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     polling — device polling support


     options DEVICE_POLLING


     Device polling (polling for brevity) refers to a technique that lets the
     operating system periodically poll devices, instead of relying on the
     devices to generate interrupts when they need attention.  This might seem
     inefficient and counterintuitive, but when done properly, polling gives
     more control to the operating system on when and how to handle devices,
     with a number of advantages in terms of system responsiveness and

     In particular, polling reduces the overhead for context switches which is
     incurred when servicing interrupts, and gives more control on the
     scheduling of the CPU between various tasks (user processes, software
     interrupts, device handling) which ultimately reduces the chances of
     livelock in the system.

   Principles of Operation
     In the normal, interrupt-based mode, devices generate an interrupt
     whenever they need attention.  This in turn causes a context switch and
     the execution of an interrupt handler which performs whatever processing
     is needed by the device.  The duration of the interrupt handler is
     potentially unbounded unless the device driver has been programmed with
     real-time concerns in mind (which is generally not the case for FreeBSD
     drivers).  Furthermore, under heavy traffic load, the system might be
     persistently processing interrupts without being able to complete other
     work, either in the kernel or in userland.

     Device polling disables interrupts by polling devices at appropriate
     times, i.e., on clock interrupts and within the idle loop.  This way, the
     context switch overhead is removed.  Furthermore, the operating system
     can control accurately how much work to spend in handling device events,
     and thus prevent livelock by reserving some amount of CPU to other tasks.

     Enabling polling also changes the way software network interrupts are
     scheduled, so there is never the risk of livelock because packets are not
     processed to completion.

   Enabling polling
     Currently only network interface drivers support the polling feature.  It
     is turned on and off with help of ifconfig(8) command.

     The historic kern.polling.enable, which enabled polling for all
     interfaces, can be replaced with the following code:

     for i in `ifconfig -l` ;
       do ifconfig $i polling; # use -polling to disable

   MIB Variables
     The operation of polling is controlled by the following sysctl(8) MIB

             When polling is enabled, and provided that there is some work to
             do, up to this percent of the CPU cycles is reserved to userland
             tasks, the remaining fraction being available for polling
             processing.  Default is 50.

             Maximum number of packets grabbed from each network interface in
             each timer tick.  This number is dynamically adjusted by the
             kernel, according to the programmed user_frac, burst_max, CPU
             speed, and system load.

             The burst above is split into smaller chunks of this number of
             packets, going round-robin among all interfaces registered for
             polling.  This prevents the case that a large burst from a single
             interface can saturate the IP interrupt queue
             (net.inet.ip.intr_queue_maxlen).  Default is 5.

             Upper bound for kern.polling.burst.  Note that when polling is
             enabled, each interface can receive at most (HZ * burst_max)
             packets per second unless there are spare CPU cycles available
             for polling in the idle loop.  This number should be tuned to
             match the expected load (which can be quite high with GigE
             cards).  Default is 150 which is adequate for 100Mbit network and

             Controls if polling is enabled in the idle loop.  There are no
             reasons (other than power saving or bugs in the scheduler's
             handling of idle priority kernel threads) to disable this.

             Controls how often (every reg_frac / HZ seconds) the status
             registers of the device are checked for error conditions and the
             like.  Increasing this value reduces the load on the bus, but
             also delays the error detection.  Default is 20.

             How many active devices have registered for polling.

             Debugging variables.


     Device polling requires explicit modifications to the device drivers.  As
     of this writing, the bge(4), dc(4), em(4), fwe(4), fwip(4), fxp(4),
     ixgb(4), nfe(4), nge(4), re(4), rl(4), sf(4), sis(4), ste(4), stge(4),
     vge(4), vr(4), and xl(4) devices are supported, with others in the works.
     The modifications are rather straightforward, consisting in the
     extraction of the inner part of the interrupt service routine and writing
     a callback function, *_poll(), which is invoked to probe the device for
     events and process them.  (See the conditionally compiled sections of the
     devices mentioned above for more details.)

     As in the worst case the devices are only polled on clock interrupts, in
     order to reduce the latency in processing packets, it is not advisable to
     decrease the frequency of the clock below 1000 Hz.


     Device polling first appeared in FreeBSD 4.6 and FreeBSD 5.0.


     Device polling was written by Luigi Rizzo ⟨⟩.