Provided by: kbd_1.15.2-3ubuntu4_i386 bug

NAME

       keymaps - keyboard table descriptions for loadkeys and dumpkeys

DESCRIPTION

       These  files  are  used by loadkeys(1) to modify the translation tables
       used by the kernel keyboard driver and generated  by  dumpkeys(1)  from
       those translation tables.

       The  format  of  these  files is vaguely similar to the one accepted by
       xmodmap(1).  The file consists of charset or key or  string  definition
       lines interspersed with comments.

       Comments are introduced with !  or # characters and continue to the end
       of the line. Anything following one of these characters on that line is
       ignored.  Note  that  comments  need  not begin from column one as with
       xmodmap(1).

       The syntax of keymap files is line oriented; a complete definition must
       fit on a single logical line. Logical lines can, however, be split into
       multiple physical lines by  ending  each  subline  with  the  backslash
       character (\).

INCLUDE FILES

       A keymap can include other keymaps using the syntax

              include "pathname"

CHARSET DEFINITIONS

       A character set definition line is of the form:

              charset "iso-8859-x"

       It  defines  how following keysyms are to be interpreted.  For example,
       in iso-8859-1 the  symbol  mu  (or  micro)  has  code  0265,  while  in
       iso-8859-7 the letter mu has code 0354.

COMPLETE KEYCODE DEFINITIONS

       Each complete key definition line is of the form:

              keycode keynumber = keysym keysym keysym...

       keynumber  is  the  internal  identification number of the key, roughly
       equivalent to the scan code of it.  keynumber can be given in  decimal,
       octal  or hexadecimal notation.  Octal is denoted by a leading zero and
       hexadecimal by the prefix 0x.

       Each of the keysyms represent keyboard actions, of which up to 256  can
       be  bound  to  a  single  key. The actions available include outputting
       character codes or character sequences, switching consoles or  keymaps,
       booting  the  machine  etc.  (The  complete  list  can be obtained from
       dumpkeys(1) by saying  dumpkeys -l .)

       Each keysym may be prefixed by a '+' (plus sign),  in  wich  case  this
       keysym  is  treated  as  a  "letter"  and  therefore  affected  by  the
       "CapsLock" the same way as by "Shift"  (to  be  correct,  the  CapsLock
       inverts  the Shift state).  The ASCII letters ('a'-'z' and 'A'-'Z') are
       made CapsLock'able by default.  If Shift+CapsLock should not produce  a
       lower case symbol, put lines like

              keycode 30 = +a  A

       in the map file.

       Which  of  the actions bound to a given key is taken when it is pressed
       depends on what modifiers are in effect at that moment.   The  keyboard
       driver  supports  9  modifiers. These modifiers are labeled (completely
       arbitrarily) Shift, AltGr, Control, Alt, ShiftL, ShiftR,  CtrlL,  CtrlR
       and  CapsShift.   Each  of  these modifiers has an associated weight of
       power of two according to the following table:

              modifier                weight

              Shift
                                        1
              AltGr
                                        2
              Control
                                        4
              Alt
                                        8
              ShiftL
                                       16
              ShiftR
                                       32
              CtrlL
                                       64
              CtrlR                   128
              CapsShift               256

       The effective action of a key is found out by adding up the weights  of
       all the modifiers in effect. By default, no modifiers are in effect, so
       action number zero,  i.e.  the  one  in  the  first  column  in  a  key
       definition  line,  is  taken  when the key is pressed or released. When
       e.g. Shift and Alt modifiers are in effect, action  number  nine  (from
       the 10th column) is the effective one.

       Changing  the  state of what modifiers are in effect can be achieved by
       binding appropriate key actions to desired keys. For  example,  binding
       the  symbol  Shift to a key sets the Shift modifier in effect when that
       key is pressed and cancels the effect of that modifier when the key  is
       released. Binding AltGr_Lock to a key sets AltGr in effect when the key
       is pressed and cancels the effect when the key is pressed  again.   (By
       default Shift, AltGr, Control and Alt are bound to the keys that bear a
       similar label; AltGr may denote the right Alt key.)

