                           ungetmouse              mouse(3NCURSES)*
                           untouchwin              touch(3NCURSES)
                           use_default_colors      default_colors(3NCURSES)*
                           use_env                 util(3NCURSES)
                           use_extended_names      extensions(3NCURSES)*
                           use_legacy_coding       legacy_coding(3NCURSES)*
                           vid_attr                terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           vid_puts                terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           vidattr                 terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           vidputs                 terminfo(3NCURSES)
                           vline                   border(3NCURSES)
                           vline_set               border_set(3NCURSES)
                           vw_printw               printw(3NCURSES)
                           vw_scanw                scanw(3NCURSES)
                           vwprintw                printw(3NCURSES)
                           vwscanw                 scanw(3NCURSES)
                           wadd_wch                add_wch(3NCURSES)
                           wadd_wchnstr            add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           wadd_wchstr             add_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           waddch                  addch(3NCURSES)
                           waddchnstr              addchstr(3NCURSES)
                           waddchstr               addchstr(3NCURSES)
                           waddnstr                addstr(3NCURSES)
                           waddnwstr               addwstr(3NCURSES)
                           waddstr                 addstr(3NCURSES)
                           waddwstr                addwstr(3NCURSES)
                           wattr_get               attr(3NCURSES)
                           wattr_off               attr(3NCURSES)
                           wattr_on                attr(3NCURSES)
                           wattr_set               attr(3NCURSES)
                           wattroff                attr(3NCURSES)
                           wattron                 attr(3NCURSES)
                           wattrset                attr(3NCURSES)
                           wbkgd                   bkgd(3NCURSES)
                           wbkgdset                bkgd(3NCURSES)
                           wbkgrnd                 bkgrnd(3NCURSES)
                           wbkgrndset              bkgrnd(3NCURSES)
                           wborder                 border(3NCURSES)
                           wborder_set             border_set(3NCURSES)
                           wchgat                  attr(3NCURSES)
                           wclear                  clear(3NCURSES)
                           wclrtobot               clear(3NCURSES)
                           wclrtoeol               clear(3NCURSES)
                           wcolor_set              attr(3NCURSES)
                           wcursyncup              window(3NCURSES)
                           wdelch                  delch(3NCURSES)
                           wdeleteln               deleteln(3NCURSES)
                           wecho_wchar             add_wch(3NCURSES)
                           wechochar               addch(3NCURSES)
                           wenclose                mouse(3NCURSES)*
                           werase                  clear(3NCURSES)
                           wget_wch                get_wch(3NCURSES)
                           wget_wstr               get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           wgetbkgrnd              bkgrnd(3NCURSES)
                           wgetch                  getch(3NCURSES)
                           wgetn_wstr              get_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           wgetnstr                getstr(3NCURSES)
                           wgetstr                 getstr(3NCURSES)
                           whline                  border(3NCURSES)
                           whline_set              border_set(3NCURSES)
                           win_wch                 in_wch(3NCURSES)
                           win_wchnstr             in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           win_wchstr              in_wchstr(3NCURSES)
                           winch                   inch(3NCURSES)
                           winchnstr               inchstr(3NCURSES)
                           winchstr                inchstr(3NCURSES)
                           winnstr                 instr(3NCURSES)

