Provided by: srecord_1.56-1build1_i386 bug


       srec_signetics - Signetics file format


       The Signetics file format is not often used.  The major disadvantage in
       modern applications is that the addressing range  is  limited  to  only

       All  data  lines  are  called  records,  and  each  record contains the
       following 5 fields:

                           │: │ aaaa │ cc │ as │ dd │ ss │
       The field are defined─as─follows:──┴────┴────┴────┘

       :       Every record starts with this identifier.

       aaaa    The address field.  A four digit (2 byte)  number  representing
               the first address to be used by this record.

       cc      The  byte‐count.   A  two  digit  value  (1 byte), counting the
               actual data bytes in the record.

       as      Address checksum.  Covers 2 address bytes and the byte count.

       dd      The actual data of this record.  There can be  1  to  255  data
               bytes per record (see cc)

       ss      Data Checksum.  Covers only all the data bytes of this record.

   Record Begin
       Every  record  begins  with  a colon “:[rq] character.  Records contain
       only ASCII characters.  No spaces or tabs are allowed in a record.   In
       fact,  apart from the 1st colon, no other characters than 0..9 and A..F
       are allowed in a record.  Interpretation of a  record  should  be  case
       less, it does not matter if you use a..f or A..F.

       Unfortunately  the  colon  was  chosen  for  the Signetics file format,
       similar to the Intel format (see srec_intel(5) for  more  information).
       However, SRecord is able to automatically detect the dofference between
       the two format, when you use the -Guess format specifier.

   Address Field
       This is the address where the first data byte of the record  should  be
       stored.   After storing that data byte, the address is incremented by 1
       to point to the address for the next data byte of the record.   And  so
       on, until all data bytes are stored.  The address is represented by a 4
       digit hex number (2 bytes), with the MSD first.  The order of addresses
       in  the  records of a file is not important.  The file may also contain
       address gaps, to skip a portion of unused memory.

   Byte Count
       The byte count cc counts the actual data bytes in the  current  record.
       Usually records have 32 data bytes, but any number between 1 and 255 is

       A value of 0x00 for cc indicates the end of the file.  In this case not
       even  the  address  checksum  will  follow!   The record (and file) are
       terminated immediately.

       It is not recommended to send too many data bytes in a record for  that
       may  increase  the  transmission  time  in  case of errors.  Also avoid
       sending only a few data bytes per record, because the address  overhead
       will be too heavy in comparison to the payload.

   Address Checksum
       This  is  not really a checksum anymore, it looks more like a CRC.  The
       checksum can not only detect errors in the values  of  the  bytes,  but
       also bytes out of order can be detected.

       The checksum is calculated by this algorithm:
              checksum = 0
              for i = 1 to 3
                checksum = checkum XOR byte
                ROL checksum
              next i
       For  the Address Checksum we only need 2 Address bytes and 1 Byte Count
       byte to be added.  That's why we count to 3 in the loop.  Every byte is
       XORed with the previous result.  Then the intermediate result is rolled
       left (carry rolls back into b0).

       This results in a very reliable checksum, and that for only 3 bytes!

       The last record of the file does not contain  any  checksums!   So  the
       file ends right after the Byte Count of 0.

   Data Field
       The  payload  of the record is formed by the Data field.  The number of
       data bytes expected is given by the Byte Count field.  The last  record
       of the file may not contain a Data field.

   Data Checksum
       This checksum uses the same algorithm as used for the Address Checksum.
       This time we calculate the checksum with only the data  bytes  of  this
              checksum = 0
              for i = 1 to cc
                checksum = checksum XOR byte
                ROL checksum
              next i
       Note that we count to the Byte Count cc this time.

   Size Multiplier
       In general, binary data will expand in sized by approximately 2.4 times
       when represented with this format.


       Here is an example Signetics file
       In the example above you can see a piece of code in  Signetics  format.
       The  first 3 lines have 16 bytes of data each, which can be seen by the
       byte count.  The 4th line has only 13 bytes, because the program is  at
       it's end there.

       Notice that the last record of the file contains no data bytes, and not
       even an Address Checksum.



       This man page was taken from the above Web page.  It was written by San
       Bergmans <>