       Note that you should be very careful when binding  the  modifier  keys,
       otherwise  you can end up with an unusable keyboard mapping. If you for
       example define a key to have Control in its first column and leave  the
       rest  of  the  columns  to  be  VoidSymbols, you're in trouble. This is
       because pressing the key  puts  Control  modifier  in  effect  and  the
       following  actions  are  looked up from the fifth column (see the table
       above). So, when you release the key, the action from the fifth  column
       is  taken. It has VoidSymbol in it, so nothing happens. This means that
       the Control modifier is still in effect, although you have released the
       key.   Re-pressing  and releasing the key has no effect. To avoid this,
       you should always define all the columns  to  have  the  same  modifier
       symbol. There is a handy short-hand notation for this, see below.

       keysyms  can  be  given  in  decimal,  octal,  hexadecimal,  unicode or
       symbolic notation.  The numeric notations use the same format  as  with
       keynumber.   Unicode  notation  is  "U+"  followed  by four hexadecimal
       digits.  The symbolic  notation  resembles  that  used  by  xmodmap(1).
       Notable  differences  are  the number symbols. The numeric symbols '0',
       ..., '9' of  xmodmap(1)  are  replaced  with  the  corresponding  words
       'zero', 'one', ... 'nine' to avoid confusion with the numeric notation.

       It  should  be  noted  that  using  numeric notation for the keysyms is
       highly unportable as the key action numbers may vary  from  one  kernel
       version  to  another  and the use of numeric notations is thus strongly
       discouraged. They are intended to be used only when you know there is a
       supported keyboard action in your kernel for which your current version
       of loadkeys(1) has no symbolic name.

       There is a number of short-hand notations to add readability and reduce
       typing work and the probability of typing-errors.

       First of all, you can give a map specification line, of the form

              keymaps 0-2,4-5,8,12

       to  indicate  that  the  lines  of  the keymap will not specify all 256
       columns, but only the indicated ones. (In the example: only the  plain,
       Shift,  AltGr,  Control,  Control+Shift, Alt and Control+Alt maps, that
       is, 7 columns instead of 256.)  When no such line is given, the keymaps
       0-M  will  be defined, where M+1 is the maximum number of entries found
       in any definition line.

       Next, you can leave off any trailing  VoidSymbol  entries  from  a  key
       definition line. VoidSymbol denotes a keyboard action which produces no
       output and has no other effects either.  For  example,  to  define  key
       number  30  to output 'a' unshifted, 'A' when pressed with Shift and do
       nothing when pressed with AltGr or other modifiers, you can write

              keycode  30 = a     A

       instead of the more verbose

              keycode  30 = a     A    VoidSymbol     VoidSymbol \
                        VoidSymbol VoidSymbol VoidSymbol ...

       For added convenience, you can usually get off with  still  more  terse
       definitions.  If  you enter a key definition line with only and exactly
       one action code after the equals sign, it has a special meaning. If the
       code (numeric or symbolic) is not an ASCII letter, it means the code is
       implicitly replicated through all columns being defined.   If,  on  the
       other  hand,  the  action  code is an ASCII character in the range 'a',
       ..., 'z' or  'A',  ...,  'Z'  in  the  ASCII  collating  sequence,  the
       following definitions are made for the different modifier combinations,
       provided these are actually being defined.  (The table  lists  the  two
       possible  cases:  either the single action code is a lower case letter,
       denoted by 'x' or an upper case letter, denoted by 'Y'.)

           modifier                symbol

           none                    x              Y
           Shift                   X              y
           AltGr                   x              Y
           Shift+AltGr             X              y
           Control                 Control_x      Control_y
           Shift+Control           Control_x      Control_y
           AltGr+Control           Control_x      Control_y
           Shift+AltGr+Control     Control_x      Control_y
           Alt                     Meta_x         Meta_Y
           Shift+Alt               Meta_X         Meta_y
           AltGr+Alt               Meta_x         Meta_Y
           Shift+AltGr+Alt         Meta_X         Meta_y
           Control+Alt             Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y
           Shift+Control+Alt       Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y
           AltGr+Control+Alt       Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y
           Shift+AltGr+Control+Alt Meta_Control_x Meta_Control_y

