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NAME

     ata, ar, acd, ad, afd, ast — generic ATA/ATAPI disk controller driver

SYNOPSIS

     For ISA based ATA/ATAPI support:
     device isa
     device ata

     In /boot/device.hints:
     hint.ata.0.at="isa"
     hint.ata.0.port="0x1f0"
     hint.ata.0.irq="14"
     hint.ata.1.at="isa"
     hint.ata.1.port="0x170"
     hint.ata.1.irq="15"

     For PC98 based ATA/ATAPI support:
     device isa
     device ata

     In /boot/device.hints:
     hint.atacbus.0.at="isa"
     hint.atacbus.0.port="0x640"
     hint.atacbus.0.irq="9"

     For PCI based ATA/ATAPI support:
     device pci
     device ata

     To support ATA compliant disk drives:
     device atadisk

     To support ATA software RAID's:
     device ataraid

     To support ATAPI CDROM, DVD and CD/DVD burner drives:
     device atapicd

     To support ATAPI floppy drives:
     device atapifd

     To support ATAPI tape drives:
     device atapist

     To turn ata(4) subsystem controller drivers into cam(4) interface modules (disables all
     native ata(4) APIs and periperal drivers):
     options ATA_CAM

     The following tunables are settable from the loader:

     hw.ata.ata_dma
     set to 1 for DMA access, 0 for PIO (default is DMA).

     hw.ata.ata_dma_check_80pin
     set to 0 to disable the 80pin cable check (default is 1, check the cable)

     hw.ata.atapi_dma
     set to 1 for DMA access, 0 for PIO (default is DMA).

     hw.ata.wc
     set to 1 to enable Write Caching, 0 to disable (default is enabled).  WARNING: can cause
     data loss on power failures and crashes.

     hint.atapci.X.msi
     set to 1 to allow Message Signalled Interrupts (MSI) to be used by specified PCI ATA
     controller, if supported.

     hint.ata.X.devX.mode
     limits initial ATA mode for specified device on specified channel.

     hint.ata.X.mode
     limits initial ATA mode for every device on specified channel.

     hint.ata.X.pm_level
     controls SATA interface Power Management for specified channel, allowing to save some power
     by the cost of additional command latency.  Possible values:
     0             interface Power Management is disabled, default value.
     1             device is allowed to initiate PM state change, host is passive.
     2             host initiates PARTIAL PM state transition every time port becomes idle.
     3             host initiates SLUMBER PM state transition every time port becomes idle.
     Modes 2 and 3 are implemented only for AHCI driver now.

DESCRIPTION

     The ata driver provides access to ATA (IDE) and SerialATA disk drives, ATAPI CDROM/DVD
     drives, ZIP/LS120 ATAPI drives and ATAPI tape drives connected to controllers according to
     the ATA/ATAPI standards.

     The currently supported ATA/SATA controller chips are:

