Provided by: lilo_23.2-2_i386 bug


       lilo.conf - configuration file for lilo


       This  file,  by  default  /etc/lilo.conf,  is  read  by the boot loader
       installer 'lilo' (see lilo(8)).

       It might look as follows:

              # /etc/lilo.conf
              #  global options:
              menu-title=" John's Computer "
              ### bootable kernel images ###
              ### other operating systems ###
                   boot-as=0x80    # must be C:
                   boot-as=0x80    # must be C:

       This configuration file specifies that lilo uses the Master Boot Record
       on /dev/hda. (For a discussion of the various ways to use lilo, and the
       interaction with other operating systems, see user.pdf  from  the  lilo

       When  booting, the boot loader will issue its boot: prompt and wait for
       you to enter the label of the kernel (and any options) which  you  wish
       to  boot.  At  any time you may hit [Tab] to see a list of kernel/other
       labels.  Alternately, if the menu boot loader is installed, a  menu  of
       boot  options  will be presented for your selection.  The title of this
       menu  is  overridden  with  the  menu  title  specification   in   this
       configuration  file.   If  you  enter  nothing, then the default kernel
       image,     the     first      mentioned,      (in      the      example
       /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.29-1-i386)  will  be  booted  after  a  timeout of 15
       seconds (150 deciseconds). There may be at least 16 images mentioned in
       lilo.conf. (The exact number depends upon compilation options.)

       As  can  be  seen  above,  a configuration file starts with a number of
       global  options  (the  top  9  lines  in  the  example),  followed   by
       descriptions  of  the  options for the various images.  An option in an
       image description will override a global option.

       Comment lines may appear anywhere, and begin with the "#" character.


       There are many possible  keywords.  The  description  below  is  almost
       literally from user.pdf (just slightly abbreviated).

              Specifies  the location where a copy of any modified boot sector
              will be saved in a file. 'backup=' may specify this location  in
              one  of  three  ways:  a directory where the default backup file
              'boot.NNNN' will be created; a file pathname template  to  which
              the  '.NNNN'  suffix  will  be added; or the full file pathname,
              which  must  include  the  correct  '.NNNN'  suffix.   All  RAID
              installations  should  use  only  the first two alternatives, as
              multiple backups may be created.   The  '.NNNN'  suffix  is  the
              hexadecimal representation of the major and minor device numbers
              of the device or partition. If this option is not specified, the
              default  name  of boot sector backups is '/boot/boot.NNNN'. If a
              backup  already  exists,  it  will  be  preserved,  rather  than
              overwritten.  C.f., force-backup= below.

              The  option  is  indicated  as  yes,  no,  or  unknown.   If not
              specified, a value of "unknown" is  assumed,  unless  additional
              information  is  available  to  the boot installer. When "no" is
              specified, it indicates that the BIOS is known not to  pass  the
              current  boot device code to the boot loader in the DL register.
              Its only function at this point is experimental, as certain RAID
              installations  may  benefit  from  knowing that the BIOS is 100%
              reliable.  Its use should be considered experimental.

              This option may be specified on the command line with  the  '-Z'
              switch: yes=1, no=0.

              Specifies   use  of  a  640x480x16  (VGA  BIOS)  or  640x480x256
              (VGA/VESA BIOS) bitmap file as the background on  which  a  boot
              menu  is displayed.  May not be used if 'message=' is specified.
              Use of this option will select  a  bitmap-capable  boot  loader,
              unless overridden with "install=" (see below).

              When  a  bitmap  file is specified as a background screen during
              the boot process, the color selection and  layout  of  the  text
              which overlays the graphic image must be specified in one of two

              One way is the use of header information  in  the  bitmap  image
              (*.bmp)  file:  From  a text file with all the information about
              'bmp-colors', 'bmp-table' and 'bmp-timer' options together  with
              the  'bitmap'  option  are stored in the special LILO  header of
              the bitmap image file by the lilo -E command. Another way  works
              without  these  special  header information: All the information
              about 'bmp-colors', 'bmp-table' and 'bmp-timer' options together
              with  the  'bitmap' option are stored in the configuration file.
              Any use of the 'bmp-'  options  within  the  configuration  file
              overrides  the options stored in the bitmap file header. If lilo
              cannot find any of the 'bmp-' options, then default  values  are

              Specifies  the  decimal  values of the colors to be used for the
              menu display on a 'bitmap=' background.  The list consists of  6
              entries,  3  for normal text followed by 3 for highlighted text.
              The order of each triple is: foreground color, background color,
              shadow   color.    If   background   color   is  not  specified,
              "transparent" is assumed.  If shadow  color  is  not  specified,
              then  "none"  is  assumed.   The  list  entries are separated by
              commas, with no spaces.

