Provided by: srecord_1.56-1build1_i386 bug

NAME

       srec_intel - Intel Hexadecimal object file format specification

DESCRIPTION

       This format is also known as the Intel MCS-86 Object format.

       This  document  describes  the  hexadecimal  object file format for the
       Intel 8-bit,  16-bit,  and  32-bit  microprocessors.   The  hexadecimal
       format is suitable as input to PROM programmers or hardware emulators.

       Hexadecimal  object  file  format  is a way of representing an absolute
       binary object file in ASCII.  Because the file is in ASCII  instead  of
       binary,  it  is possible to store the file is non-binary medium such as
       paper-tape, punch cards, etc.; and the file can also  be  displayed  on
       CRT  terminals, line printers, etc..  The 8-bit hexadecimal object file
       format allows for the placement of code  and  data  within  the  16-bit
       linear  address  space  of  the  Intel  8-bit  processors.   The 16-bit
       hexadecimal format allows for the 20-bit segmented address space of the
       Intel  16-bit  processors.  And the 32-bit format allows for the 32-bit
       linear address space of the Intel 32-bit processors.

       The hexadecimal representation of binary is coded in ASCII alphanumeric
       characters.   For  example,  the  8-bit binary value 0011-1111 is 3F in
       hexadecimal.  To code this in ASCII,  one  8-bit  byte  containing  the
       ASCII code for the character '3' (0011-0011 or 0x33) and one 8-bit byte
       containing the) ASCII code for the character 'F'  (0100-0110  or  0x46)
       are required.  For each byte value, the high-order hexadecimal digit is
       always the first  digit  of  the  pair  of  hexadecimal  digits.   This
       representation  (ASCII hexadecimal) requires twice as many bytes as the
       binary representation.

       A hexadecimal object file  is  blocked  into  records,  each  of  which
       contains  the  record type, length, memory load address and checksum in
       addition to the data.  There are currently six (6) different  types  of
       records  that  are  defined,  not all combinations of these records are
       meaningful, however.  The record are:

       o Data Record (8-, 16-, or 32-bit formats)

       o End of File Record (8-, 16-, or 32-bit formats)

       o Extended Segment Address Record (16- or 32-bit formats)

       o Start Segment Address Record (16- or 32-bit formats)

       o Extended Linear Address Record (32-bit format only)

       o Start Linear Address Record (32-bit format only)

   General Record Format
       +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
       |Record | Record | Load   | Record | Data   | Check  |
       |Mark   | Length | Offset | Type   |        | sum    |
       +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
       Record Mark.
               Each record begins with a Record Mark  field  containing  0x3A,
               the ASCII code for the colon (":") character.

       Record Length
               Each  record  has  a  Record  Length  field which specifies the
               number of bytes of information or data which follows the Record
               Type  field of the record.  This field is one byte, represented
               as two hexadecimal characters.  The maximum value of the Record
               Length field is hexadecimal 'FF' or 255.

       Load Offset
               Each  record has a Load Offset field which specifies the 16-bit
               starting load offset of the data bytes, therefore this field is
               only  used for Data Records.  In other records where this field
               is not used, it should be coded as four ASCII  zero  characters
               ("0000" or 0x30303030).  This field is two byte, represented as
               four hexadecimal characters.

       Record Type
               Each record has a Record Type field which specifies the  record
               type  of  this  record.   The  Record  Type  field  is  used to
               interpret the remaining information within  the  record.   This
               field  is  one byte, represented as two hexadecimal characters.
               The encoding for all the current record types are:

               0  Data Record

               1  End of File Record

               2  Extended Segment Address Record

               3  Start Segment Address Record

               4  Extended Linear Address Record

               5  Start Linear Address Record

       Data    Each record has a variable length Data field,  it  consists  of
               zero or more bytes encoded as pairs of hexadecimal digits.  The
               interpretation of this field depends on the Record Type field.

