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NAME

     ng_ppp -- PPP protocol netgraph node type

SYNOPSIS

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <netgraph/ng_ppp.h>

DESCRIPTION

     The ppp node type performs multiplexing for the PPP protocol.  It handles
     only packets that contain data, and forwards protocol negotiation and
     control packets to a separate controlling entity (e.g., a user-land
     daemon).  This approach combines the fast dispatch of kernel
     implementations with the configuration flexibility of a user-land
     implementations.  The PPP node type directly supports multi-link PPP, Van
     Jacobson compression, PPP compression, PPP encryption, and the IP, IPX,
     and AppleTalk protocols.  A single PPP node corresponds to one PPP multi-
     link bundle.

     There is a separate hook for each PPP link in the bundle, plus several
     hooks corresponding to the directly supported protocols.  For compression
     and encryption, separate attached nodes are required to do the actual
     work.  The node type used will of course depend on the algorithm
     negotiated.  There is also a bypass hook which is used to handle any
     protocol not directly supported by the node.  This includes all of the
     control protocols: LCP, IPCP, CCP, etc.  Typically this node is connected
     to a user-land daemon via a ng_socket(4) type node.

ENABLING FUNCTIONALITY

     In general, the PPP node enables a specific link or functionality when
     (a) a NGM_PPP_SET_CONFIG message has been received which enables it, and
     (b) the corresponding hook(s) are connected.  This allows the controlling
     entity to use either method (a) or (b) (or both) to control the node's
     behavior.  When a link is connected but disabled, traffic can still flow
     on the link via the bypass hook (see below).

LINK HOOKS

     During normal operation, the individual PPP links are connected to hooks
     link0, link1, etc.  Up to NG_PPP_MAX_LINKS links are supported.  These
     device-independent hooks transmit and receive full PPP frames, which
     include the PPP protocol, address, control, and information fields, but
     no checksum or other link-specific fields.

     On outgoing frames, when protocol compression has been enabled and the
     protocol number is suitable for compression, the protocol field will be
     compressed (i.e., sent as one byte instead of two).  Either compressed or
     uncompressed protocol fields are accepted on incoming frames.  Similarly,
     if address and control field compression has been enabled for the link,
     the address and control fields will be omitted (except for LCP frames as
     required by the standards).  Incoming frames have the address and control
     fields stripped automatically if present.

     Since all negotiation is handled outside the PPP node, the links should
     not be connected and enabled until the corresponding link has reached the
     network phase (i.e., LCP negotiation and authentication have completed
     successfully) and the PPP node has been informed of the link parameters
     via the NGM_PPP_LINK_CONFIG message.

     When a link is connected but disabled, all received frames are forwarded
     directly out the bypass hook, and conversely, frames may be transmitted
     via the bypass hook as well.  This mode is appropriate for the link
     authentication phase.  As soon as the link is enabled, the PPP node will
     begin processing frames received on the link.

COMPRESSION AND ENCRYPTION

     Compression is supported via two hooks, compress and decompress.
     Compression and decompression can be enabled by toggling the
     enableCompression and enableDecompression fields of the node
     configuration structure.  (See below.)  If enableCompression is set to
     NG_PPP_COMPRESS_SIMPLE, then all outgoing frames are sent to the compress
     hook and all packets received on this hook are expected to be compressed,
     so the COMPD tag is put on them unconditionally.  If enableCompression is
     set to NG_PPP_COMPRESS_FULL, then packets received on the compress hook
     are resent as is.  The compressor node should put the tag, if the packet
     was compressed.  If enableDecompression is set to
     NG_PPP_DECOMPRESS_SIMPLE, then the node will sent to the decompress hook
     only those frames, that are marked with the COMPD tag.  If
     enableDecompression is set to NG_PPP_DECOMPRESS_FULL, then the node will
     sent all incoming packets to the decompress hook.  Compression and
     decompression can be completely disabled by setting the enableCompression
     and enableDecompression fields to the NG_PPP_COMPRESS_NONE and
     NG_PPP_DECOMPRESS_NONE, respectively.

     Encryption works exactly analogously via the encrypt and decrypt nodes.
     Data is always compressed before being encrypted, and decrypted before
     being decompressed.