              Option applies to all  'image='  and  'other='  sections.   (See
              COMMON OPTIONS, below.)

              Specifies  the  location  and layout of the menu table.  <x>,<y>
              specify the starting x- and y-position of the upper left  corner
              of  the  table  in  character  coordinates:  x  in [1..80], y in
              [1..30]. <ncol> is the number of columns in the menu (1..5); and
              <nrow>  is the number of rows (entries) in each column.  If more
              than one column is specified,  then  <xsep>  is  the  number  of
              character  columns  between  the  leftmost  characters  in  each
              column: (18..40), and <spill> is the number of  entries  in  one
              column  which  must be filled before entries spill into the next
              column. <spill> must be .le.  <nrow>.  If  pixel  addressing  is
              used,  instead of character addressing, then any of <x>, <y>, or
              <xsep> may be specified with a 'p' suffix on the decimal value.

              Optional  specification  of  the  'timeout='  countdown   timer.
              <x>,<y>  specifies  the  character  (or pixel) coordinate of the
              location of the timer the same as 'bmp-table='  above;  and  the
              color  triple  specifies the character color attributes the same
              as 'bmp-colors=' above, with the exception that  the  background
              color  must  be  specified.   If  used  to  override  the  timer
              specification in a bitmap file, then the form 'bmp-timer = none'
              is acceptable.  This will disable the timer display entirely.

              Sets  the  name of the device (e.g. hard disk or partition) that
              contains the boot sector and where the new boot sector should be
              written  to.  Notice:  The boot-device should be the device with
              the currently mounted root partition.

              A raid installation is initiated by specifying a RAID1 device as
              the boot device; e.g., "boot=/dev/md0".

              On  newer  systems you need an unique ID for the boot device. If
              the boot sector should write to a partition you can use its UUID
              in the same manner is for the root options.

              If  your boot device is a hard disk you need a special ID, which
              is supported by udev. You find the right  ID  in  the  directory
              /dev/disks/by-id, i. e.:

                  boot = /dev/disk/by-id/ata-SAMSUNG_SV1604N_S01FJ10X999999

              Defines boot-time changes to partition type numbers (`hiding').


              The  above  excerpt from a configuration file specifies that all
              default change-rules are removed ("reset"), and the change-rules
              for three partition types are specified.  Without the reset, the
              three types specified would have  been  added  to  the  existing
              default   change-rules.    Normally,   the   default  rules  are
              sufficient.  The strings which define the  partition  types  are
              used  in  a  change  section  (see  below),  with  the  suffixes
              "_normal" or "_hidden" appended.  See  section  "Partition  type
              change rules" of user.pdf for more details.

              Tries  to merge read requests for adjacent sectors into a single
              read request. This drastically reduces load time and  keeps  the
              map file smaller. Using `compact' is especially recommended when
              booting using a map file on a floppy disk.

              Uses the specified image as the default boot image. If `default'
              is  omitted, the image appearing first in the configuration file
              is used. See also, vmdefault below.

              Specifies the number of tenths  of  a  second  the  boot  loader
              should  wait before automatically booting a locked command line,
              a command line pre-stored by "lilo -R", or the default  `image='
              or  `other='.   When  `delay'  is non-zero, the boot loader will
              wait  for  an  interrupt  for  the  specified  interval.  If  an
              interrupt  is  received, or is already waiting, the boot: prompt
              will be be issued, and no automatic boot will  take  place.  The
              setting  of  CAPS  LOCK  or SCROLL LOCK, or any of the keys ALT,
              CTRL, or SHIFT, when held down, are taken as interrupts.

              This action is modified by specifying `prompt' (see below).

              Defines non-standard parameters for  the  specified  disk.   See
              section  "Disk  geometry" of user.pdf for details.  For versions
              of LILO prior to 22.5, the `bios=' parameter is quite useful for
              specifying how the BIOS has assigned device codes to your disks.
              For example,


              would say that your SCSI disk is the  first  BIOS  disk  (0x80),
              that  your  (primary  master)  IDE  disk is the second BIOS disk
              (0x81), and that your second SCSI disk (perhaps  a  USB  device)
              receives  no  device code, and is therefore inaccessible at boot

              NOTE: Use of the 'bios=' option is  largely  obsolete  beginning
              with  LILO version 22.5, as the boot loader now identifies disks
              by 32-bit Volume-ID, and defers BIOS device  code  determination
              until boot time.

              Other options include the specification of disk geometry; e.g.,


              probably  only  useful  for  floppy  disks and loopback devices,
              because for hard disks the lba32 disk addressing option  ignores
              disk geometry.

