Provided by: bsdgames_2.17-19_i386 bug

NAME

       sail - multi-user wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS

       sail [ -s [ -l ] ] [ -x ] [ -b ] [ num ]

DESCRIPTION

       Sail  is  a  computer  version  of  Avalon Hill's game of fighting sail
       originally developed by S. Craig Taylor.

       Players of Sail take command of an old fashioned Man of War  and  fight
       other  players  or  the  computer.   They  may re-enact one of the many
       historical sea battles recorded in the  game,  or  they  can  choose  a
       fictional battle.

       As a sea captain in the Sail Navy, the player has complete control over
       the workings of his ship.  He must order every maneuver, change the set
       of  his  sails,  and  judge  the right moment to let loose the terrible
       destruction of his broadsides.  In addition to fighting the  enemy,  he
       must  harness the powers of the wind and sea to make them work for him.
       The outcome of many battles during the age of sail was decided  by  the
       ability of one captain to hold the `weather gage.'

       The flags are:

       -s     Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.

       -l     Show the login name.  Only effective with -s.

       -x     Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.

       -b     No bells.

IMPLEMENTATION

       Sail  is  really  two programs in one.  Each player starts up a process
       which runs his own ship.  In addition, a driver process is  forked  (by
       the  first  player)  to  run the computer ships and take care of global
       bookkeeping.

       Because the driver must calculate moves for each ship it controls,  the
       more ships the computer is playing, the slower the game will appear.

       If  a  player  joins  a  game in progress, he will synchronize with the
       other players (a rather slow process for everyone),  and  then  he  may
       play along with the rest.

       To  implement  a  multi-user  game  in  Version  7  UNIX, which was the
       operating system  Sail  was  first  written  under,  the  communicating
       processes must use a common temporary file as a place to read and write
       messages.  In addition, a locking mechanism must be provided to  ensure
       exclusive  access  to  the  shared  file.   For  example,  Sail  uses a
       temporary  file  named   /tmp/#sailsink.21   for   scenario   21,   and
       corresponding file names for the other scenarios.  To provide exclusive
       access to the temporary file, Sail uses a technique stolen from an  old
       game  called "pubcaves" by Jeff Cohen.  Processes do a busy wait in the
       loop

                  for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock)  0  n  30; n++)
                                           sleep(2);

       until  they  are  able   to   create   a   link   to   a   file   named
       "/tmp/#saillock.??".  The "??" correspond to the scenario number of the
       game.  Since UNIX guarantees that a link will point to only  one  file,
       the  process that succeeds in linking will have exclusive access to the
       temporary file.

       Whether or not this really works is open to speculation.  When  ucbmiro
       was rebooted after a crash, the file system check program found 3 links
       between the Sail temporary file and its link file.

CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES

       When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing,
       the driver must coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.
       For example, if a player wants to  move  in  a  certain  direction,  he
       writes  a message into the temporary file requesting the driver to move
       his ship.  Each ``turn,'' the driver reads all the messages  sent  from
       the  players  and  decides what happened.  It then writes back into the
       temporary file new values of variables, etc.

       The most noticeable effect this communication has on the  game  is  the
       delay  in  moving.  Suppose a player types a move for his ship and hits
       return.  What happens then?  The player process saves up messages to be
       written  to the temporary file in a buffer.  Every 7 seconds or so, the
       player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file  and  writes
       out  its  buffer to the file.  The driver, running asynchronously, must
       read in the movement command, process it, and write  out  the  results.
       This takes two exclusive accesses to the temporary file.  Finally, when
       the player process gets around to doing another 7  second  update,  the
       results of the move are displayed on the screen.  Hence, every movement
       requires four exclusive accesses to the temporary file (anywhere from 7
       to  21  seconds  depending  upon asynchrony) before the player sees the
       results of his moves.

       In practice, the delays are not  as  annoying  as  they  would  appear.
       There  is  room  for  "pipelining"  in  the movement.  After the player
       writes out a first movement message, a second movement command can then
       be issued.  The first message will be in the temporary file waiting for
       the driver, and the second will be in the file  buffer  waiting  to  be
       written  to the file.  Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of the
       time, the player can sail around quite quickly.