       Checksum
               Each record ends with a Checksum field that contains the  ASCII
               hexadecimal  representation  of  the  two's  complement of  the
               8-bit bytes that result from  converting  each  pair  of  ASCII
               hexadecimal  digits  to  one byte of binary, from and including
               the Record Length field to and including the last byte  of  the
               Data  field.   Therefore,  the  sum of all the ASCII pairs in a
               record after converting to binary, from the Record Length field
               to and including the Checksum field, is zero.

   Extended Linear Address Record
       (32-bit format only)

       +--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
       |Record  | Record  | Load    | Record  | ULBA (2 |  Check  |
       |Mark    | Length  | Offset  | Type    | bytes)  |  sum    |
       |(":")   | (2)     | (0)     | (4)     |         |         |
       +--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
       The 32-bit Extended Linear Address Record is used to specify bits 16-31
       of the Linear Base Address (LBA), where bits 0-15 of the LBA are  zero.
       Bits  16-31 of the LBA are referred to as the Upper Linear Base Address
       (ULBA).  The absolute memory address of a content byte in a  subsequent
       Data  Record  is) obtained by adding the LBA to an offset calculated by
       adding the Load Offset field of the containing Data Record to the index
       of  the byte in the Data Record (0, 1, 2, ... n).  This offset addition
       is done) modulo 4G (i.e. 32-bits from 0xFFFFFFFF to 0x00000000) results
       in  wrapping  around  from  the  end  to the beginning of the 4G linear
       address defined by the LBA.  The linear address at which  a  particular
       byte is loaded is calculated as:
              (LBA + DRLO + DRI) MOD 4G
       where:

              DRLO is the Load Offset field of a Data Record.

              DRI  is the data byte index within the Data Record.
       When an Extended Linear Address Record defines the value of LBA, it may
       appear anywhere within a 32-bit hexadecimal  object  file.  This  value
       remains  in  effect  until  another  Extended  Linear Address Record is
       encountered.  The LBA defaults to zero until an Extended Linear Address
       Record  is  encountered.   The contents of the individual fields within
       the record are:

       Record Mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (":") character.

       Record Length
               The  field  contains  0x3032,  the  hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters "02", which is the length, in  bytes,  of  the
               ULBA data information within this record.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters "0000", since this field is not used for  this
               record.

       Record Type
               This  field  contains  0x3034,  the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII character "04", which specifies the record type to be  an
               Extended Linear Address Record.

       ULBA    This  field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits that specify
               the 16-bit Upper Linear  Base  Address  value.   The  value  is
               encoded big-endian (most significant digit first).

       Checksum
               This  field  contains  the check sum on the Record Length, Load
               Offset, Record Type, and ULBA fields.

   Extended Segment Address Record
       (16- or 32-bit formats)

       +--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
       |Record  | Record  | Load    | Record  | USBA (2 |  Check  |
       |Mark    | Length  | Offset  | Type    | bytes)  |  sum    |
       |(":")   | (2)     | (0)     | (2)     |         |         |
       +--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+
       The 16-bit Extended Segment Address Record is used to specify bits 4-19
       of  the Segment Base Address (SBA), where bits 0-3 of the SBA are zero.
       Bits 4-19 of the SBA are referred to as the Upper Segment Base  Address
       (USBA).   The absolute memory address of a content byte in a subsequent
       Data Record is) obtained by adding the SBA to an offset  calculated  by
       adding the Load Offset field of the containing Data Record to the index
       of the byte in the Data Record (0, 1, 2, ... n).  This offset  addition
       is  done  modulo  64K  (i.e.  16-bits  from 0xFFFF to 0x0000 results in
       wrapping around from the end  to  the  beginning  of  the  64K  segment
       defined  by  the SBA.  The address at which a particular byte is loaded
       is calculated as:
              SBA + ((DRLO + DRI) MOD 64K)
       where:

              DRLO is the LOAD OFFSET field of a Data Record.

              DRI  is the data byte index within the Data Record.

       When an Extended Segment Address Record defines the value  of  SBA,  it
       may  appear  anywhere  within  a  16-bit hexadecimal object file.  This
       value remains in effect until another Extended Segment  Address  Record
       is  encountered.   The  SBA  defaults to zero until an Extended Segment
       Address Record is encountered.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record Mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (":") character.

