Provided by: libthreads-shared-perl_1.40-1build1_amd64 bug

NAME

       threads::shared - Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads

VERSION

       This document describes threads::shared version 1.40

SYNOPSIS

         use threads;
         use threads::shared;

         my $var :shared;
         my %hsh :shared;
         my @ary :shared;

         my ($scalar, @array, %hash);
         share($scalar);
         share(@array);
         share(%hash);

         $var = $scalar_value;
         $var = $shared_ref_value;
         $var = shared_clone($non_shared_ref_value);
         $var = shared_clone({'foo' => [qw/foo bar baz/]});

         $hsh{'foo'} = $scalar_value;
         $hsh{'bar'} = $shared_ref_value;
         $hsh{'baz'} = shared_clone($non_shared_ref_value);
         $hsh{'quz'} = shared_clone([1..3]);

         $ary[0] = $scalar_value;
         $ary[1] = $shared_ref_value;
         $ary[2] = shared_clone($non_shared_ref_value);
         $ary[3] = shared_clone([ {}, [] ]);

         { lock(%hash); ...  }

         cond_wait($scalar);
         cond_timedwait($scalar, time() + 30);
         cond_broadcast(@array);
         cond_signal(%hash);

         my $lockvar :shared;
         # condition var != lock var
         cond_wait($var, $lockvar);
         cond_timedwait($var, time()+30, $lockvar);

DESCRIPTION

       By default, variables are private to each thread, and each newly created thread gets a
       private copy of each existing variable.  This module allows you to share variables across
       different threads (and pseudo-forks on Win32).  It is used together with the threads
       module.

       This module supports the sharing of the following data types only:  scalars and scalar
       refs, arrays and array refs, and hashes and hash refs.

EXPORT

       The following functions are exported by this module: "share", "shared_clone", "is_shared",
       "cond_wait", "cond_timedwait", "cond_signal" and "cond_broadcast"

       Note that if this module is imported when threads has not yet been loaded, then these
       functions all become no-ops.  This makes it possible to write modules that will work in
       both threaded and non-threaded environments.

FUNCTIONS

       share VARIABLE
           "share" takes a variable and marks it as shared:

             my ($scalar, @array, %hash);
             share($scalar);
             share(@array);
             share(%hash);

           "share" will return the shared rvalue, but always as a reference.

           Variables can also be marked as shared at compile time by using the ":shared"
           attribute:

             my ($var, %hash, @array) :shared;

           Shared variables can only store scalars, refs of shared variables, or refs of shared
           data (discussed in next section):

             my ($var, %hash, @array) :shared;
             my $bork;

             # Storing scalars
             $var = 1;
             $hash{'foo'} = 'bar';
             $array[0] = 1.5;

             # Storing shared refs
             $var = \%hash;
             $hash{'ary'} = \@array;
             $array[1] = \$var;

             # The following are errors:
             #   $var = \$bork;                    # ref of non-shared variable
             #   $hash{'bork'} = [];               # non-shared array ref
             #   push(@array, { 'x' => 1 });       # non-shared hash ref

       shared_clone REF
           "shared_clone" takes a reference, and returns a shared version of its argument,
           performing a deep copy on any non-shared elements.  Any shared elements in the
           argument are used as is (i.e., they are not cloned).

             my $cpy = shared_clone({'foo' => [qw/foo bar baz/]});

           Object status (i.e., the class an object is blessed into) is also cloned.

             my $obj = {'foo' => [qw/foo bar baz/]};
             bless($obj, 'Foo');
             my $cpy = shared_clone($obj);
             print(ref($cpy), "\n");         # Outputs 'Foo'

           For cloning empty array or hash refs, the following may also be used:

             $var = &share([]);   # Same as $var = shared_clone([]);
             $var = &share({});   # Same as $var = shared_clone({});

       is_shared VARIABLE
           "is_shared" checks if the specified variable is shared or not.  If shared, returns the
           variable's internal ID (similar to refaddr()).  Otherwise, returns "undef".

             if (is_shared($var)) {
                 print("\$var is shared\n");
             } else {
                 print("\$var is not shared\n");
             }

           When used on an element of an array or hash, "is_shared" checks if the specified
           element belongs to a shared array or hash.  (It does not check the contents of that
           element.)

             my %hash :shared;
             if (is_shared(%hash)) {
                 print("\%hash is shared\n");
             }

             $hash{'elem'} = 1;
             if (is_shared($hash{'elem'})) {
                 print("\$hash{'elem'} is in a shared hash\n");
             }

       lock VARIABLE
           "lock" places a advisory lock on a variable until the lock goes out of scope.  If the
           variable is locked by another thread, the "lock" call will block until it's available.
           Multiple calls to "lock" by the same thread from within dynamically nested scopes are
           safe -- the variable will remain locked until the outermost lock on the variable goes
           out of scope.

