Provided by: ncurses-doc_5.9-4_all bug

NAME

       newpad, subpad, prefresh, pnoutrefresh, pechochar, pecho_wchar - create and display curses
       pads

SYNOPSIS

       #include <curses.h>

       WINDOW *newpad(int nlines, int ncols);
       WINDOW *subpad(WINDOW *orig, int nlines, int ncols,
             int begin_y, int begin_x);
       int prefresh(WINDOW *pad, int pminrow, int pmincol,
             int sminrow, int smincol, int smaxrow, int smaxcol);
       int pnoutrefresh(WINDOW *pad, int pminrow, int pmincol,
             int sminrow, int smincol, int smaxrow, int smaxcol);
       int pechochar(WINDOW *pad, chtype ch);
       int pecho_wchar(WINDOW *pad, const cchar_t *wch);

DESCRIPTION

       The newpad routine creates and returns a pointer to a new  pad  data  structure  with  the
       given number of lines, nlines, and columns, ncols.  A pad is like a window, except that it
       is not restricted by the screen size, and is not necessarily associated with a  particular
       part  of  the  screen.  Pads can be used when a large window is needed, and only a part of
       the window will be on the screen at one time.  Automatic refreshes  of  pads  (e.g.,  from
       scrolling  or echoing of input) do not occur.  It is not legal to call wrefresh with a pad
       as an argument; the routines prefresh or pnoutrefresh should be called instead.  Note that
       these  routines  require  additional  parameters  to  specify  the  part  of the pad to be
       displayed and the location on the screen to be used for the display.

       The subpad routine creates and returns a pointer to a subwindow  within  a  pad  with  the
       given  number  of  lines,  nlines,  and  columns, ncols.  Unlike subwin, which uses screen
       coordinates, the window is at position (begin_x, begin_y) on the pad.  The window is  made
       in  the middle of the window orig, so that changes made to one window affect both windows.
       During the use of this routine, it will often be necessary to call touchwin  or  touchline
       on orig before calling prefresh.

       The  prefresh  and pnoutrefresh routines are analogous to wrefresh and wnoutrefresh except
       that they relate to pads instead of windows.  The  additional  parameters  are  needed  to
       indicate what part of the pad and screen are involved.  The pminrow and pmincol parameters
       specify the upper left-hand corner of the rectangle to  be  displayed  in  the  pad.   The
       sminrow, smincol, smaxrow, and smaxcol parameters specify the edges of the rectangle to be
       displayed on the screen.  The lower right-hand corner of the rectangle to be displayed  in
       the  pad  is calculated from the screen coordinates, since the rectangles must be the same
       size.  Both rectangles must be entirely  contained  within  their  respective  structures.
       Negative values of pminrow, pmincol, sminrow, or smincol are treated as if they were zero.

       The  pechochar routine is functionally equivalent to a call to addch followed by a call to
       refresh, a call to waddch followed by a call to wrefresh, or a call to waddch followed  by
       a  call  to prefresh.  The knowledge that only a single character is being output is taken
       into consideration and, for non-control characters, a considerable performance gain  might
       be  seen  by using these routines instead of their equivalents.  In the case of pechochar,
       the last location of the pad on the screen is reused for the arguments to prefresh.

       The pecho_wchar function is the analogous wide-character form of  pechochar.   It  outputs
       one  character  to  a  pad  and  immediately refreshes the pad.  It does this by a call to
       wadd_wch followed by a call to prefresh.

RETURN VALUE

       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and OK (SVr4  only  specifies  "an
       integer value other than ERR") upon successful completion.

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error, and set errno to ENOMEM.

       X/Open does not define any error conditions.  In this implementation

              prefresh and pnoutrefresh
                   return  an error if the window pointer is null, or if the window is not really
                   a pad or if  the  area  to  refresh  extends  off-screen  or  if  the  minimum
                   coordinates are greater than the maximum.

              pechochar
                   returns an error if the window is not really a pad, and the associated call to
                   wechochar returns an error.

              pecho_wchar
                   returns an error if the window is not really a pad, and the associated call to
                   wecho_wchar returns an error.

NOTES

       Note that pechochar may be a macro.

PORTABILITY

       The XSI Curses standard, Issue 4 describes these functions.

SEE ALSO

       ncurses(3NCURSES), refresh(3NCURSES), touch(3NCURSES), addch(3NCURSES).

                                                                                    pad(3NCURSES)