Provided by: srecord_1.56-1build1_amd64 bug

NAME

       srec_intel16 - Intel Hexadecimal 16‐bit file format specification

DESCRIPTION

       This format is also known as the INHX16 format.

       This document describes the hexadecimal object file format for 16‐bit microprocessors.

       This  format  is  very  similar to the srec_intel(5) format, except that the addresses are
       word addresses.  The count field is a word count.

       The hexadecimal representation of binary is coded in ASCII alphanumeric  characters.   For
       example,  the  8‐bit  binary value 0011‐1111 is 3F in hexadecimal.  To code this in ASCII,
       one 8‐bit byte containing the ASCII code for the character '3' (0011‐0011 or 0x33) and one
       8‐bit  byte  containing  the)  ASCII  code  for  the character 'F' (0100‐0110 or 0x46) are
       required.  For each byte value, the high‐order hexadecimal digit is always the first digit
       of the pair of hexadecimal digits.  This representation (ASCII hexadecimal) requires twice
       as many bytes as the binary representation.

       A hexadecimal object file is blocked into records, each of which contains the record type,
       length, memory load address and checksum in addition to the data.  There are currently six
       (6) different types of records that are defined, not all combinations of these records are
       meaningful, however.  The record are:

       · Data Record

       · End of File Record

       · Extended Segment Address Record

       · Start Segment Address Record

       · Extended Linear Address Record

       · Start Linear Address Record

   General Record Format
       ┌───────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┐
       │Record │ Record │ Load   │ Record │  Data  │ Check  │
       │Mark   │ Length │ Offset │ Type   │        │ sum    │
       └───────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┘
       Record Mark.
               Each  record  begins  with a Record Mark field containing 0x3A, the ASCII code for
               the colon (“:”) character.

       Record Length
               Each record has a Record Length field which specifies the number of  16‐bit  words
               of  information  or  data which follows the Record Type field of the record.  This
               field is one byte, represented as two hexadecimal characters.  The  maximum  value
               of the Record Length field is hexadecimal 'FF' or 255.

       Load Offset
               Each  record  has  a  Load  Offset  field which specifies the 16‐bit starting load
               offset of the data words, therefore this field is only used for Data  Records  (if
               the words are loaded as bytes, the address needs to be doubled).  In other records
               where this field is not used, it should be coded as  four  ASCII  zero  characters
               (“0000”  or  0x30303030).   This  field  one  16‐bit  word,  represented  as  four
               hexadecimal characters.

       Record Type
               Each record has a Record Type field  which  specifies  the  record  type  of  this
               record.   The  Record  Type  field  is used to interpret the remaining information
               within the record.  This  field  is  one  byte,  represented  as  two  hexadecimal
               characters.  The encoding for all the current record types are:

               0  Data Record

               1  End of File Record

               5  Execution Start Address Record

       Data    Each  record  has a variable length Data field, it consists of zero or more 16‐bit
               words encoded as set of 4 hexadecimal digits, most significant digit  first.   The
               interpretation of this field depends on the Record Type field.

       Checksum
               Each  record  ends  with  a  Checksum  field  that  contains the ASCII hexadecimal
               representation of the two's complement  of   the  8‐bit  bytes  that  result  from
               converting  each  pair of ASCII hexadecimal digits to one byte of binary, from and
               including the Record Length field to and including  the  last  byte  of  the  Data
               field.   Therefore, the sum of all the ASCII pairs in a record after converting to
               binary, from the Record Length field to and including the Checksum field, is zero.

   Data Record
       (8‐, 16‐ or 32‐bit formats)

       ┌───────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┐
       │Record │ Record │ Load   │ Record │  Data  │ Check  │
       │Mark   │ Length │ Offset │ Type   │        │ sum    │
       │(“:”)  │        │        │        │        │        │
       └───────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┘
       The Data Record provides a set of hexadecimal digits that represent  the  ASCII  code  for
       data bytes that make up a portion of a memory image.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record Mark
               This  field  contains  0x3A,  the  hexadecimal  encoding  of the ASCII colon (“:”)
               character.