       Record Length
               The  field  contains  0x3032,  the  hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters '02', which is the length, in  bytes,  of  the
               USBA data information within this record.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters '0000', since this field is not used for  this
               record.

       Record Type
               This  field  contains  0x3032,  the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII character "02", which specifies the record type to be  an
               Extended Segment Address Record.

       USBA    This  field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits that specify
               the 16-bit Upper Segment Base  Address  value.   The  field  is
               encoded big-endian (most significant digit first).

       Checksum
               This  field  contains  the check sum on the Record length, Load
               Offset, Record Type, and USBA fields.

   Data Record
       (8-, 16- or 32-bit formats)

       +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
       |Record | Record | Load   | Record |  Data  | Check  |
       |Mark   | Length | Offset | Type   |        | sum    |
       |(":")  |        |        |        |        |        |
       +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
       The Data Record provides a set of hexadecimal digits that represent the
       ASCII  code  for  data  bytes that make up a portion of a memory image.
       The method for calculating the absolute address (linear  in  the  8-bit
       and 32-bit case and segmented in the 16-bit case) for each byte of data
       is described in the discussions of the Extended Linear  Address  Record
       and the Extended Segment Address Record.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record Mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (":") character.

       Record Length
               The field contains two ASCII hexadecimal  digits  that  specify
               the  number  of data bytes in the record.  The maximum value is
               255 decimal.

       Load Offset
               This field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits  representing
               the offset from the LBA (see Extended Linear Address Record see
               Extended Segment Address Record) defining the address which the
               first byte of the data is to be placed.

       Record Type
               This  field  contains  0x3030,  the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII character "00", which specifies the record type to  be  a
               Data Record.

       Data    This field contains pairs of ASCII hexadecimal digits, one pair
               for each data byte.

       Checksum
               This field contains the check sum on the  Record  Length,  Load
               Offset, Record Type, and Data fields.

       Note: Care must be taken when the addresses with an record span the end
       of addressing.  The behaviour is different  for  linear  and  segmented
       addressing modes.

       linear  If  a record starts just short of 2**32, and would finish after
               2**32, the later part of the record wraps around to address  0.
               TP  8n segment If a record starts just for of a 2**16 boundary,
               and would finish after that 2**16 boundary, the later  part  of
               the  record  wraps  around to address 0 within the same segment
               (not the next segment).

       The srec_cat(1) program will never output records  such  as  these,  it
       will always produce separate records on output.

   Start Linear Address Record
       (32-bit format only)

       +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
       |Record | Record | Load.  | Record | EIP (4 | Check  |
       |Mark   | Length | Offset | Type   | bytes) | sum    |
       |(":")  | (4)    | (0)    | (5)    |        |        |
       +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
       The  Start Linear Address Record is used to specify the execution start
       address for the object file.  The value  given  is  the  32-bit  linear
       address for the EIP register.  Note that this record only specifies the
       code address within the 32-bit linear address space of the  80386.   If
       the  code is to start execution in the real mode of the 80386, then the
       Start Segment Address Record should be used instead, since that  record
       specifies both the CS and IP register contents necessary for real mode.

       The  Start  Linear  Address  Record  can  appear  anywhere  in a 32-bit
       hexadecimal object file.   If  such  a  record  is  not  present  in  a
       hexadecimal object file, a loader is free to assign a default execution
       start address.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (":") character.

       Record length
               The  field  contains  0x3034,  the  hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters "04", which is the length, in  bytes,  of  the
               EIP register content within this record.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters "0000", since this field is not used for  this
               record.

       Record Type
               This  field  contains  0x3035,  the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII character "05", which specifies the record type to  be  a
               Start Linear Address Record.

       EIP     This field contains eight ASCII hexadecimal digits that specify
               the 32-bit EIP register contents.  The field  is  encoded  big-
               endian (most significant digit first).

       Checksum
               This  field  contains  the check sum on the Record length, Load
               Offset, Record Type, and EIP fields.