                           winnwstr                inwstr(3NCURSES)
                           wins_nwstr              ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           wins_wch                ins_wch(3NCURSES)
                           wins_wstr               ins_wstr(3NCURSES)
                           winsch                  insch(3NCURSES)
                           winsdelln               deleteln(3NCURSES)
                           winsertln               deleteln(3NCURSES)
                           winsnstr                insstr(3NCURSES)
                           winsstr                 insstr(3NCURSES)
                           winstr                  instr(3NCURSES)
                           winwstr                 inwstr(3NCURSES)
                           wmouse_trafo            mouse(3NCURSES)*
                           wmove                   move(3NCURSES)
                           wnoutrefresh            refresh(3NCURSES)
                           wprintw                 printw(3NCURSES)
                           wredrawln               refresh(3NCURSES)
                           wrefresh                refresh(3NCURSES)
                           wresize                 wresize(3NCURSES)*
                           wscanw                  scanw(3NCURSES)
                           wscrl                   scroll(3NCURSES)
                           wsetscrreg              outopts(3NCURSES)
                           wstandend               attr(3NCURSES)
                           wstandout               attr(3NCURSES)
                           wsyncdown               window(3NCURSES)
                           wsyncup                 window(3NCURSES)
                           wtimeout                inopts(3NCURSES)
                           wtouchln                touch(3NCURSES)
                           wunctrl                 util(3NCURSES)
                           wvline                  border(3NCURSES)
                           wvline_set              border_set(3NCURSES)


       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an integer  value  other  than
       ERR upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted in the routine descriptions.

       All  macros  return  the  value  of  the  w  version, except setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx,
       getbegyx, and getmaxyx.  The return values of setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx,  and
       getmaxyx  are  undefined  (i.e.,  these  should  not  be  used  as  the right-hand side of
       assignment statements).

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.


       The following environment symbols are useful for customizing the runtime behavior  of  the
       ncurses library.  The most important ones have been already discussed in detail.

            The  debugging  library  checks  this  environment  symbol  when  the application has
            redirected output to a file.  The symbol's numeric value is used  for  the  baudrate.
            If no value is found, ncurses uses 9600.  This allows testers to construct repeatable
            test-cases that take into account costs that depend on baudrate.

       CC   When set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the cmdch capability) of
            the  loaded  terminfo entries to the value of this symbol.  Very few terminfo entries
            provide this feature.

            Because this name is also  used  in  development  environments  to  represent  the  C
            compiler's name, ncurses ignores it if it does not happen to be a single character.

            Specify  the  width of the screen in characters.  Applications running in a windowing
            environment usually are able to obtain the width of the  window  in  which  they  are
            executing.  If neither the COLUMNS value nor the terminal's screen size is available,
            ncurses uses the size which may be specified in the terminfo database (i.e., the cols

            It is important that your application use a correct size for the screen.  This is not
            always possible because your application may be running on  a  host  which  does  not
            honor  NAWS  (Negotiations About Window Size), or because you are temporarily running
            as another user.  However, setting COLUMNS and/or LINES overrides the  library's  use
            of the screen size obtained from the operating system.

            Either  COLUMNS  or  LINES  symbols  may  be specified independently.  This is mainly
            useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal descriptions, e.g.,  xterm  which
            commonly  specifies a 65 line screen.  For best results, lines and cols should not be
            specified in a terminal description for terminals which are run as emulations.

            Use the use_env function to disable all use of external environment (including system
            calls) to determine the screen size.

            Specifies  the  total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will await a character
            sequence, e.g., a function key.  The default value, 1000 milliseconds, is enough  for
            most uses.  However, it is made a variable to accommodate unusual applications.

            The most common instance where you may wish to change this value is to work with slow
            hosts, e.g., running on a network.   If  the  host  cannot  read  characters  rapidly
            enough,  it  will  have  the  same  effect as if the terminal did not send characters
            rapidly enough.  The library will still see a timeout.

            Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences received from  the
            xterm.   If  your  application  makes heavy use of multiple-clicking, you may wish to
            lengthen this default value because the timeout applies to the  composed  multi-click
            event as well as the individual clicks.

            In  addition  to  the  environment  variable,  this  implementation provides a global
            variable with the same name.  Portable applications should not rely upon the presence
            of  ESCDELAY  in  either  form,  but setting the environment variable rather than the
            global variable does not create problems when compiling an application.

       HOME Tells ncurses where your home directory is.  That is where  it  may  read  and  write
            auxiliary terminal descriptions:


            Like  COLUMNS,  specify  the  height  of the screen in characters.  See COLUMNS for a
            detailed description.