       Record Length
               The field contains two ASCII hexadecimal digits that specify the number of  16‐bit
               data words in the record.  The maximum value is 255 decimal.

       Load Offset
               This field contains four ASCII hexadecimal digits representing the word address at
               which the first word of the data is to  be  placed.   (For  an  exquivalent  bytes
               address, double it.)

       Record Type
               This  field contains 0x3030, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII character “00”,
               which specifies the record type to be a Data Record.

       Data    This field contains sets of four ASCII hexadecimal digits, one set for each 16‐bit
               data word, most significant digit first.

       Checksum
               This  field contains the check sum on the Record Length, Load Offset, Record Type,
               and Data fields.

   Execution Start Address Record
       ┌───────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┐
       │Record │ Record │ Load   │ Record │ EIP (4 │ Check  │
       │Mark   │ Length │ Offset │ Type   │ bytes) │ sum    │
       │(“:”)  │ (4)    │ (0)    │ (5)    │        │        │
       └───────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┘
       The Execution Start Address Record is used to specify the execution start address for  the
       object  file.  This is where the loader is to jump to begin execution once the hex load is
       complete.

       The Execution Start Address Record can appear anywhere in a hexadecimal object  file.   If
       such  a  record  is not present in a hexadecimal object file, a loader is free to assign a
       default execution start address.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the  hexadecimal  encoding  of  the  ASCII  colon  (“:”)
               character.

       Record length
               The  field contains 0x3032, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII characters “02”,
               which is the length, in bytes, of the EIP register content within this record.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the  ASCII  characters
               “0000”, since this field is not used for this record.

       Record Type
               This  field contains 0x3035, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII character “05”,
               which specifies the record type to be a Start Address Record.

       EIP     This field contains eight ASCII hexadecimal digits that specify the address.   The
               field is encoded big‐endian (most significant digit first).

       Checksum
               This  field contains the check sum on the Record length, Load Offset, Record Type,
               and EIP fields.

   End of File Record
       This shall be the last record in the file.

       ┌───────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┐
       │Record │ Record │ Load   │ Record │ Check  │
       │Mark   │ Length │ Offset │ Type   │ sum    │
       │(“:”)  │ (0)    │ (0)    │ (1)    │ (0xFF) │
       └───────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┘
       The End of File Record specifies the end of the hexadecimal object file.

       The contents of the individual fields within the record are:

       Record mark
               This field contains 0x3A, the  hexadecimal  encoding  of  the  ASCII  colon  (“:”)
               character.

       Record Length
               The  field contains 0x3030, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII characters “00”.
               Since this record does not contain any Data bytes, the length is zero.

       Load Offset
               This field contains 0x30303030, the hexadecimal encoding of the  ASCII  characters
               “0000”, since this field is not used for this record.

       Record Type
               This  field contains 0x3031, the hexadecimal encoding of the ASCII character “01”,
               which specifies the record type to be an End of File Record.

       Checksum
               This field contains the check sum an the Record Length, Load  Offset,  and  Record
               Type  fields.   Since  all  the  fields  are  static,  the  check  sum can also be
               calculated statically, and the value is 0x4646, the hexadecimal  encoding  of  the
               ASCII characters “FF”.

   Size Multiplier
       In  general,  binary data will expand in sized by approximately 2.3 times when represented
       with this format.

EXAMPLE

       Here is an example INHX16 file.  It contains the data  “Hello,  World”  to  be  loaded  at
       address 0.
              :0700000065486C6C2C6F5720726F646CFF0AA8
              :00000001FF

COPYRIGHT

       srec_cat version 1.56
       Copyright (C) 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
       Peter Miller

       The srec_cat program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY;  for  details  use  the  'srec_cat
       -VERSion  License'  command.  This is free software and you are welcome to redistribute it
       under certain conditions; for details use the 'srec_cat -VERSion License' command.

AUTHOR

       Peter Miller   E‐Mail:   pmiller@opensource.org.au
       /\/\*             WWW:   http://miller.emu.id.au/pmiller/