           "lock" follows references exactly one level:

             my %hash :shared;
             my $ref = \%hash;
             lock($ref);           # This is equivalent to lock(%hash)

           Note that you cannot explicitly unlock a variable; you can only wait for the lock to
           go out of scope.  This is most easily accomplished by locking the variable inside a
           block.

             my $var :shared;
             {
                 lock($var);
                 # $var is locked from here to the end of the block
                 ...
             }
             # $var is now unlocked

           As locks are advisory, they do not prevent data access or modification by another
           thread that does not itself attempt to obtain a lock on the variable.

           You cannot lock the individual elements of a container variable:

             my %hash :shared;
             $hash{'foo'} = 'bar';
             #lock($hash{'foo'});          # Error
             lock(%hash);                  # Works

           If you need more fine-grained control over shared variable access, see
           Thread::Semaphore.

       cond_wait VARIABLE
       cond_wait CONDVAR, LOCKVAR
           The "cond_wait" function takes a locked variable as a parameter, unlocks the variable,
           and blocks until another thread does a "cond_signal" or "cond_broadcast" for that same
           locked variable.  The variable that "cond_wait" blocked on is relocked after the
           "cond_wait" is satisfied.  If there are multiple threads "cond_wait"ing on the same
           variable, all but one will re-block waiting to reacquire the lock on the variable. (So
           if you're only using "cond_wait" for synchronisation, give up the lock as soon as
           possible).  The two actions of unlocking the variable and entering the blocked wait
           state are atomic, the two actions of exiting from the blocked wait state and re-
           locking the variable are not.

           In its second form, "cond_wait" takes a shared, unlocked variable followed by a
           shared, locked variable.  The second variable is unlocked and thread execution
           suspended until another thread signals the first variable.

           It is important to note that the variable can be notified even if no thread
           "cond_signal" or "cond_broadcast" on the variable.  It is therefore important to check
           the value of the variable and go back to waiting if the requirement is not fulfilled.
           For example, to pause until a shared counter drops to zero:

             { lock($counter); cond_wait($counter) until $counter == 0; }

       cond_timedwait VARIABLE, ABS_TIMEOUT
       cond_timedwait CONDVAR, ABS_TIMEOUT, LOCKVAR
           In its two-argument form, "cond_timedwait" takes a locked variable and an absolute
           timeout as parameters, unlocks the variable, and blocks until the timeout is reached
           or another thread signals the variable.  A false value is returned if the timeout is
           reached, and a true value otherwise.  In either case, the variable is re-locked upon
           return.

           Like "cond_wait", this function may take a shared, locked variable as an additional
           parameter; in this case the first parameter is an unlocked condition variable
           protected by a distinct lock variable.

           Again like "cond_wait", waking up and reacquiring the lock are not atomic, and you
           should always check your desired condition after this function returns.  Since the
           timeout is an absolute value, however, it does not have to be recalculated with each
           pass:

             lock($var);
             my $abs = time() + 15;
             until ($ok = desired_condition($var)) {
                 last if !cond_timedwait($var, $abs);
             }
             # we got it if $ok, otherwise we timed out!

       cond_signal VARIABLE
           The "cond_signal" function takes a locked variable as a parameter and unblocks one
           thread that's "cond_wait"ing on that variable. If more than one thread is blocked in a
           "cond_wait" on that variable, only one (and which one is indeterminate) will be
           unblocked.

           If there are no threads blocked in a "cond_wait" on the variable, the signal is
           discarded. By always locking before signaling, you can (with care), avoid signaling
           before another thread has entered cond_wait().

           "cond_signal" will normally generate a warning if you attempt to use it on an unlocked
           variable. On the rare occasions where doing this may be sensible, you can suppress the
           warning with:

             { no warnings 'threads'; cond_signal($foo); }

       cond_broadcast VARIABLE
           The "cond_broadcast" function works similarly to "cond_signal".  "cond_broadcast",
           though, will unblock all the threads that are blocked in a "cond_wait" on the locked
           variable, rather than only one.

OBJECTS

       threads::shared exports a version of bless() that works on shared objects such that
       blessings propagate across threads.