   Start Segment Address Record
       (16- or 32-bit formats)

       +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
       |Record | Record | Load.  | Record | CS (2  | IP (2  | Check  |
       |Mark   | Length | Offset | Type   | bytes) | bytes) | sum    |
       |(":")  | (4)    | (0)    | (3)    |        |        |        |
       +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
       The Start Segment Address Record is used to specify the execution start
       address  for  the  object  file.  The value given is the 20-bit segment
       address for the CS and  IP  registers.   Note  that  this  record  only
       specifies the code address within the 20-bit segmented address space of
       the 8086/80186.  The Start Segment Address Record can  appear  anywhere
       in  a 16-bit hexadecimal object file.   If such a record is not present
       in a hexadecimal object file, a loader is  free  to  assign  a  default
       start address.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record Mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (":") character.

       Record Length
               The field contains 0x3034,  the  hexadecimal  encoding  of  the
               ASCII characters "04", which is the length, in bytes, of the CS
               and IP register contents within this record.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII  characters "0000", since this field is not used for this
               record.

       Record Type
               This field contains 0x3033, the  hexadecimal  encoding  of  the
               ASCII  character  '03', which specifies the record type to be a
               Start Segment Address Record.

       CS      This field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits that  specify
               the  16-bit  CS  register  contents.  The field is encoded big-
               endian (most significant digit first).

       IP      This field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits that  specify
               the  16-bit  IP  register  contents.  The field is encoded big-
               endian (most significant digit first).

       Checksum
               This field contains the check sum on the  Record  length,  Load
               Offset, Record Type, CS, and IP fields.

   End of File Record
       (8-, 16-, or 32-bit formats)

       +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
       |Record | Record | Load   | Record | Check  |
       |Mark   | Length | Offset | Type   | sum    |
       |(":")  | (0)    | (0)    | (1)    | (0xFF) |
       +-------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
       The  End  of  File  Record  specifies the end of the hexadecimal object
       file.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII
               colon (":") character.

       Record Length
               The  field  contains  0x3030,  the  hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters "00".  Since this record does not contain  any
               Data bytes, the length is zero.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII characters "0000", since this field is not used for  this
               record.

       Record Type
               This  field  contains  0x3031,  the hexadecimal encoding of the
               ASCII character "01", which specifies the record type to be  an
               End of File Record.

       Checksum
               This  field  contains  the check sum an the Record Length, Load
               Offset, and Record Type  fields.   Since  all  the  fields  are
               static,  the  check  sum can also be calculated statically, and
               the value is 0x4646, the  hexadecimal  encoding  of  the  ASCII
               characters "FF".

   Size Multiplier
       In general, binary data will expand in sized by approximately 2.3 times
       when represented with this format.

EXAMPLE

       Here is an example Intel hex file.  It contains the data "Hello, World"
       to be loaded at address 0.
              :0D00000048656C6C6F2C20576F726C640AA1
              :00000001FF

REFERENCE

       This  information  comes  (very  indirectly)  from  Microprocessors and
       Programmed Logic, Second Edition, Kenneth  L.  Short,  1987,  Prentice-
       Hall, ISBN 0-13-580606-2.

COPYRIGHT

       srec_cat version 1.56
       Copyright  (C)  1998,  1999,  2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,
       2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Peter Miller

       The srec_cat program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details use
       the 'srec_cat -VERSion License' command.  This is free software and you
       are welcome to redistribute it under certain  conditions;  for  details
       use the 'srec_cat -VERSion License' command.

AUTHOR

       Peter Miller   E-Mail:   pmiller@opensource.org.au
       /\/\*             WWW:   http://miller.emu.id.au/pmiller/

   Derivation
       This manual page is derived from a file marked as follows:

       Intel Hexadecimal Object File Format Specification; Revision A, 1/6/88

       Disclaimer: Intel makes no representation or warranties with respect to
       the contents hereof and specifically disclaims any  implied  warranties
       of  merchantability  or  fitness  for any particular purpose.  Further,
       Intel reserves the right to revise this publication from time  to  time
       in  the content hereof without obligation of Intel to notify any person
       of such revision or changes.  The  publication  of  this  specification
       should  not  be  construed as a commitment on Intel's part to implement
       any product.