SINGLE MODIFIER DEFINITIONS

       All the previous forms of key definition lines always  define  all  the
       M+1  possible  modifier  combinations  being  defined, whether the line
       actually contains that many action codes or not.  There is, however,  a
       variation  of the definition syntax for defining only single actions to
       a particular modifier combination of a key. This is especially  useful,
       if  you  load  a  keymap  which  doesn't  match your needs in only some
       modifier combinations, like AltGr+function keys. You can  then  make  a
       small  local  file  redefining  only  those  modifier  combinations and
       loading it after the main file.  The syntax of this form is:

       { plain | <modifier sequence> } keycode keynumber = keysym

       , e.g.,
              plain keycode 14 = BackSpace
              control alt keycode 83 = Boot
              alt keycode 105 = Decr_Console
              alt keycode 106 = Incr_Console
       Using "plain" will define only the base entry of a key  (i.e.  the  one
       with  no  modifiers  in effect) without affecting the bindings of other
       modifier combinations of that key.

STRING DEFINITIONS

       In addition to comments and key definition lines, a keymap can  contain
       string  definitions.  These  are  used to define what each function key
       action code sends. The syntax of string definitions is:

              string keysym = "text"

       text can contain literal  characters,  octal  character  codes  in  the
       format of backslash followed by up to three octal digits, and the three
       escape sequences \n, \\, and \",  for  newline,  backslash  and  quote,
       respectively.

COMPOSE DEFINITIONS

       Then there may also be compose definitions. They have syntax

              compose 'char' 'char' to 'char'
       and  describe  how  two  bytes are combined to form a third one (when a
       dead accent or compose key is used).  This  is  used  to  get  accented
       letters and the like on a standard keyboard.

ABBREVIATIONS

       Various abbreviations can be used with kbd-0.96 and later.

       strings as usual
              Defines  the  usual values of the strings (but not the keys they
              are bound to).

       compose as usual for "iso-8859-1"
              Defines the usual compose combinations.

       To find out what keysyms there are available for use  in  keymaps,  use
       the command

              dumpkeys --long-info

       Unfortunately,  there  is  currently no description of what each symbol
       does. It has to be guessed from the name or figured out from the kernel
       sources.

EXAMPLES

       (Be  careful  to use a keymaps line, like the first line of `dumpkeys`,
       or "keymaps 0-15" or so.)

       The following entry exchanges the left Control key and  the  Caps  Lock
       key on the keyboard:

              keycode  58 = Control
              keycode  29 = Caps_Lock

       Key  number  58  is  normally  the  Caps Lock key, and key number 29 is
       normally the Control key.

       The following entry sets the Shift and Caps Lock keys  to  behave  more
       nicely, like in older typewriters. That is, pressing Caps Lock key once
       or more sets the keyboard in CapsLock state and pressing either of  the
       Shift keys releases it.

              keycode  42 = Uncaps_Shift
              keycode  54 = Uncaps_Shift
              keycode  58 = Caps_On

       The  following  entry  sets  the layout of the edit pad in the enhanced
       keyboard to be more like that in the VT200 series terminals:

              keycode 102 = Insert
              keycode 104 = Remove
              keycode 107 = Prior
              shift keycode 107 = Scroll_Backward
              keycode 110 = Find
              keycode 111 = Select
              control alt   keycode 111 = Boot
              control altgr keycode 111 = Boot

       Here's an example to bind the string "du\ndf\n" to the key AltGr-D.  We
       use the "spare" action code F100 not normally bound to any key.

              altgr keycode 32 = F100
              string F100 = "du\ndf\n"

SEE ALSO

       loadkeys(1), dumpkeys(1), showkey(1), xmodmap(1)

                                 24 April 1998                      KEYMAPS(5)