              Developers  who  have  implemented a disk driver for a new block
              storage device will have to indicate to LILO the maximum  number
              of  partitions on the device.  This is in addition to making all
              of the necessary entries for the device in the "/dev"  directory
              (with 'mknod').  The maximum number of partitions must be one of
              63 (like an IDE disk), 31 (uncommon), 15  (like  SCSI  disks  --
              most common value), or 7 (like one array controller). An example
              specification would be:


              In  cases  where  there  is  no  kernel  partition   information
              available,   such   as   on   loopback   devices,   the  'disk='
              specification may include paritition start information; viz.,

                          bios=0x80              # use this BIOS code
                          max-partitions=7       # declare partitionable
                               start=63          # offset from sector 0
                               start=102400      # offset from sector 0

              Specifies the  name  of  the  disk  parameter  table.   The  map
              installer  looks  for  /etc/disktab if `disktab' is omitted. The
              use of disktabs is discouraged.

              Flag second  stage  loader  to  terminate  disk  emulation  when
              booting  from  an  El Torito Bootable CD. This option is used by
              the mkrescue utility when the "--iso" switch is specified.

              This allows lilo to adjust 3D  addresses  in  partition  tables.
              Each  partition entry contains a 3D (cylinder/head/sector) and a
              linear  address  of  the  first  and  the  last  sector  of  the
              partition.  If  a  partition is not track-aligned and if certain
              other operating systems (e.g.  PC/MS-DOS)  are  using  the  same
              disk,  they  may  change the 3D address. lilo can store its boot
              sector only on partitions where both address  types  correspond.
              lilo  re-adjusts  incorrect 3D start addresses if `fix-table' is

              WARNING: This does not guarantee that  other  operating  systems
              may  not attempt to reset the address later. It is also possible
              that this change has other, unexpected side-effects. The correct
              fix  is to re-partition the drive with a program that does align
              partitions to tracks. Also, with some  disks  (e.g.  some  large
              EIDE   disks  with  address  translation  enabled),  under  some
              circumstances, it may even be unavoidable  to  have  conflicting
              partition table entries.

              Operation  is  identical  to  backup=  above, except an existing
              backup file is unconditionally overwritten if it exists.

              Force disk addressing which is compatible with older versions of
              LILO.  Geometric addressing uses cylinder/head/sector addresses,
              and is limited to disk cylinders up to  1023.   If  inaccessible
              cylinders  are  referenced,  diagnostics will be issued at boot-
              install time, rather than boot-time.  With a newer BIOS, use  of
              'lba32' is recommended.

              tells lilo to ignore corrupt partition tables.

              Selects the user interface which will be seen at boot time.  One
              of the following three options may be specified:  text, menu, or
              bmp. The traditional LILO interface is `text'; but `menu' is now
              the  default,  unless  the  configuration  file   contains   the
              `bitmap='  specification.   The  text  interface  is  strictly a
              command-line  interface  as  though  the  console  were  a  dumb
              terminal.  The menu interface is a text-based screen of the boot
              choices, with  the  option  to  enter  additional  command  line
              parameters.  And the bmp interface is a menu presented against a
              graphic screen, specified as a 640x480 BitMaP file of 16 or  256
              colors.  (See the 'lilo -E' switch for editing options).

              (Prior  to  LILO  version  22.3,  `install='  specified the user
              interface as a file in the `/boot' directory.)

              Normally any initial ramdisk (initrd) loaded with  a  kernel  is
              loaded  as  high  in  memory  as possible, but never above 15Mb.
              This is due to a BIOS limitation on  older  systems.   On  newer
              systems,  this  option  enables using memory above 15Mb (up to a
              kernel imposed limit, around 768Mb) for passing  the  initrd  to
              the  kernel.   The presence of this option merely indicates that
              your system does not have the old BIOS limitation.

              This switch (or its absence) is not passed to  the  kernel,  and
              does  not  in any way affect the amount of physical memory which
              it will use.  (See  the  kernel  documentation  for  the  kernel
              command  line  parameter  "mem=" for limiting the memory used by
              the kernel.)

       lba32  Generate   32-bit   Logical   Block   Addresses    instead    of
              cylinder/head/sector  addresses.  If  the  BIOS  supports packet
              addressing, then packet calls will be used to access  the  disk.
              This  allows  booting from any partition on disks with more than
              1024 cylinders.  If the BIOS does not support packet addressing,
              then  'lba32'  addresses  are translated to cylinder/head/sector
              ('geometric'), just as for 'linear'.  All floppy disk references
              are  retained  in  C:H:S form.  Use of 'lba32' is recommended on
              all post-1998 systems.  Beginning with LILO version 22,  'lba32'
              is the default disk addressing scheme.

