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       strtol, strtoll, strtoq - convert a string to a long integer


       #include <stdlib.h>

       long int strtol(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       long long int strtoll(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

           XOPEN_SOURCE >= 600 || _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE ||
           _ISOC99_SOURCE || _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L;
           or cc -std=c99


       The strtol() function converts the initial part of the string  in  nptr
       to  a  long  integer  value  according to the given base, which must be
       between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

       The string may begin with  an  arbitrary  amount  of  white  space  (as
       determined  by  isspace(3))  followed  by  a single optional '+' or '-'
       sign.  If base is zero or 16,  the  string  may  then  include  a  "0x"
       prefix,  and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base
       is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character  is  '0',  in  which
       case it is taken as 8 (octal).

       The  remainder  of  the  string is converted to a long int value in the
       obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is  not  a  valid
       digit  in the given base.  (In bases above 10, the letter 'A' in either
       upper or lower case represents 10, 'B' represents  11,  and  so  forth,
       with 'Z' representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid
       character in *endptr.  If there were no digits at all, strtol()  stores
       the  original value of nptr in *endptr (and returns 0).  In particular,
       if *nptr is not '\0' but **endptr is '\0' on return, the entire  string
       is valid.

       The  strtoll()  function  works  just  like  the  strtol() function but
       returns a long long integer value.


       The strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless  the
       value  would  underflow  or overflow.  If an underflow occurs, strtol()
       returns LONG_MIN.  If an overflow occurs,  strtol()  returns  LONG_MAX.
       In  both  cases,  errno is set to ERANGE.  Precisely the same holds for
       strtoll()  (with  LLONG_MIN  and  LLONG_MAX  instead  of  LONG_MIN  and


       EINVAL (not in C99) The given base contains an unsupported value.

       ERANGE The resulting value was out of range.

       The  implementation  may also set errno to EINVAL in case no conversion
       was performed (no digits seen, and 0 returned).


       strtol() conforms to SVr4,  4.3BSD,  C89,  C99  and  POSIX.1-2001,  and
       strtoll() to C99 and POSIX.1-2001.


       Since  strtol()  can  legitimately  return  0,  LONG_MAX,  or  LONG_MIN
       (LLONG_MAX or LLONG_MIN for strtoll()) on both success and failure, the
       calling  program  should  set  errno  to  0  before  the call, and then
       determine if an error occurred by checking whether errno has a  nonzero
       value after the call.

       In  locales  other  than  the  "C"  locale,  other  strings may also be
       accepted.  (For example, the thousands separator of the current  locale
       may be supported.)

       BSD also has

           quad_t strtoq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       with completely analogous definition.  Depending on the wordsize of the
       current architecture,  this  may  be  equivalent  to  strtoll()  or  to


       The  program  shown  below demonstrates the use of strtol().  The first
       command-line argument specifies a string  from  which  strtol()  should
       parse  a  number.  The second (optional) argument specifies the base to
       be used for the conversion.  (This argument  is  converted  to  numeric
       form  using atoi(3), a function that performs no error checking and has
       a simpler interface than  strtol().)   Some  examples  of  the  results
       produced by this program are the following:

           $ ./a.out 123
           strtol() returned 123
           $ ./a.out '    123'
           strtol() returned 123
           $ ./a.out 123abc
           strtol() returned 123
           Further characters after number: abc
           $ ./a.out 123abc 55
           strtol: Invalid argument
           $ ./a.out ''
           No digits were found
           $ ./a.out 4000000000
           strtol: Numerical result out of range

   Program source

       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <limits.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <errno.h>

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
           int base;
           char *endptr, *str;
           long val;

           if (argc < 2) {
               fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s str [base]\n", argv[0]);

           str = argv[1];
           base = (argc > 2) ? atoi(argv[2]) : 10;

           errno = 0;    /* To distinguish success/failure after call */
           val = strtol(str, &endptr, base);

           /* Check for various possible errors */

           if ((errno == ERANGE && (val == LONG_MAX || val == LONG_MIN))
                   || (errno != 0 && val == 0)) {

           if (endptr == str) {
               fprintf(stderr, "No digits were found\n");

           /* If we got here, strtol() successfully parsed a number */

           printf("strtol() returned %ld\n", val);

           if (*endptr != '\0')        /* Not necessarily an error... */
               printf("Further characters after number: %s\n", endptr);



       atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtoul(3)


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