       If the player types several movement  commands  between  two  7  second
       updates,  only  the  last  movement  command  typed will be seen by the
       driver.  Movement commands within  the  same  update  "overwrite"  each
       other, in a sense.

THE HISTORY OF SAIL

       I  wrote  the first version of Sail on a PDP-11/70 in the fall of 1980.
       Needless to say, the code was horrendous, not portable in any sense  of
       the  word,  and  didn't work.  The program was not very modular and had
       fseeks() and fwrites() every few lines.   After  a  tremendous  rewrite
       from  the  top down, I got the first working version up by 1981.  There
       were several annoying bugs concerning  firing  broadsides  and  finding
       angles.   Sail  uses  no  floating  point, by the way, so the direction
       routines are rather tricky.  Ed Wang rewrote my angle() routine in 1981
       to  be  more correct (although it still doesn't work perfectly), and he
       added code to let a player select which ship he wanted at the start  of
       the game (instead of the first one available).

       Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making Sail portable for
       the first time.  This was no easy task, by the way.  Constants  like  2
       and  10 were very frequent in the code.  I also became famous for using
       "Riggle Memorial Structures" in Sail.  Many of my structure  references
       are  so  long  that  they  run  off  the line printer page.  Here is an
       example, if you promise not to laugh.

             specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts

       Sail received its fourth and most thorough rewrite in  the  summer  and
       fall  of  1983.  Ed Wang rewrote and modularized the code (a monumental
       feat) almost from scratch.  Although he introduced many new  bugs,  the
       final  result  was  very  much cleaner and (?) faster.  He added window
       movement commands and find ship commands.

HISTORICAL INFO

       Old Square Riggers were very maneuverable ships  capable  of  intricate
       sailing.   Their  only disadvantage was an inability to sail very close
       to the wind.  The design of a wooden ship allowed only for the guns  to
       bear  to the left and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect (usually
       6 or 9 pounders) could  point  forward,  but  their  effect  was  small
       compared  to  a  68  gun broadside of 24 or 32 pounders.  The guns bear
       approximately like so:

              \
               b----------------
           ---0
               \
                \
                 \     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
                  \
                   \
                    \

       An interesting phenomenon occurred when a broadside was fired down  the
       length  of an enemy ship.  The shot tended to bounce along the deck and
       did several times more damage.  This  phenomenon  was  called  a  rake.
       Because the bows of a ship are very strong and present a smaller target
       than the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the bow)  causes
       more damage than a bow rake.

                               b
                              00   ----  Stern rake!
                                a

       Most  ships were equipped with carronades, which were very large, close
       range cannons.  American ships from the revolution  until  the  War  of
       1812 were almost entirely armed with carronades.

       The  period of history covered in Sail is approximately from the 1770's
       until the end of Napoleonic France in 1815.  There are  many  excellent
       books  about  the age of sail.  My favorite author is Captain Frederick
       Marryat.  More contemporary authors include C.S. Forester and Alexander
       Kent.

       Fighting  ships  came  in  several  sizes  classed  by  armament.   The
       mainstays of any fleet were its "Ships of the Line", or "Line of Battle
       Ships".   They  were  so  named  because these ships fought together in
       great lines.  They were close enough for mutual support, yet every ship
       could fire both its broadsides.  We get the modern words "ocean liner,"
       or "liner," and "battleship" from "ship of the line."  The most  common
       size  was  the  74  gun two decked ship of the line.  The two gun decks
       usually mounted 18 and 24 pounder guns.

       The pride of the fleet were the first rates.   These  were  huge  three
       decked  ships  of  the  line  mounting 80 to 136 guns.  The guns in the
       three tiers were usually 18, 24, and 32 pounders in that order from top
       to bottom.

       Various other ships came next.  They were almost all "razees," or ships
       of the line with one deck sawed off.  They mounted 40-64 guns and  were
       a poor cross between a frigate and a line of battle ship.  They neither
       had the speed of the former nor the firepower of the latter.