     Only bundle-level compression and encryption is directly supported; link-
     level compression and encryption can be handled transparently by
     downstream nodes.

VAN JACOBSON COMPRESSION

     When all of the vjc_ip, vjc_vjcomp, vjc_vjuncomp, and vjc_vjip hooks are
     connected, and the corresponding configuration flag is enabled, Van
     Jacobson compression and/or decompression will become active.  Normally
     these hooks connect to the corresponding hooks of a single ng_vjc(4)
     node.  The PPP node is compatible with the ``pass through'' modes of the
     ng_vjc(4) node type.

BYPASS HOOK

     When a frame is received on a link with an unsupported protocol, or a
     protocol which is disabled or for which the corresponding hook is
     unconnected, the PPP node forwards the frame out the bypass hook,
     prepended with a four byte prefix.  This first two bytes of the prefix
     indicate the link number on which the frame was received (in network
     order).  For such frames received over the bundle (i.e., encapsulated in
     the multi-link protocol), the special link number NG_PPP_BUNDLE_LINKNUM
     is used.  After the two byte link number is the two byte PPP protocol
     number (also in network order).  The PPP protocol number is two bytes
     long even if the original frame was protocol compressed.

     Conversely, any data written to the bypass hook is assumed to be in this
     same format.  The four byte header is stripped off, the PPP protocol
     number is prepended (possibly compressed), and the frame is delivered
     over the desired link.  If the link number is NG_PPP_BUNDLE_LINKNUM the
     frame will be delivered over the multi-link bundle; or, if multi-link is
     disabled, over the (single) PPP link.

     Typically when the controlling entity receives an unexpected packet on
     the bypass hook it responds either by dropping the frame (if it is not
     ready for the protocol) or with an LCP protocol reject (if it does not
     recognize or expect the protocol).

MULTILINK OPERATION

     To enable multi-link PPP, the corresponding configuration flag must be
     set and at least one link connected.  The PPP node will not allow more
     than one link to be connected if multi-link is not enabled, nor will it
     allow certain multi-link settings to be changed while multi-link
     operation is active (e.g., short sequence number header format).

     Since packets are sent as fragments across multiple individual links, it
     is important that when a link goes down the PPP node is notified
     immediately, either by disconnecting the corresponding hook or disabling
     the link via the NGM_PPP_SET_CONFIG control message.

     Each link has configuration parameters for latency (specified in
     milliseconds) and bandwidth (specified in tens of bytes per second).  The
     PPP node can be configured for round-robin or optimized packet delivery.

     When configured for round-robin delivery, the latency and bandwidth
     values are ignored and the PPP node simply sends each frame as a single
     fragment, alternating frames across all the links in the bundle.  This
     scheme has the advantage that even if one link fails silently, some
     packets will still get through.  It has the disadvantage of sub-optimal
     overall bundle latency, which is important for interactive response time,
     and sub-optimal overall bundle bandwidth when links with different
     bandwidths exist in the same bundle.

     When configured for optimal delivery, the PPP node distributes the packet
     across the links in a way that minimizes the time it takes for the
     completed packet to be received by the far end.  This involves taking
     into account each link's latency, bandwidth, and current queue length.
     Therefore these numbers should be configured as accurately as possible.
     The algorithm does require some computation, so may not be appropriate
     for very slow machines and/or very fast links.

     As a special case, if all links have identical latency and bandwidth,
     then the above algorithm is disabled (because it is unnecessary) and the
     PPP node simply fragments frames into equal sized portions across all of
     the links.

HOOKS

     This node type supports the following hooks:

     link<N>       Individual PPP link number <N>
     compress      Connection to compression engine
     decompress    Connection to decompression engine
     encrypt       Connection to encryption engine
     decrypt       Connection to decryption engine
     vjc_ip        Connection to ng_vjc(4) ip hook
     vjc_vjcomp    Connection to ng_vjc(4) vjcomp hook
     vjc_vjuncomp  Connection to ng_vjc(4) vjuncomp hook
     vjc_vjip      Connection to ng_vjc(4) vjip hook
     inet          IP packet data
     atalk         AppleTalk packet data
     ipx           IPX packet data
     bypass        Bypass hook; frames have a four byte header consisting of a
                   link number and a PPP protocol number.