     Acard:          ATP850P, ATP860A, ATP860R, ATP865A, ATP865R.
     ALI:            M5228, M5229, M5281, M5283, M5287, M5288, M5289.
     AMD:            AMD756, AMD766, AMD768, AMD8111, CS5536.
     ATI:            IXP200, IXP300, IXP400, IXP600, IXP700, IXP800.
     CMD:            CMD646, CMD646U2, CMD648, CMD649.
     Cypress:        Cypress 82C693.
     Cyrix:          Cyrix 5530.
     HighPoint:      HPT302, HPT366, HPT368, HPT370, HPT371, HPT372, HPT372N, HPT374.
     Intel:          6300ESB, 31244, PIIX, PIIX3, PIIX4, ESB2, ICH, ICH0, ICH2, ICH3, ICH4, ICH5,
                     ICH6, ICH7, ICH8, ICH9, ICH10, SCH, PCH.
     ITE:            IT8211F, IT8212F, IT8213F.
     JMicron:        JMB360, JMB361, JMB363, JMB365, JMB366, JMB368.
     Marvell         88SX5040, 88SX5041, 88SX5080, 88SX5081, 88SX6041, 88SX6042, 88SX6081,
                     88SX6101, 88SX6102, 88SX6111, 88SX6121, 88SX6141, 88SX6145, 88SX7042.
     National:       SC1100.
     NetCell:        NC3000, NC5000.
     nVidia:         nForce, nForce2, nForce2 MCP, nForce3, nForce3 MCP, nForce3 Pro, nForce4,
                     MCP51, MCP55, MCP61, MCP65, MCP67, MCP73, MCP77, MCP79, MCP89.
     Promise:        PDC20246, PDC20262, PDC20263, PDC20265, PDC20267, PDC20268, PDC20269,
                     PDC20270, PDC20271, PDC20275, PDC20276, PDC20277, PDC20318, PDC20319,
                     PDC20371, PDC20375, PDC20376, PDC20377, PDC20378, PDC20379, PDC20571,
                     PDC20575, PDC20579, PDC20580, PDC20617, PDC20618, PDC20619, PDC20620,
                     PDC20621, PDC20622, PDC40518, PDC40519, PDC40718, PDC40719.
     ServerWorks:    HT1000, ROSB4, CSB5, CSB6, K2, Frodo4, Frodo8.
     Silicon Image:  SiI0680, SiI3112, SiI3114, SiI3124, SiI3132, SiI3512.
     SiS:            SIS180, SIS181, SIS182, SIS5513, SIS530, SIS540, SIS550, SIS620, SIS630,
                     SIS630S, SIS633, SIS635, SIS730, SIS733, SIS735, SIS745, SIS961, SIS962,
                     SIS963, SIS964, SIS965.
     VIA:            VT6410, VT6420, VT6421, VT82C586, VT82C586B, VT82C596, VT82C596B, VT82C686,
                     VT82C686A, VT82C686B, VT8231, VT8233, VT8233A, VT8233C, VT8235, VT8237,
                     VT8237A, VT8237S, VT8251, CX700, VX800, VX855, VX900.

     Unknown ATA chipsets are supported in PIO modes, and if the standard busmaster DMA registers
     are present and contain valid setup, DMA is also enabled, although the max mode is limited
     to UDMA33, as it is not known what the chipset can do and how to program it.

     The ata driver can change the transfer mode and various other parameters when the system is
     up and running.  See atacontrol(8).

     The ata driver sets the maximum transfer mode supported by the hardware as default.  However
     the ata driver sometimes warns: “DMA limited to UDMA33, non-ATA66 cable or device”.  This
     means that the ata driver has detected that the required 80 conductor cable is not present
     or could not be detected properly, or that one of the devices on the channel only accepts up
     to UDMA2/ATA33.  The hw.ata.ata_dma_check_80pin tunable can be set to 0 to disable this
     check.

     Unknown ATAPI devices are initialized to DMA mode if the hw.ata.atapi_dma tunable is set to
     1 and they support at least UDMA33 transfers.  Otherwise they are set to PIO mode because
     severe DMA problems are common even if the device capabilities indicate support.  You can
     always try to set DMA mode on an ATAPI device using atacontrol(8), but be aware that your
     hardware might not support it and can potentially hang the entire system causing data loss.

FILES

     /dev/ad*                ATA disk device nodes
     /dev/ar*                ATA RAID device nodes
     /dev/acd*               ATAPI CD-ROM device nodes
     /dev/afd*               ATAPI floppy drive device nodes
     /dev/ast*               ATAPI tape drive device nodes
     /sys/i386/conf/GENERIC  sample generic kernel config file for ata based systems

NOTES

     Please remember that in order to use UDMA4/ATA66 and above modes you must use 80 conductor
     cables.  Please assure that ribbon cables are no longer than 45cm.  In case of rounded ATA
     cables, the length depends on the quality of the cables.  SATA cables can be up to 1m long
     according to the specification.

     Static device numbering (enabled with the ATA_STATIC_ID kernel option) reserves a number for
     each possibly connected disk, even when not present.  This is useful in hotswap scenarios
     where disks should always show up as the same numbered device, and not depend on attach
     order.

     Native Command Queuing (NCQ) on SATA drives is not yet supported.

SEE ALSO

     ahci(4), cam(4), ataraid(4), atacontrol(8), burncd(8), siis(4)

HISTORY

     The ata driver first appeared in FreeBSD 4.0.

AUTHORS

     Søren Schmidt ⟨sos@FreeBSD.org⟩.