       Next came the "eyes  of  the  fleet."   Frigates  came  in  many  sizes
       mounting  anywhere  from  32 to 44 guns.  They were very handy vessels.
       They could outsail  anything  bigger  and  outshoot  anything  smaller.
       Frigates  didn't  fight in lines of battle as the much bigger 74's did.
       Instead, they harassed the enemy's rear  or  captured  crippled  ships.
       They  were  much  more  useful in missions away from the fleet, such as
       cutting out expeditions or boat actions.  They could hit hard  and  get
       away fast.

       Lastly,  there  were  the  corvettes,  sloops,  and  brigs.  These were
       smaller ships mounting typically fewer than 20 guns.   A  corvette  was
       only  slightly smaller than a frigate, so one might have up to 30 guns.
       Sloops were used for carrying dispatches  or  passengers.   Brigs  were
       something you built for land-locked lakes.

SAIL PARTICULARS

       Ships  in  Sail  are  represented  by  two  characters.   One character
       represents the bow of the ship, and the  other  represents  the  stern.
       Ships  have nationalities and numbers.  The first ship of a nationality
       is number 0, the second number 1, etc.  Therefore,  the  first  British
       ship  in  a  game  would  be printed as "b0".  The second Brit would be
       "b1", and the fifth Don would be "s4".

       Ships can set normal sails, called  Battle  Sails,  or  bend  on  extra
       canvas  called Full Sails.  A ship under full sail is a beautiful sight
       indeed, and it can move much faster than a  ship  under  Battle  Sails.
       The  only  trouble is, with full sails set, there is so much tension on
       sail and rigging that a well aimed round shot can  burst  a  sail  into
       ribbons  where  it would only cause a little hole in a loose sail.  For
       this reason, rigging damage is doubled on a ship with full  sails  set.
       Don't  let  that  discourage you from using full sails.  I like to keep
       them up right into the heat of battle.  A ship with full sails set  has
       a  capital  letter  for its nationality.  E.g., a Frog, "f0", with full
       sails set would be printed as "F0".

       When a ship is battered into  a  listing  hulk,  the  last  man  aboard
       "strikes  the  colors."   This ceremony is the ship's formal surrender.
       The nationality character of a surrendered  ship  is  printed  as  "!".
       E.g., the Frog of our last example would soon be "!0".

       A  ship has a random chance of catching fire or sinking when it reaches
       the stage of listing hulk.  A sinking ship has a "~"  printed  for  its
       nationality, and a ship on fire and about to explode has a "#" printed.

       Captured ships become the nationality of the prize crew.  Therefore, if
       an American ship captures a British ship, the British ship will have an
       "a"  printed  for  its  nationality.   In  addition, the ship number is
       changed to "","'", "(", ,")", "*", or "+" depending upon  the  original
       number,  be it 0,1,2,3,4, or 5.  E.g., the "b0" captured by an American
       becomes the "a".  The "s4" captured by a Frog becomes the "f*".

       The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit  captured  by  an
       American: "#".

MOVEMENT

       Movement is the most confusing part of Sail to many.  Ships can head in
       8 directions:

                                        0      0      0
               b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
               0        0                                             0

       The stern of a ship moves when it turns.  The bow  remains  stationary.
       Ships  can  always  turn,  regardless  of  the  wind  (unless  they are
       becalmed).  All ships drift when they lose headway.  If a ship  doesn't
       move  forward  at all for two turns, it will begin to drift.  If a ship
       has begun to drift, then it must move forward before it  turns,  if  it
       plans  to  do  more  than  make  a  right or left turn, which is always
       possible.

       Movement commands to Sail are a string of forward moves and turns.   An
       example  is  "l3".   It  will turn a ship left and then move it ahead 3
       spaces.  In the drawing above, the "b0" made 7 successive  left  turns.
       When Sail prompts you for a move, it prints three characters of import.
       E.g.,
            move (7, 4):
       The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make, including
       turns.   The second number is the maximum number of turns you can make.
       Between the numbers is sometimes printed a quote "'".  If the quote  is
       present,  it  means that your ship has been drifting, and you must move
       ahead to regain headway before you turn (see note above).  Some of  the
       possible moves for the example above are as follows:

            move (7, 4): 7
            move (7, 4): 1
            move (7, 4): d      /* drift, or do nothing */
            move (7, 4): 6r
            move (7, 4): 5r1
            move (7, 4): 4r1r
            move (7, 4): l1r1r2
            move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

       Because square riggers performed so poorly sailing into the wind, if at
       any point in a movement command you turn into the  wind,  the  movement
       stops there.  E.g.,

            move (7, 4): l1l4
            Movement Error;
            Helm: l1l

       Moreover,  whenever  you  make a turn, your movement allowance drops to
       min(what's left, what you would have at the new attitude).   In  short,
       if  you  turn closer to the wind, you most likely won't be able to sail
       the full allowance printed in the "move" prompt.

