Provided by: postfix_2.9.1-4_amd64 bug


       mysql_table - Postfix MySQL client configuration


       postmap -q "string" mysql:/etc/postfix/filename

       postmap -q - mysql:/etc/postfix/filename <inputfile


       The  Postfix mail system uses optional tables for address rewriting or mail routing. These
       tables are usually in dbm or db format.

       Alternatively, lookup tables can be specified as MySQL databases.  In order to  use  MySQL
       lookups, define a MySQL source as a lookup table in, for example:
           alias_maps = mysql:/etc/

       The  file  /etc/postfix/  has the same format as the Postfix file,
       and can specify the parameters described below.


       For compatibility with other Postfix lookup tables, MySQL parameters can also  be  defined
       in  In order to do that, specify as MySQL source a name that doesn't begin with a
       slash or a dot.  The MySQL parameters will then be accessible as the name you've given the
       source  in  its definition, an underscore, and the name of the parameter.  For example, if
       the map is specified as "mysql:mysqlname", the parameter "hosts" below would be defined in as "mysqlname_hosts".

       Note: with this form, the passwords for the MySQL sources are written in, which is
       normally world-readable.  Support for this form  will  be  removed  in  a  future  Postfix

       Normally,  the  SQL  query  is  specified  via a single query parameter (described in more
       detail below).  When this parameter is  not  specified  in  the  map  definition,  Postfix
       reverts  to  an  older  interface,  with  the SQL query constructed from the select_field,
       table, where_field and  additional_conditions  parameters.   The  old  interface  will  be
       gradually phased out. To migrate to the new interface set:

           query = SELECT [select_field]
               FROM [table]
               WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

       Insert   the   value,   not   the   name,   of   each  legacy  parameter.  Note  that  the
       additional_conditions parameter is optional and if not empty, will always start with AND.


       When using SQL  to  store  lists  such  as  $mynetworks,  $mydestination,  $relay_domains,
       $local_recipient_maps,  etc., it is important to understand that the table must store each
       list member as a separate key. The table lookup verifies the *existence* of the  key.  See
       "Postfix lists versus tables" in the DATABASE_README document for a discussion.

       Do  NOT  create  tables  that  return  the  full  list  of  domains  in  $mydestination or
       $relay_domains etc., or IP addresses in $mynetworks.

       DO create tables with each matching item as a key and with an arbitrary  value.  With  SQL
       databases it is not uncommon to return the key itself or a constant value.


       hosts  The  hosts  that  Postfix will try to connect to and query from.  Specify unix: for
              UNIX domain sockets, inet: for TCP connections (default).  Example:
                  hosts = host1.some.domain host2.some.domain:port
                  hosts = unix:/file/name

              The hosts are tried in random order, with all connections over UNIX domain  sockets
              being  tried before those over TCP.  The connections are automatically closed after
              being idle for about 1 minute, and are re-opened as necessary. Postfix versions 2.0
              and earlier do not randomize the host order.

              NOTE:  if  you  specify localhost as a hostname (even if you prefix it with inet:),
              MySQL will connect to the default UNIX domain socket.  In order to  instruct  MySQL
              to connect to localhost over TCP you have to specify
                  hosts =

       user, password
              The user name and password to log into the mysql server.  Example:
                  user = someone
                  password = some_password

       dbname The database name on the servers. Example:
                  dbname = customer_database

       query  The  SQL  query  template used to search the database, where %s is a substitute for
              the address Postfix is trying to resolve, e.g.
                  query = SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE mailbox = '%s'

              This parameter supports the following '%' expansions:

              %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.

              %s     This is replaced by the input key.  SQL quoting is used to  make  sure  that
                     the input key does not add unexpected metacharacters.

              %u     When  the input key is an address of the form user@domain, %u is replaced by
                     the SQL quoted local part of the address.  Otherwise, %u is replaced by  the
                     entire  search  string.   If the localpart is empty, the query is suppressed
                     and returns no results.

              %d     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain, %d is replaced  by
                     the  SQL  quoted  domain  part  of  the  address.   Otherwise,  the query is
                     suppressed and returns no results.

              %[SUD] The upper-case equivalents of the  above  expansions  behave  in  the  query
                     parameter   identically   to   their  lower-case  counter-parts.   With  the
                     result_format parameter (see below), they expand the input key  rather  than
                     the result value.