         # Create a shared 'Foo' object
         my $foo :shared = shared_clone({});
         bless($foo, 'Foo');

         # Create a shared 'Bar' object
         my $bar :shared = shared_clone({});
         bless($bar, 'Bar');

         # Put 'bar' inside 'foo'
         $foo->{'bar'} = $bar;

         # Rebless the objects via a thread
         threads->create(sub {
             # Rebless the outer object
             bless($foo, 'Yin');

             # Cannot directly rebless the inner object
             #bless($foo->{'bar'}, 'Yang');

             # Retrieve and rebless the inner object
             my $obj = $foo->{'bar'};
             bless($obj, 'Yang');
             $foo->{'bar'} = $obj;

         })->join();

         print(ref($foo),          "\n");    # Prints 'Yin'
         print(ref($foo->{'bar'}), "\n");    # Prints 'Yang'
         print(ref($bar),          "\n");    # Also prints 'Yang'

NOTES

       threads::shared is designed to disable itself silently if threads are not available.  This
       allows you to write modules and packages that can be used in both threaded and non-
       threaded applications.

       If you want access to threads, you must "use threads" before you "use threads::shared".
       threads will emit a warning if you use it after threads::shared.

BUGS AND LIMITATIONS

       When "share" is used on arrays, hashes, array refs or hash refs, any data they contain
       will be lost.

         my @arr = qw(foo bar baz);
         share(@arr);
         # @arr is now empty (i.e., == ());

         # Create a 'foo' object
         my $foo = { 'data' => 99 };
         bless($foo, 'foo');

         # Share the object
         share($foo);        # Contents are now wiped out
         print("ERROR: \$foo is empty\n")
             if (! exists($foo->{'data'}));

       Therefore, populate such variables after declaring them as shared.  (Scalar and scalar
       refs are not affected by this problem.)

       It is often not wise to share an object unless the class itself has been written to
       support sharing.  For example, an object's destructor may get called multiple times, once
       for each thread's scope exit.  Another danger is that the contents of hash-based objects
       will be lost due to the above mentioned limitation.  See examples/class.pl (in the CPAN
       distribution of this module) for how to create a class that supports object sharing.

       Destructors may not be called on objects if those objects still exist at global
       destruction time.  If the destructors must be called, make sure there are no circular
       references and that nothing is referencing the objects, before the program ends.

       Does not support "splice" on arrays.  Does not support explicitly changing array lengths
       via $#array -- use "push" and "pop" instead.

       Taking references to the elements of shared arrays and hashes does not autovivify the
       elements, and neither does slicing a shared array/hash over non-existent indices/keys
       autovivify the elements.

       "share()" allows you to "share($hashref->{key})" and "share($arrayref->[idx])" without
       giving any error message.  But the "$hashref->{key}" or "$arrayref->[idx]" is not shared,
       causing the error "lock can only be used on shared values" to occur when you attempt to
       "lock($hasref->{key})" or "lock($arrayref->[idx])" in another thread.

       Using refaddr()) is unreliable for testing whether or not two shared references are
       equivalent (e.g., when testing for circular references).  Use is_shared(), instead:

           use threads;
           use threads::shared;
           use Scalar::Util qw(refaddr);

           # If ref is shared, use threads::shared's internal ID.
           # Otherwise, use refaddr().
           my $addr1 = is_shared($ref1) || refaddr($ref1);
           my $addr2 = is_shared($ref2) || refaddr($ref2);

           if ($addr1 == $addr2) {
               # The refs are equivalent
           }

       each() does not work properly on shared references embedded in shared structures.  For
       example:

           my %foo :shared;
           $foo{'bar'} = shared_clone({'a'=>'x', 'b'=>'y', 'c'=>'z'});

           while (my ($key, $val) = each(%{$foo{'bar'}})) {
               ...
           }

       Either of the following will work instead:

           my $ref = $foo{'bar'};
           while (my ($key, $val) = each(%{$ref})) {
               ...
           }

           foreach my $key (keys(%{$foo{'bar'}})) {
               my $val = $foo{'bar'}{$key};
               ...
           }

       View existing bug reports at, and submit any new bugs, problems, patches, etc.  to:
       http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=threads-shared
       <http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=threads-shared>

SEE ALSO

       threads::shared Discussion Forum on CPAN: http://www.cpanforum.com/dist/threads-shared
       <http://www.cpanforum.com/dist/threads-shared>

       threads, perlthrtut

       <http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2002/06/11/threads.html> and
       <http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2002/09/04/threads.html>

       Perl threads mailing list: <http://lists.perl.org/list/ithreads.html>

AUTHOR

       Artur Bergman <sky AT crucially DOT net>

       Documentation borrowed from the old Thread.pm.

       CPAN version produced by Jerry D. Hedden <jdhedden AT cpan DOT org>.

LICENSE

       threads::shared is released under the same license as Perl.