            This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order  of  buttons  on  the
            mouse.  OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse inconsistently from other platforms:

            1 = left
            2 = right
            3 = middle.

            This  symbol  lets  you customize the mouse.  The symbol must be three numeric digits
            1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321.  If it is not specified, ncurses uses 132.

            Override the compiled-in assumption that the terminal's default colors are  white-on-
            black  (see  default_colors(3NCURSES)).   You  may  set the foreground and background
            color  values  with  this  environment  variable  by  proving   a   2-element   list:
            foreground,background.  For example, to tell ncurses to not assume anything about the
            colors, set this to "-1,-1".  To make  it  green-on-black,  set  it  to  "2,0".   Any
            positive value from zero to the terminfo max_colors value is allowed.

            This applies only to ncurses configured to use the GPM interface.

            If  present, the environment variable is a list of one or more terminal names against
            which the TERM environment variable  is  matched.   Setting  it  to  an  empty  value
            disables the GPM interface; using the built-in support for xterm, etc.

            If  the  environment  variable  is  absent,  ncurses will attempt to open GPM if TERM
            contains "linux".

            Ncurses may use tabs as part of the cursor movement  optimization.   In  some  cases,
            your terminal driver may not handle these properly.  Set this environment variable to
            disable the feature.  You can also adjust your stty settings to avoid the problem.

            Some terminals use a magic-cookie feature which requires  special  handling  to  make
            highlighting  and  other  video  attributes  display  properly.  You can suppress the
            highlighting entirely for these terminals by setting this environment variable.

            Most of the terminal descriptions in the  terminfo  database  are  written  for  real
            "hardware"  terminals.   Many  people use terminal emulators which run in a windowing
            environment and use curses-based applications.  Terminal emulators can duplicate  all
            of  the  important  aspects  of  a  hardware  terminal, but they do not have the same
            limitations.  The chief limitation of a hardware terminal from the standpoint of your
            application  is the management of dataflow, i.e., timing.  Unless a hardware terminal
            is interfaced into a terminal concentrator (which does flow  control),  it  (or  your
            application)  must  manage  dataflow, preventing overruns.  The cheapest solution (no
            hardware cost) is for your program to do this by pausing after  operations  that  the
            terminal does slowly, such as clearing the display.

            As  a  result,  many  terminal  descriptions  (including  the vt100) have delay times
            embedded.  You may  wish  to  use  these  descriptions,  but  not  want  to  pay  the
            performance penalty.

            Set  the  NCURSES_NO_PADDING  symbol to disable all but mandatory padding.  Mandatory
            padding is used as a part of special control sequences such as flash.

            Normally ncurses enables buffered output during  terminal  initialization.   This  is
            done  (as  in  SVr4  curses)  for performance reasons.  For testing purposes, both of
            ncurses and certain  applications,  this  feature  is  made  optional.   Setting  the
            NCURSES_NO_SETBUF  variable  disables  output  buffering,  leaving  the output in the
            original (usually line buffered) mode.

            During initialization, the ncurses library checks for special cases where VT100 line-
            drawing (and the corresponding alternate character set capabilities) described in the
            terminfo are known to be missing.  Specifically, when running in a UTF-8 locale,  the
            Linux  console  emulator and the GNU screen program ignore these.  Ncurses checks the
            TERM environment variable for these.  For other special cases, you  should  set  this
            environment  variable.   Doing  this  tells  ncurses  to  use  Unicode  values  which
            correspond to the VT100 line-drawing glyphs.  That works for the special cases cited,
            and is likely to work for terminal emulators.

            When setting this variable, you should set it to a nonzero value.  Setting it to zero
            (or to a nonnumber) disables the special check for "linux" and "screen".