       Old sailing captains had  to  keep  an  eye  constantly  on  the  wind.
       Captains in Sail are no different.  A ship's ability to move depends on
       its attitude to the wind.  The best angle possible is to have the  wind
       off  your  quarter, that is, just off the stern.  The direction rose on
       the side of the screen gives the possible movements for  your  ship  at
       all  positions  to  the  wind.  Battle sail speeds are given first, and
       full sail speeds are given in parenthesis.

                            0 1(2)
                           \|/
                           -^-3(6)
                           /|\
                            | 4(7)
                           3(6)

       Pretend the bow of your ship (the "^") is pointing upward and the  wind
       is  blowing from the bottom to the top of the page.  The numbers at the
       bottom "3(6)" will be your speed under battle or full sails in  such  a
       situation.   If the wind is off your quarter, then you can move "4(7)".
       If the wind is off your beam, "3(6)".  If the wind  is  off  your  bow,
       then you can only move "1(2)".  Facing into the wind, you can't move at
       all.  Ships facing into the wind were said to be "in irons".

WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION

       The windspeed and direction is displayed as a little  weather  vane  on
       the side of the screen.  The number in the middle of the vane indicates
       the wind speed, and the + to - indicates the wind direction.  The  wind
       blows  from  the  +  sign (high pressure) to the - sign (low pressure).
       E.g.,

                           |
                           3
                           +

       The wind speeds are 0 = becalmed,  1  =  light  breeze,  2  =  moderate
       breeze, 3 = fresh breeze, 4 = strong breeze, 5 = gale, 6 = full gale, 7
       = hurricane.  If a hurricane shows up, all ships are destroyed.

GRAPPLING AND FOULING

       If two ships collide, they run the risk of becoming  tangled  together.
       This is called "fouling."  Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither
       can move.  They can unfoul  each  other  if  they  want  to.   Boarding
       parties  can  only  be  sent  across  to ships when the antagonists are
       either fouled or grappled.

       Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the  rigging  of
       the other.

       The  number  of  fouls and grapples you have are displayed on the upper
       right of the screen.

BOARDING

       Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of  human  life.   Boarding
       parties  may  be  formed  in  Sail  to either board an enemy ship or to
       defend your own  ship  against  attack.   Men  organized  as  Defensive
       Boarding  Parties  fight  twice  as hard to save their ship as men left
       unorganized.

       The boarding strength of a crew depends upon its quality and  upon  the
       number of men sent.

CREW QUALITY

       The  British  seaman  was  world  renowned  for  his sailing abilities.
       American sailors, however, were actually the best seamen in the  world.
       Because  the  American  Navy offered twice the wages of the Royal Navy,
       British seamen who liked the sea defected to America by the thousands.

       In Sail, crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels.  "Elite" crews
       can  outshoot  and outfight all other sailors.  "Crack" crews are next.
       "Mundane" crews are average, and "Green" and "Mutinous" crews are below
       average.  A good rule of thumb is that "Crack" or "Elite" crews get one
       extra hit per broadside compared to "Mundane" crews.  Don't expect  too
       much from "Green" crews.

BROADSIDES

       Your  two  broadsides  may  be  loaded  with four kinds of shot: grape,
       chain, round, and double.  You have guns and  carronades  in  both  the
       port  and starboard batteries.  Carronades only have a range of two, so
       you have to get in close to be able to fire them.  You have the  choice
       of  firing at the hull or rigging of another ship.  If the range of the
       ship is greater than 6, then you may only shoot at the rigging.

       The types of shot and their advantages are:

ROUND

       Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.