       linear Generate    24-bit    linear   sector   addresses   instead   of
              cylinder/head/sector (geometric) addresses. Linear addresses are
              translated  at  run time to geometric addresses, and are limited
              to cylinders <= 1023. When  using  `linear'  with  large  disks,
              /sbin/lilo   may   generate   references  to  inaccessible  disk
              cylinders. 'lba32' avoids many of these pitfalls with its use of
              packet  addressing, but requires a recent BIOS (post-1998).  The
              'linear' option is considered obsolete, and its use is  strongly

       lock   Enables  automatic  recording  of  boot  command  lines  as  the
              defaults for the following boots. This way, lilo  "locks"  on  a
              choice until it is manually overridden.

              The per-image password option `mandatory' (see below) applies to
              all images.

              Specifies the location of the map file. If `map' is omitted, the
              file /boot/map is used.

              On  machines with a pre-1998 BIOS, the EDD bios extensions which
              are required to support "lba32" disk sector addressing  may  not
              be  present.  In  this  case,  the  boot-loader  will  fall back
              automatically  to  "geometric"  addressing;   this   fall   back
              situation,  or  the  specific  use  of  "geometric"  or "linear"
              addressing, will require the map file to be located  within  the
              first  1024 cylinders of the disk drive. This BIOS limitation is
              not present on post-1998 systems,  most  of  which  support  the
              newer EDD disk BIOS calls.

              Specifies  the  title  line  (up  to 37 characters) for the boot
              menu. This title replaces the default  "LILO  Boot  Menu"  title
              string.  If  menu  is  not  installed  as  the  boot loader (see
              install= option), then this line has no effect.

              The default color scheme of the boot menu may be  overridden  on
              VGA  displays  using  this  option.  (The  color  scheme  of MDA
              displays is fixed.)  The general color-scheme string is  of  the


              where  each  entry  is two characters which specify a foreground
              color and a background color. Only the first entry is  required.
              The  default highlight is the reverse of the text color; and the
              default border and title colors are the text color.  Colors  are
              specified using the characters kbgcrmyw, for blacK, Blue, Green,
              Cyan, Red, Magenta, Yellow, and White: upper  case  for  intense
              (fg only), lower case for dim.  Legal color-scheme strings would

                  menu-scheme=Wm     intense white on magenta
                  menu-scheme=wr:bw:wr:Yr    the LILO default
                  menu-scheme=Yk:kw    bright yellow on black

              If menu is not installed as the boot loader, then this line  has
              no effect.

              specifies  a  file containing a message that is displayed before
              the boot prompt. No message is displayed  while  waiting  for  a
              shifting  key  after  printing  "LILO  ". In the message, the FF
              character  ([Ctrl  L])  clears  the  local   screen.   This   is
              undesirable when the menu boot loader is installed.  The size of
              the message file is limited to 65535 bytes. The map file has  to
              be  rebuilt if the message file is changed or moved.  'message='
              and 'bitmap=' are mutually exclusive.

              (22.8) Disables pre-loading of the internal device cache. May be
              needed  for  Linux  distributions  which use non-standard device
              naming conventions;  e.g.,  when  the  first  IDE  disk  is  not

              (22.7.2)  The  named  descriptor is taken to be the default boot
              image if no IBM-PC keyboard is present. If no  serial  interface
              ("serial=")  is  in use, then any "prompt" keyword and "timeout"
              value are bypassed, and default booting occurs as  specified  by
              "delay=".   The  keyboard  detection  codes  cannot  detect  the
              presence or absence of a newer USB keyboard.

       noraid Disables  the  automatic  marking  of  disk  volumes  which  are
              components of RAID arrays as inaccessible.  This allows the user
              to  edit  the  disk=  /  inaccessible  declarations   into   the
              configuration   file   himself.    Without   such  declarations,
              duplicate Volume IDs will be overwritten, leading  to  confusing
              situations  at boot-time, and possible failure to boot.  The use
              of this keyword is generally not necessary.

       nowarn Disables warnings about possible future dangers.

              The per-image option  `optional'  (see  below)  applies  to  all

              The  per-image  option `password=...' (see below) applies to all
              images. This option  may  prevent  unattended  booting,  if  the
              default  image  is  `password='  protected  at the default level
              `mandatory', which is a level higher than `restricted'.

       prompt Automatic booting (see `delay' above) will not take place unless
              a  locked  or  pre-stored  ("lilo  -R") command line is present.
              Instead, the boot loader will issue the boot:  prompt  and  wait
              for   user   input   before   proceeding  (see  timeout  below).
              Unattended default image reboots are impossible if  `prompt'  is
              set  and  `timeout'  is  not,  or  the default image is password
              protected at a higher level than `restricted'.