            As an alternative to  the  environment  variable,  ncurses  checks  for  an  extended
            terminfo  capability  U8.   This  is a numeric capability which can be compiled using
            tic -x.  For example

            # linux console, if patched to provide working
            # VT100 shift-in/shift-out, with corresponding font.
            linux-vt100|linux console with VT100 line-graphics,
                                 U8#0, use=linux,

            # uxterm with vt100Graphics resource set to false
            xterm-utf8|xterm relying on UTF-8 line-graphics,
                                 U8#1, use=xterm,

            The name "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it to be used by applications
            that use ncurses' termcap interface.

            During initialization, the ncurses debugging library checks the NCURSES_TRACE symbol.
            If it is defined, to a numeric value, ncurses calls the trace  function,  using  that
            value as the argument.

            The  argument  values,  which  are  defined  in  curses.h,  provide  several types of
            information.  When running with traces enabled, your application will write the  file
            trace to the current directory.

       TERM Denotes your terminal type.  Each terminal type is distinct, though many are similar.

            If  the  ncurses library has been configured with termcap support, ncurses will check
            for a terminal's description in termcap form if it is not available in  the  terminfo

            The  TERMCAP  symbol  contains  either a terminal description (with newlines stripped
            out), or a file name telling where the information denoted by the TERM symbol exists.
            In  either  case,  setting  it  directs  ncurses  to  ignore the usual place for this
            information, e.g., /etc/termcap.

            Overrides the directory in which ncurses  searches  for  your  terminal  description.
            This  is  the  simplest, but not the only way to change the list of directories.  The
            complete list of directories in order follows:

            ·   the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is searched first

            ·   the directory specified by the TERMINFO symbol

            ·   $HOME/.terminfo

            ·   directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS symbol

            ·   one or more directories whose names are configured and compiled into the  ncurses
                library, e.g., /usr/share/terminfo

            Specifies  a  list  of  directories to search for terminal descriptions.  The list is
            separated by colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.  All of the terminal
            descriptions  are  in  terminfo  form, which makes a subdirectory named for the first
            letter of the terminal names therein.

            If TERMCAP does not hold a file name then ncurses checks the TERMPATH  symbol.   This
            is  a list of filenames separated by spaces or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons
            on OS/2 EMX.  If the  TERMPATH  symbol  is  not  set,  ncurses  looks  in  the  files
            /etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.termcap, in that order.

       The  library  may be configured to disregard the following variables when the current user
       is the superuser (root),  or  if  the  application  uses  setuid  or  setgid  permissions:


       Several  different  configurations are possible, depending on the configure script options
       used when building ncurses.  There are a few main options whose effects are visible to the
       applications developer using ncurses:

            The standard include for ncurses is as noted in SYNOPSIS:

            #include <curses.h>

            This  option  is  used  to  avoid  filename  conflicts  when  ncurses is not the main
            implementation of  curses  of  the  computer.   If  ncurses  is  installed  disabling
            overwrite, it puts its headers in a subdirectory, e.g.,

            #include <ncurses/curses.h>

            It  also  omits  a  symbolic  link  which  would  allow  you to use -lcurses to build

            The configure script renames the library and (if the  --disable-overwrite  option  is
            used)  puts  the  header files in a different subdirectory.  All of the library names
            have a "w" appended to them, i.e., instead of


            you link with


            You must also define _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED when  compiling  for  the  wide-character
            library  to  use the extended (wide-character) functions.  The curses.h file which is
            installed for the wide-character library is designed to be compatible with the normal
            library's  header.   Only  the  size  of  the  WINDOW structure differs, and very few
            applications require more than a pointer to WINDOWs.  If the  headers  are  installed
            allowing overwrite, the wide-character library's headers should be installed last, to
            allow applications to be built using either library from the same set of headers.




            The shared and  normal  (static)  library  names  differ  by  their  suffixes,  e.g.,
    and  libncurses.a.  The debug and profiling libraries add a "_g" and a
            "_p" to the root names respectively, e.g., libncurses_g.a and libncurses_p.a.