DOUBLE

       Range of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging  hits.   Double  takes  two
       turns to load.

CHAIN

       Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.  Cannot damage hull or
       guns, though.

GRAPE

       Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

       On the side of the screen is displayed  some  vital  information  about
       your ship:

                      Load  D! R!
                      Hull  9
                      Crew  4  4  2
                      Guns  4  4
                      Carr  2  2
                      Rigg  5 5 5 5

       "Load" shows what your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are
       loaded with.  A "!" after the type of shot  indicates  that  it  is  an
       initial  broadside.   Initial  broadside  were  loaded with care before
       battle and before the decks ran red  with  blood.   As  a  consequence,
       initial  broadsides  are a little more effective than broadsides loaded
       later.  A "*" after the type of shot indicates that the gun  crews  are
       still  loading it, and you cannot fire yet.  "Hull" shows how much hull
       you have left.  "Crew" shows your three sections of crew.  As your crew
       dies  off, your ability to fire decreases.  "Guns" and "Carr" show your
       port and starboard guns.  As  you  lose  guns,  your  ability  to  fire
       decreases.   "Rigg"  shows  how  much  rigging  you have on your 3 or 4
       masts.  As rigging is shot away, you lose mobility.

EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE

       It is very dramatic when a ship fires its  thunderous  broadsides,  but
       the  mere  opportunity  to fire them does not guarantee any hits.  Many
       factors influence the destructive force of a broadside.  First of  all,
       and the chief factor, is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship at range
       ten than it is to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next is raking.   Raking
       fire,  as  mentioned before, can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten.
       Next, crew size and quality affects the damage  done  by  a  broadside.
       The  number  of  guns  firing  also  bears  on  the point, so to speak.
       Lastly, weather affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the  seas  are
       high  (5 or 6), then the lower gunports of ships of the line can't even
       be opened to run out the guns.  This gives  frigates  and  other  flush
       decked  vessels  an  advantage in a storm.  The scenario Pellew vs. The
       Droits de L'Homme takes advantage of this peculiar circumstance.

REPAIRS

       Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate of
       two  points  per  three turns.  The message "Repairs Completed" will be
       printed if no more repairs can be made.

PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS

       Computer  ships  in  Sail  follow  all  the  rules  above  with  a  few
       exceptions.   Computer  ships  never  repair  damage.  If they did, the
       players could never beat them.  They play well enough as it is.   As  a
       consolation,  the computer ships can fire double shot every turn.  That
       fluke is a good reason to keep your distance.  The Driver  figures  out
       the  moves of the computer ships.  It computes them with a typical A.I.
       distance function and a depth first search to find the maximum "score."
       It  seems  to  work fairly well, although I'll be the first to admit it
       isn't perfect.

HOW TO PLAY

       Commands are given to Sail by typing a single character.  You will then
       be  prompted  for  further  input.   A  brief  summary  of the commands
       follows.

COMMAND SUMMARY

           'f'  Fire broadsides if they bear
           'l'  Reload
           'L'  Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
           'm'  Move
           'i'  Print the closest ship
           'I'  Print all ships
           'F'  Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
           's'  Send a message around the fleet
           'b'  Attempt to board an enemy ship
           'B'  Recall boarding parties
           'c'  Change set of sail
           'r'  Repair
           'u'  Attempt to unfoul
           'g'  Grapple/ungrapple
           'v'  Print version number of game
          '^L'  Redraw screen
           'Q'  Quit

           'C'      Center your ship in the window
           'U'        Move window up
           'D','N'  Move window down
           'H'        Move window left
           'J'        Move window right
           'S'      Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is

SCENARIOS

       Here is a summary of the scenarios in Sail:

Ranger vs. Drake:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Ranger            19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Drake             17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

The Battle of Flamborough Head:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This is John Paul Jones' first  famous  battle.   Aboard  the  Bonhomme
       Richard,  he  was  able  to overcome the Serapis's greater firepower by
       quickly boarding her.