              %[1-9] The  patterns  %1,  %2,  ...  %9  are  replaced  by  the  corresponding most
                     significant component of the  input  key's  domain.  If  the  input  key  is
           ,  then %1 is com, %2 is example and %3 is mail. If the
                     input key is unqualified or  does  not  have  enough  domain  components  to
                     satisfy  all  the specified patterns, the query is suppressed and returns no

              The domain parameter described below limits the input keys to addresses in matching
              domains.  When  the  domain  parameter  is  non-empty,  SQL queries for unqualified
              addresses or addresses  in  non-matching  domains  are  suppressed  and  return  no

              This  parameter  is available with Postfix 2.2. In prior releases the SQL query was
              built  from  the  separate  parameters:  select_field,   table,   where_field   and
              additional_conditions.  The mapping from the old parameters to the equivalent query

                  SELECT [select_field]
                  FROM [table]
                  WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

              The '%s' in the WHERE clause expands to the escaped search  string.   With  Postfix
              2.2 these legacy parameters are used if the query parameter is not specified.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the query parameter.

       result_format (default: %s)
              Format  template  applied  to  result  attributes. Most commonly used to append (or
              prepend) text to the result. This parameter supports the following '%' expansions:

              %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.

              %s     This is replaced by the value of the result attribute. When result is  empty
                     it is skipped.

              %u     When the result attribute value is an address of the form user@domain, %u is
                     replaced by the local part of the address. When  the  result  has  an  empty
                     localpart it is skipped.

              %d     When  a  result attribute value is an address of the form user@domain, %d is
                     replaced by the domain part of the  attribute  value.  When  the  result  is
                     unqualified it is skipped.

                     The  upper-case  and  decimal  digit expansions interpolate the parts of the
                     input key rather than the  result.  Their  behavior  is  identical  to  that
                     described with query, and in fact because the input key is known in advance,
                     queries whose key does not contain all  the  information  specified  in  the
                     result template are suppressed and return no results.

              For  example,  using  "result_format  =  smtp:[%s]"  allows  one  to use a mailHost
              attribute as the basis of a transport(5) table. After applying the  result  format,
              multiple  values  are  concatenated as comma separated strings. The expansion_limit
              and parameter explained below allows one to restrict the number of  values  in  the
              result, which is especially useful for maps that must return at most one value.

              The default value %s specifies that each result value should be used as is.

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the result format!

       domain (default: no domain list)
              This  is  a  list of domain names, paths to files, or dictionaries. When specified,
              only fully qualified search keys with a *non-empty* localpart and a matching domain
              are  eligible for lookup: 'user' lookups, bare domain lookups and "@domain" lookups
              are not performed. This can significantly  reduce  the  query  load  on  the  MySQL
                  domain =, hash:/etc/postfix/searchdomains

              It is best not to use SQL to store the domains eligible for SQL lookups.

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

              NOTE: DO NOT define this parameter for local(8) aliases, because the input keys are
              always unqualified.

       expansion_limit (default: 0)
              A limit on the total number of result elements returned (as a comma separated list)
              by  a  lookup  against the map.  A setting of zero disables the limit. Lookups fail
              with a temporary error if the limit is exceeded.  Setting the limit  to  1  ensures
              that lookups do not return multiple values.


       This  section  describes an interface that is deprecated as of Postfix 2.2. It is replaced
       by the more general query interface described above.  If the query parameter  is  defined,
       the  legacy parameters described here ignored.  Please migrate to the new interface as the
       legacy interface may be removed in a future release.

       The following parameters can be used to fill in a SELECT template statement of the form:

           SELECT [select_field]
           FROM [table]
           WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

       The specifier %s is replaced by the search string, and is escaped so if it contains single
       quotes  or  other  odd  characters,  it will not cause a parse error, or worse, a security

              The SQL "select" parameter. Example:
                  select_field = forw_addr

       table  The SQL "select .. from" table name. Example:
                  table = mxaliases

              The SQL "select .. where" parameter. Example:
                  where_field = alias

              Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
                  additional_conditions = AND status = 'paid'


       postmap(1), Postfix lookup table maintenance
       postconf(5), configuration parameters
       ldap_table(5), LDAP lookup tables
       pgsql_table(5), PostgreSQL lookup tables
       sqlite_table(5), SQLite lookup tables


       Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to locate this information.
       DATABASE_README, Postfix lookup table overview
       MYSQL_README, Postfix MYSQL client guide


       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.


       MySQL support was introduced with Postfix version 1.0.


       Original implementation by:
       Scott Cotton, Joshua Marcus
       IC Group, Inc.

       Further enhancements by:
       Liviu Daia
       Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy
       P.O. BOX 1-764
       RO-014700 Bucharest, ROMANIA