              This option only  has  meaning  for  RAID1  installations.   The
              <option>  may  be  specified  as none, auto, mbr, mbr-only, or a
              comma-separated list  of  devices;  e.g.,  "/dev/hda,/dev/hdc6".
              Starting  with  LILO  version  22.0, the boot record is normally
              written to the first sector of the RAID1 partition.  On PARALLEL
              raid sets, no other boot records are needed.  The default action
              is auto, meaning, automatically generate auxiliary boot  records
              as  needed  on SKEWED raid sets.  none means suppress generation
              of all auxiliary boot records.  mbr-only  suppresses  generation
              of  a  boot  record on the raid device, and forces compatibility
              with versions of LILO earlier than version 22.0 by writing  boot
              records  to  all  Master  Boot Records (MBRs) of all disks which
              have partitions in the raid set. mbr is like mbr-only except the
              boot  record on the RAID partition is not suppressed.  Use of an
              explicit list of  devices,  forces  writing  of  auxiliary  boot
              records  only  on  those  devices enumerated, in addition to the
              boot record on the RAID1 device.  Since  the  version  22  RAID1
              codes will never automatically write a boot record on the MBR of
              device 0x80, if such a boot record is desired, this is  one  way
              to have it written. Use of mbr is the other way to force writing
              to the MBR of device 0x80.

              The per-image password option `restricted' (see  below)  applies
              to all images.

              enables control from a serial line. The specified serial port is
              initialized and the boot loader is accepting input from  it  and
              from  the  PC's  keyboard.  Sending  a  break on the serial line
              corresponds to pressing a shift key on the console in  order  to
              get  the  boot  loader's  attention.   All boot images should be
              password-protected if the serial  access  is  less  secure  than
              access to the console, e.g. if the line is connected to a modem.
              The parameter string has the following syntax:


              <port>:   the  number  of  the  serial   port,   zero-based.   0
              corresponds to COM1 alias /dev/ttyS0, etc. All four ports can be
              used (if present).

              <bps>:  the baud rate of the serial  port.  The  following  baud
              rates  are  supported:  110, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400(default),
              4800,  9600,  plus  the  extended  rates   19200,   38400,   and
              57600(56000).  115200 is allowed, but may not work with all COMx
              port hardware.

              <parity>:  the parity used on the serial line. The  boot  loader
              ignores  input  parity  and  strips  the  8th bit. The following
              (upper or lower  case)  characters  are  used  to  describe  the
              parity:   "n" for no parity, "e" for even parity and "o" for odd

              <bits>:  the number of bits in a character. Only 7  and  8  bits
              are  supported. Default is 8 if parity is "none", 7 if parity is
              "even" or "odd".

              If `serial' is set, the value of `delay' is automatically raised
              to 20.

              Example:  "serial=0,2400n8"  initializes  COM1  with the default

              This option specifies that boot images or  'other's  are  to  be
              selected  and  launched  with  a single keystroke.  Selection is
              based upon the first character  of  each  name,  which  must  be
              unique.   This option should not be used with the menu or bitmap
              user interface ("install=").

              Causes the operation of the boot installer and  boot  loader  to
              bypass the use of Volume-ID information, and to revert to a mode
              of operation of versions  of  LILO  from  22.4  backward.   With
              Volume-ID  booting (22.5 and later), the BIOS codes of disks are
              determined at boot time, not install time;  hence  they  may  be
              switched  around,  either by adding or removing disk(s) from the
              hardware configuration, or by using a BIOS menu  to  select  the
              boot device.

              With  the  use  of  this  option,  BIOS  codes  of disks MUST be
              correctly specified at install time; either guessed correctly by
              LILO   (which   often  fails  on  mixed  IDE/SCSI  systems),  or
              explicitly specified with 'disk=/dev/XXX bios=0xYY'  statements.
              The  use  of this option precludes any activity which may switch
              around the BIOS codes assigned to particular  disk  devices,  as
              noted above.

              In  general,  this  option should never be used, except as a bug

              This global option suppresses the boot-time real mode collection
              of BIOS data on systems which hang on certain BIOS calls.  It is
              equivalent to using the boot-time switch 'nobd'.