       (a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Serapis           44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

Arbuthnot and Des Touches:

       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) America           64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Befford           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Adamant           50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) London            98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Royal Oak         74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Neptune           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Conquerant        74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Provence          64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Romulus           44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

Suffren and Hughes:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Monmouth          74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Hero              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Isis              50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Superb            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Burford           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Flamband          50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Annibal           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Severe            64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Brilliant         80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (f) Sphinx            80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Nymphe            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (f) Cleopatre         36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

Mars vs. Hercule:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
       (b) Mars              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Hercule           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Ambuscade         32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Baionnaise        24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

Constellation vs. Insurgent:

       Wind from the S, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Insurgent         36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

Constellation vs. Vengeance:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Vengeance         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

The Battle of Lissa:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Amphion           32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (b) Active            38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
       (b) Volage            22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Cerberus          32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (f) Favorite          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Flore             40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Danae             40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Bellona           32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Corona            40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
       (f) Carolina          32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

Constitution vs. Guerriere:

       Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Guerriere         38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

United States vs. Macedonian:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Macedonian        38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

Constitution vs. Java:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Java              38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)

Chesapeake vs. Shannon:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Chesapeake        38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Shannon           38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

The Battle of Lake Erie:

       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Lawrence          20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Niagara           20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Lady Prevost      13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
       (b) Detroit           19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Q. Charlotte      17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

Wasp vs. Reindeer:

       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Wasp              20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Reindeer          18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)

Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:

       Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)  (b)  Cyane
       24  gun  Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts) (b) Levant            20 gun Sloop
       (crack crew) (10 pts)

Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:

       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Amazon            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Droits L'Hom      74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Algeciras:

       Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (b) Caesar            80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (b) Pompee            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Spencer           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Hannibal          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (s) Real-Carlos       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (s) San Fernando      96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (s) Argonauta         80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
       (s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
       (f) Indomptable       80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Desaix            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Lake Champlain:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Saratoga          26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
       (a) Eagle             20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (a) Ticonderoga       17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Preble            7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
       (b) Confiance         37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Linnet            16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
       (b) Chubb             11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

Last Voyage of the USS President:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) President         44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Endymion          40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Pomone            44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Tenedos           38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

Hornblower and the Natividad:

       Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

       A scenario for you Horny fans.  Remember, he sank the Natividad against
       heavy odds and winds.  Hint: don't try to board the Natividad, her crew
       is much bigger, albeit green.

       (b) Lydia             36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (s) Natividad         50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)

Curse of the Flying Dutchman:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

       (s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)

The South Pacific:

       Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) USS Scurvy        136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (b) HMS Tahiti        120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Australian        32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Bikini Atoll      7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:

       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       The only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one  ship
       and stern rake the others though.  See if you can do as well.

       (b) Sutherland        74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Turenne           80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Nightmare         74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Paris             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Napoleon          74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)

Cape Horn:

       Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) Concord           80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Berkeley          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Thames            120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Madrid            112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Musket            80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)

New Orleans:

       Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Watch that little Cypress go!

       (a) Alligator         120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (b) Firefly           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Cypress           44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

Botany Bay:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Shark             64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Coral Snake       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Sea Lion          44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:

       Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

       (a) Seaview           120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (a) Flying Sub        40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Mermaid           136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (s) Giant Squid       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)

Frigate Action:

       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Killdeer          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (b) Sandpiper         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (s) Curlew            38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

The Battle of Midway:

       Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Enterprise        80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (a) Yorktown          80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Hornet            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Akagi             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (j) Kaga              96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Soryu             80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)

Star Trek:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Enterprise        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Yorktown          450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Reliant           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Galileo           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Klingon II        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Red Orion         450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Blue Orion        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

CONCLUSION

       Sail has been a group effort.

AUTHOR

       Dave Riggle

CO-AUTHOR

       Ed Wang

REFITTING

       Craig Leres

CONSULTANTS

       Chris Guthrie
       Captain Happy
       Horatio Nelson
            and many valiant others...

REFERENCES

       Wooden Ships  Iron Men, by Avalon Hill
       Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them) by C.S. Forester
       Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them) by Alexander Kent
       The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20) especially
             Mr. Midshipman Easy
             Peter Simple
             Jacob Faithful
             Japhet in Search of a Father
             Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
             Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

BUGS

       Probably  a  few, and please report them to "riggle@ernie.berkeley.edu"
       and "edward@ucbarpa.berkeley.edu"