CONTROL MESSAGES

     This node type supports the generic control messages, plus the following:

     NGM_PPP_SET_CONFIG
          This command configures all aspects of the node.  This includes
          enabling multi-link PPP, encryption, compression, Van Jacobson
          compression, and IP, IPv6, AppleTalk, and IPX packet delivery.  It
          includes per-link configuration, including enabling the link,
          setting latency and bandwidth parameters, and enabling protocol
          field compression.  Note that no link or functionality is active
          until the corresponding hook is also connected.  This command takes
          a struct ng_ppp_node_conf as an argument:

          /* Per-link config structure */
          struct ng_ppp_link_conf {
            u_char    enableLink;     /* enable this link */
            u_char    enableProtoComp;/* enable protocol field compression */
            u_char    enableACFComp;  /* enable addr/ctrl field compression */
            u_int16_t mru;            /* peer MRU */
            u_int32_t latency;        /* link latency (in milliseconds) */
            u_int32_t bandwidth;      /* link bandwidth (in bytes/second) */
          };

          /* Bundle config structure */
          struct ng_ppp_bund_conf {
            u_int16_t mrru;                   /* multilink peer MRRU */
            u_char    enableMultilink;        /* enable multilink */
            u_char    recvShortSeq;           /* recv multilink short seq # */
            u_char    xmitShortSeq;           /* xmit multilink short seq # */
            u_char    enableRoundRobin;       /* xmit whole packets */
            u_char    enableIP;               /* enable IP data flow */
            u_char    enableIPv6;             /* enable IPv6 data flow */
            u_char    enableAtalk;            /* enable AppleTalk data flow */
            u_char    enableIPX;              /* enable IPX data flow */
            u_char    enableCompression;      /* enable PPP compression */
            u_char    enableDecompression;    /* enable PPP decompression */
            u_char    enableEncryption;       /* enable PPP encryption */
            u_char    enableDecryption;       /* enable PPP decryption */
            u_char    enableVJCompression;    /* enable VJ compression */
            u_char    enableVJDecompression;  /* enable VJ decompression */
          };

          struct ng_ppp_node_conf {
            struct ng_ppp_bund_conf   bund;
            struct ng_ppp_link_conf   links[NG_PPP_MAX_LINKS];
          };

     NGM_PPP_GET_CONFIG
          Returns the current configuration as a struct ng_ppp_node_conf.

     NGM_PPP_GET_LINK_STATS
          This command takes a two byte link number as an argument and returns
          a struct ng_ppp_link_stat containing statistics for the
          corresponding link.  Here NG_PPP_BUNDLE_LINKNUM is a valid link
          number corresponding to the multi-link bundle.

     NGM_PPP_GET_LINK_STATS64
          Same as NGM_PPP_GET_LINK_STATS but returns struct ng_ppp_link_stat64
          containing 64bit counters.

     NGM_PPP_CLR_LINK_STATS
          This command takes a two byte link number as an argument and clears
          the statistics for that link.

     NGM_PPP_GETCLR_LINK_STATS
          Same as NGM_PPP_GET_LINK_STATS, but also atomically clears the
          statistics as well.

     NGM_PPP_GETCLR_LINK_STATS64
          Same as NGM_PPP_GETCLR_LINK_STATS but returns struct
          ng_ppp_link_stat64 containing 64bit counters.

     This node type also accepts the control messages accepted by the
     ng_vjc(4) node type.  When received, these messages are simply forwarded
     to the adjacent ng_vjc(4) node, if any.  This is particularly useful when
     the individual PPP links are able to generate NGM_VJC_RECV_ERROR messages
     (see ng_vjc(4) for a description).

SHUTDOWN

     This node shuts down upon receipt of a NGM_SHUTDOWN control message, or
     when all hooks have been disconnected.

SEE ALSO

     netgraph(4), ng_async(4), ng_iface(4), ng_mppc(4), ng_pppoe(4),
     ng_vjc(4), ngctl(8)

     W. Simpson, The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), RFC 1661.

     K. Sklower, B. Lloyd, G. McGregor, D. Carr, and T. Coradetti, The PPP
     Multilink Protocol (MP), RFC 1990.

HISTORY

     The ng_ppp node type was implemented in FreeBSD 4.0.

AUTHORS

     Archie Cobbs <archie@FreeBSD.org>