              This option defeats the disk volume recognition and BIOS  device
              code  detection  features  of LILO on systems with more than one
              disk. Thus  the  use  of  this  option  will  produce  a  strong
              cautionary message, which cannot be suppressed.

              sets a timeout (in tenths of a second) for keyboard input at the
              boot:  prompt.   "timeout"  only  has  meaning  if  "prompt"  is
              mentioned.   If  no  key  is pressed for the specified time, the
              default image is automatically booted. The  default  timeout  is

              (22.6)  Alters  the  operation  of  the "timeout" parameter in a
              manner which is useful on noisy serial lines.   Each  typed  (or
              noise) character restarts the "timeout" timer and a timeout will
              always boot the default descriptor,  even  if  noise  characters
              have appeared on the input line.

              Turns  on  lots  of progress reporting. Higher numbers give more
              verbose output. If  -v  is additionally specified  on  the  lilo
              command  line,  the  level is increased accordingly. The maximum
              verbosity level is 5.

              The named boot image is used as the default boot if  booting  in
              "virtual" mode with a virtual monitor, such as VMware(tm).  Thus
              a real mode boot and a virtual mode boot can  be  made  to  have
              different default boot images.

       Additionally,  the  kernel  configuration  parameters  append, ramdisk,
       read-only, read-write, root and vga can be set in  the  global  options
       section.  They  are  used  as  defaults if they aren't specified in the
       configuration sections of the respective kernel images.


       A per-image section starts with either a line


       to indicate a file or device containing  the  boot  image  of  a  Linux
       kernel, or a line


       to indicate an arbitrary system to boot.

       In  the  former case, if an image line specifies booting from a device,
       then one has to indicate the range of sectors to be mapped using


       In the third case, 'nsec=1' is assumed.


       If the booted image is a Linux kernel, then one may pass  command  line
       parameters to this kernel.

              The  kernel  parameters  of  this string are concatenated to the
              parameter(s) from an append= option (see below).  The string  of
              addappend  must  be enclosed within double quotes.  Usually, the
              previous append= will set parameters common to  all  kernels  by
              appearing  in  the  global section of the configuration file and
              addappend=  will  be  used  to  add  local  parameter(s)  to  an
              individual  image.   The  addappend option may be used only once
              per "image=" section.

              If the string is a very long line, this line can be  divided  in
              more lines using "\" as last character of a line, e.g.

                  addappend="noapic acpi=off pci=usepirqmask \
                          pnpbios=off pnpacpi=off noisapnp"

              Appends  the  options  specified to the parameter line passed to
              the  kernel.   This  is  typically  used  to  specify   hardware
              parameters  that  can't  be  entirely auto-detected or for which
              probing  may  be  dangerous.  Multiple  kernel  parameters   are
              separated  by  a blank space, and the string must be enclosed in
              double quotes.  A local  append=  appearing  withing  an  image=
              section  overrides  any  global  append= appearing in the global
              section of the configuration file.  The  append  option  may  be
              used  only  once  per "image=" section. To concatenate parameter
              strings, use "addappend=". Example:

                   append="mem=96M hd=576,64,32 console=ttyS1,9600"

              If the string is a very long line, this line can be  divided  in
              more lines using "\" as last character of a line. See example of
              addappend option.

              Specifies the initial  ramdisk  image  to  be  loaded  with  the
              kernel.   The  image  will  contain modules needed at boot time,
              such as network and scsi drivers. See man pages for mkinitrd(8).

              Like `append', but removes all other options  (e.g.  setting  of
              the   root   device).   'literal'  overrides  all  'append'  and
              'addappend' options.   Because  vital  options  can  be  removed
              unintentionally with `literal', this option cannot be set in the
              global options section.

              This specifies the size (e.g.,  "4096k")  of  the  optional  RAM
              disk.  A  value  of  zero  indicates  that no RAM disk should be
              created.  If  this  variable  is  omitted,  the  RAM  disk  size
              configured into the boot image is used.

              This specifies that the root file system should be mounted read-
              only.  It may be specified as a global option.   Typically,  the
              system  startup  procedure  re-mounts the root file system read-
              write later (e.g. after fsck'ing it).

              This specifies that the root file system should be mounted read-
              write.  It may be specified as a global option.

              This  specifies  the  device that should be mounted as root.  It
              may be specified as  a  global  option.   If  the  special  name
              current  is  used, the root device is set to the device on which
              the root file system is currently mounted. If the root has  been
              changed  with   -r  ,  the  respective  device  is  used. If the
              variable `root' is omitted, the root device setting contained in
              the  running  kernel image is used.  Warning: This can induce to
              an unbootable system!