            The trace function normally resides in the debug library, but it is sometimes  useful
            to  configure  this  in  the  shared library.  Configure scripts should check for the
            function's existence rather than assuming it is always in the debug library.


            directory containing  initialization  files  for  the  terminal  capability  database
            /usr/share/terminfo terminal capability database


       terminfo(5) and related pages whose names begin "curs_" for detailed routine descriptions.


       The  ncurses  library can be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP) that falls back to the
       old-style /etc/termcap file if the terminal  setup  code  cannot  find  a  terminfo  entry
       corresponding to TERM.  Use of this feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes
       an entire termcap compiler in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost  in  core  and
       startup cycles.

       The  ncurses  library  includes facilities for capturing mouse events on certain terminals
       (including xterm).  See the mouse(3NCURSES) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window  resizing  events,  e.g.,
       when running in an xterm.  See the resizeterm(3NCURSES) and wresize(3NCURSES) manual pages
       for details.  In addition, the library may be configured with a SIGWINCH handler.

       The ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key  capabilities  of  terminals  by
       allowing  the application designer to define additional key sequences at runtime.  See the
       define_key(3NCURSES) key_defined(3NCURSES), and keyok(3NCURSES) manual pages for details.

       The ncurses library can exploit the capabilities of terminals which implement the ISO-6429
       SGR  39  and  SGR  49  controls,  which  allow an application to reset the terminal to its
       original foreground and background colors.  From the users' perspective,  the  application
       is  able  to draw colored text on a background whose color is set independently, providing
       better control over color contrasts.  See the  default_colors(3NCURSES)  manual  page  for

       The  ncurses  library  includes  a  function for directing application output to a printer
       attached to the terminal device.  See the print(3NCURSES) manual page for details.


       The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level conformant with XSI Curses.  The EXTENDED
       XSI Curses functionality (including color support) is supported.

       A  small  number  of  local  differences  (that is, individual differences between the XSI
       Curses and ncurses calls) are described in PORTABILITY sections of the library man pages.

       This implementation also contains several extensions:

       ·   The routine has_key is not part  of  XPG4,  nor  is  it  present  in  SVr4.   See  the
           getch(3NCURSES) manual page for details.

       ·   The  routine  slk_attr  is  not  part  of  XPG4,  nor  is it present in SVr4.  See the
           slk(3NCURSES) manual page for details.

       ·   The routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse, mouseinterval, and wenclose relating  to
           mouse  interfacing  are  not  part  of  XPG4,  nor  are they present in SVr4.  See the
           mouse(3NCURSES) manual page for details.

       ·   The routine mcprint was not present in any previous curses  implementation.   See  the
           print(3NCURSES) manual page for details.

       ·   The  routine  wresize  is  not  part  of  XPG4,  nor  is  it present in SVr4.  See the
           wresize(3NCURSES) manual page for details.

       ·   The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from application programs.   See
           opaque(3NCURSES) for the discussion of is_scrollok, etc.

       ·   This  implementation  can  be  configured  to  provide  rudimentary support for multi-
           threaded applications.  See threads(3NCURSES) for details.

       ·   This implementation can also be configured to provide a set of functions which improve
           the ability to manage multiple screens.  See sp_funcs(3NCURSES) for details.

       In historic curses versions, delays embedded in the capabilities cr, ind, cub1, ff and tab
       activated corresponding delay bits in the UNIX tty driver.  In  this  implementation,  all
       padding is done by sending NUL bytes.  This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows
       the interface to the UNIX kernel significantly and  increases  the  package's  portability


       The  header  file  <curses.h>  automatically  includes  the  header  files  <stdio.h>  and

       If standard output from a ncurses program is re-directed to something which is not a  tty,
       screen  updates  will  be directed to standard error.  This was an undocumented feature of
       AT&T System V Release 3 curses.


       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.