              The root filesystem may also be specified by a LABEL=  or  UUID=
              directive,  as  in  '/etc/fstab'.  In this case, the argument to
              root= must be enclosed in quotation marks,  to  avoid  a  syntax
              error on the second equal sign, e.g.:


              Note:   The  command  line  root= parameter passed to the kernel
              will be: 'root=LABEL=MyDisk'; i.e., without the quotation marks.
              If  the  root=  parameter  is  passed  from  the boot time boot:
              prompt, no quotes are  used.   The  quotes  are  only  there  to
              satisfy  the  requirements  of  the boot-installer parser, which
              treats an equal sign as an operator.  The  kernel  command  line
              parser  is  very  much  simpler,  and must not see any quotation
              marks.  Simply stated,  only  use  the  quotation  marks  within

              This  specifies  the  VGA text mode that should be selected when
              booting.  It may be specified as a global option.  The following
              values are recognized (case is ignored):

              normal: select normal 80x25 text mode.

              extended (or ext): select 80x50 text mode.

              ask: stop and ask for user input (at boot time).

              <number>:  use  the  corresponding  text  mode  (can specify the
              number in decimal or in hex with the usual '0x' convention).   A
              list  of available modes can be obtained by booting with vga=ask
              and pressing [Enter].

              If this variable is omitted, the VGA mode setting  contained  in
              the kernel image is used. (And that is set at compile time using
              the SVGA_MODE variable in the kernel Makefile, and can later  be
              changed with the rdev(8) program.)


       Used to load systems other than Linux. The `other = <device>' specifies
       the boot sector of an alternate system contained on a  device  or  disk
       partition;  e.g.,  DOS on, say, `/dev/hda2', or a floppy on `/dev/fd0'.
       In the case of booting another system there are these options:

              This specifies the chain loader that should  be  used.   It  may
              also be specified as a global option.  By default chain is used.
              This chain loader passes partition and drive information in  the
              boot  sector  it loads only to DOS on FAT12 or FAT16, Windows on
              FAT16 or FAT32. (see also table=<letter> below).

              This specifies the device that  contains  the  partition  table.
              The  boot  loader will pass default partition information to the
              booted operating system  if  this  variable  is  omitted.  (Some
              operating  systems  have  other  means  to  determine from which
              partition they have been booted.  E.g.,  MS-DOS  usually  stores
              the  geometry of the boot disk or partition in its boot sector.)
              Note that /sbin/lilo must be re-run if a partition table  mapped
              referenced with `table' is modified.

              This  option  is obsolete. It were used in the special case with
              the obsolete os2_d chain loader.

       change This keyword  starts  a  section  which  describes  how  primary
              partition  IDs  are  changed,  and  how  primary  partitions are
              activated and deactivated.  If change is omitted,  change  rules
              are  generated  as  though the automatic keyword were specified.
              The keyword change alone,  without  any  rules  following,  will
              suppress automatic change-rules.  For example,


              specifies  that  when  primary  partition  /dev/hda2  is booted,
              automatic change-rules will be in effect; plus, partition  1,  a
              DOS12  partition,  will  be  set  hidden,  and  deactivated.  In
              addition, partition  2,  will  be  set  normal,  and  activated.
              Activation  sets  the  boot-flag  in  the  partition table.  The
              automatic keyword may conflict with default change rules, so the
              set= lines above may be redundant.

              This option (LILO version 22.5.1) indicates the BIOS device code
              which must be assigned to the specified drive in order  for  the
              "other="  operating system to boot.  If the chain loader detects
              that another BIOS device code is assigned to this disk, then  it
              will   dynamically  swap  the  assigned  device  code  with  the
              specified device code.

              This option is easier to  specify  than  "map-drive="  and  more
              general  than  "master-boot"  in  that  any  device  code may be
              specified.  Unlike "map-drive=", the  determination  whether  to
              swap  device codes is made at boot time, not install time.  This
              is advantageous on systems where the BIOS presents a  boot  menu
              of  devices,  and  will  map disks to devices in different ways,
              depending upon the BIOS boot selection.

              This option may be specified as a global option, in  which  case
              it  applies  to  all  "other=" sections unless overridden with a
              specific "master-boot" option.  If one of "boot-as=" or "master-
              boot"  is  specified as a global option, it is better to specify
              "master-boot" as the global option, as  it  will  not  interfere
              with floppy disk BIOS device codes; "boot-as=" is then used as a
              local option to override "master-boot" as necessary.

              This flag (LILO version 22.5) indicates a DOS/Windows  or  other
              system  which  will  only  boot  from BIOS device 0x80, the "C:"
              drive, or BIOS device  0,  the  A:  drive.  When  this  flag  is
              specified,  if  this drive is not assigned device code 0x80 or 0
              by the BIOS, then the chain loader  will  dynamically  swap  the
              device code actually assigned with device code 0x80 or 0 to make
              this drive appear to be the first hard or floppy drive, "C:"  or

              This flag is easier to use than "map-drive=" (see below), and is
              preferred, if simple forcing of device code 0x80 is all that  is
              required. It is also more general, in that the necessity to swap
              BIOS device codes is determined dynamically at boot-time, not at
              boot  install-time,  as  with "map-drive=".  It is slightly more
              powerful than "boot-as=", in  that  the  device  code  which  is
              assigned, 0 or 0x80, is determined dynamically.

              This  option  may be specified as a global option, in which case
              it applies to all "other=" sections  unless  overridden  with  a
              specific "boot-as=" option.

              Maps  BIOS  calls  for  the  specified  drive to the device code
              specified on the next line as to=<num>.  This mapping is  useful
              for booting operating systems, such as DOS, from the second hard
              drive.  The following, swaps the C: and D: drives,


              This  option  is  largely  rendered  obsolete   by   "boot-as=",
              introduced with LILO version 22.5.

       unsafe Do  not  access  the  boot  sector  at  map  creation time. This
              disables some sanity checks, including a partition table  check.
              If  the  boot  sector  is  on a fixed-format floppy disk device,
              using UNSAFE avoids the need to put a  readable  disk  into  the
              drive when running the map installer. If the boot sector is on a
              hard drive, the BIOS device code of the drive will  have  to  be
              specified     explicitly    with    "disk=/dev/XXXX    bios=0x8X
              inaccessible" in the configuration file.  `unsafe'  and  `table'
              (explicit or implicit) are mutually incompatible.


       In both the image= and other= cases, the following options apply.

       bypass No  password  is  required  to boot this image. Used to indicate
              that the global password does not  apply  to  this  `image='  or
              `other='.  See 'password=' below.

              The  boot  loader  uses the main file name (without its path) of
              each image specification to identify that  image.   A  different
              name can be used by setting the variable `label'.

              A  second  name  for the same entry can be used by specifying an

              The bitmap graphic (install=bmp) is  retained  when  control  is
              passed  to  the loaded kernel image, or other= bootloader; i.e.,
              the screen is not blanked to alphanumeric mode  before  starting
              the  kernel.  This feature is considered EXPERIMENTAL, for those
              users working with startup splash screens.

              Specifies a string that is stored as the default command line if
              the  current  image is booted. This is useful when experimenting
              with kernels which may crash before  allowing  interaction  with
              the  system. If using the fallback option, the next reboot (e.g.
              triggered by a manual reset or by a watchdog timer) will load  a
              different (supposedly stable) kernel. The command line stored by
              the fallback mechanism is cleared by removing  or  changing  the
              default  command line with the -R option, which should be a part
              of the boot startup scripts.

       lock   (See above.)

              Omit the image if it is not available at map creation time.   It
              may  be specified as a global option.  This is useful to specify
              test kernels that are not always present.

              Protect  the  `image='  or  `other='   with   a   password   (or
              passphrase).   It  may  be  specified  as  a global option.  The
              interpretation of the `password=' setting  is  modified  by  the
              words `mandatory', `restricted', and `bypass' (see below).
              The  password  may be specified in the config-file (less secure)
              or entered at the time the boot loader is installed. To  request
              interactive  entry  of  the  password,  it  should be specified:
              password="".  Passwords entered interactively are  not  required
              to  be  entered  again if the boot installer is re-run. They are
              cached, in hashed form, in a companion file to the  config-file,
              default name: /etc/lilo.conf.crc. If the config-file is updated,
              a warning message will be issued telling you to re-run  lilo  -p
              to force re-creation of the password cache file.

              A  password is required to boot this image. This is the default.
              May be used on a single  `image='  or  `other='  to  override  a
              different global setting.

              (22.7.2)  The specified descriptor is not bootable if the IBM-PC
              keyboard is not present.  This option is really only  useful  if
              the "serial=" boot terminal is in use.  With no keyboard (and no
              serial terminal) attached, selecting  a  boot  descriptor  other
              than the default is impossible.  See nokbdefault above.

              A  password  is  only  required  to  boot  the  image  if kernel
              parameters are specified on the command  line  (e.g.  'single').
              May  be  used  on  a  single  `image=' or `other=' to override a
              different global setting.

       vmwarn If booting under a virtual monitor such as VMware(tm), the image
              with  this label will cause a cautionary warning to be issued at
              boot time, and user intervention will be required to continue or
              to abort the boot process.

              If  booting  under  a virtual monitor, the image with this label
              will not be displayed as a  boot  option.   The  image  is  only
              bootable in real mode.  See vmdefault above.


       lilo(8), mkinitrd(8), mknod(1), mkrescue(8), rdev(8).

                                  April 2011                      LILO.CONF(5)