Provided by: bsdgames_2.17-19_amd64 bug

NAME

       sail - multi-user wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS

       sail [ -s [ -l ] ] [ -x ] [ -b ] [ num ]

DESCRIPTION

       Sail  is a computer version of Avalon Hill's game of fighting sail originally developed by
       S. Craig Taylor.

       Players of Sail take command of an old fashioned Man of War and fight other players or the
       computer.   They may re-enact one of the many historical sea battles recorded in the game,
       or they can choose a fictional battle.

       As a sea captain in the Sail Navy, the player has complete control over  the  workings  of
       his  ship.  He must order every maneuver, change the set of his sails, and judge the right
       moment to let loose the terrible destruction of his broadsides.  In addition  to  fighting
       the  enemy, he must harness the powers of the wind and sea to make them work for him.  The
       outcome of many battles during the age of sail was decided by the ability of  one  captain
       to hold the `weather gage.'

       The flags are:

       -s     Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.

       -l     Show the login name.  Only effective with -s.

       -x     Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.

       -b     No bells.

IMPLEMENTATION

       Sail  is  really  two programs in one.  Each player starts up a process which runs his own
       ship.  In addition, a driver process is forked (by the first player) to run  the  computer
       ships and take care of global bookkeeping.

       Because  the  driver  must  calculate  moves for each ship it controls, the more ships the
       computer is playing, the slower the game will appear.

       If a player joins a game in progress, he will synchronize with the other players (a rather
       slow process for everyone), and then he may play along with the rest.

       To  implement a multi-user game in Version 7 UNIX, which was the operating system Sail was
       first written under, the communicating processes must use a common  temporary  file  as  a
       place  to  read  and write messages.  In addition, a locking mechanism must be provided to
       ensure exclusive access to the shared file.  For example, Sail uses a temporary file named
       /tmp/#sailsink.21  for  scenario 21, and corresponding file names for the other scenarios.
       To provide exclusive access to the temporary file, Sail uses a technique  stolen  from  an
       old game called "pubcaves" by Jeff Cohen.  Processes do a busy wait in the loop

                           for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock)  0  n  30; n++)
                                                    sleep(2);

       until  they  are  able  to  create  a  link to a file named "/tmp/#saillock.??".  The "??"
       correspond to the scenario number of the game.  Since UNIX guarantees  that  a  link  will
       point to only one file, the process that succeeds in linking will have exclusive access to
       the temporary file.

       Whether or not this really works is open to speculation.  When ucbmiro was rebooted  after
       a  crash,  the file system check program found 3 links between the Sail temporary file and
       its link file.

CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES

       When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing,  the  driver  must
       coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.  For example, if a player wants to
       move in a certain direction, he writes a message into the temporary  file  requesting  the
       driver  to  move his ship.  Each ``turn,'' the driver reads all the messages sent from the
       players and decides what happened.  It then writes back into the temporary file new values
       of variables, etc.

       The  most  noticeable  effect  this  communication has on the game is the delay in moving.
       Suppose a player types a move for his ship and  hits  return.   What  happens  then?   The
       player process saves up messages to be written to the temporary file in a buffer.  Every 7
       seconds or so, the player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file  and  writes
       out its buffer to the file.  The driver, running asynchronously, must read in the movement
       command, process it, and write out the results.  This takes two exclusive accesses to  the
       temporary  file.   Finally,  when the player process gets around to doing another 7 second
       update, the results of the move are  displayed  on  the  screen.   Hence,  every  movement
       requires  four  exclusive  accesses  to  the temporary file (anywhere from 7 to 21 seconds
       depending upon asynchrony) before the player sees the results of his moves.

       In practice, the delays are not as annoying as they  would  appear.   There  is  room  for
       "pipelining"  in  the  movement.   After the player writes out a first movement message, a
       second movement command can then be issued.  The first message will be  in  the  temporary
       file  waiting  for  the  driver,  and  the second will be in the file buffer waiting to be
       written to the file.  Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of the  time,  the  player
       can sail around quite quickly.

       If  the player types several movement commands between two 7 second updates, only the last
       movement command typed will be seen by the driver.   Movement  commands  within  the  same
       update "overwrite" each other, in a sense.

THE HISTORY OF SAIL

       I  wrote  the  first version of Sail on a PDP-11/70 in the fall of 1980.  Needless to say,
       the code was horrendous, not portable in any sense of the  word,  and  didn't  work.   The
       program  was  not  very  modular  and had fseeks() and fwrites() every few lines.  After a
       tremendous rewrite from the top down, I got the first working version up by  1981.   There
       were  several annoying bugs concerning firing broadsides and finding angles.  Sail uses no
       floating point, by the way, so the direction routines are rather tricky.  Ed Wang  rewrote
       my  angle() routine in 1981 to be more correct (although it still doesn't work perfectly),
       and he added code to let a player select which ship he wanted at the  start  of  the  game
       (instead of the first one available).

       Captain  Happy  (Craig  Leres) is responsible for making Sail portable for the first time.
       This was no easy task, by the way.  Constants like 2 and 10  were  very  frequent  in  the
       code.   I  also  became famous for using "Riggle Memorial Structures" in Sail.  Many of my
       structure references are so long that they run off the line  printer  page.   Here  is  an
       example, if you promise not to laugh.

                      specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts

       Sail  received  its  fourth  and most thorough rewrite in the summer and fall of 1983.  Ed
       Wang rewrote and modularized the code (a monumental feat) almost from  scratch.   Although
       he  introduced  many  new bugs, the final result was very much cleaner and (?) faster.  He
       added window movement commands and find ship commands.

HISTORICAL INFO

       Old Square Riggers were very maneuverable ships capable of intricate sailing.  Their  only
       disadvantage was an inability to sail very close to the wind.  The design of a wooden ship
       allowed only for the guns to bear to the left and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect
       (usually 6 or 9 pounders) could point forward, but their effect was small compared to a 68
       gun broadside of 24 or 32 pounders.  The guns bear approximately like so:

              \
               b----------------
           ---0
               \
                \
                 \     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
                  \
                   \
                    \

       An interesting phenomenon occurred when a broadside was fired down the length of an  enemy
       ship.   The  shot tended to bounce along the deck and did several times more damage.  This
       phenomenon was called a rake.  Because the bows of a ship are very strong  and  present  a
       smaller target than the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the bow) causes more
       damage than a bow rake.

                               b
                              00   ----  Stern rake!
                                a

       Most ships were equipped with carronades, which were  very  large,  close  range  cannons.
       American  ships  from the revolution until the War of 1812 were almost entirely armed with
       carronades.

       The period of history covered in Sail is approximately from the 1770's until  the  end  of
       Napoleonic  France  in  1815.   There  are many excellent books about the age of sail.  My
       favorite author is Captain Frederick Marryat.   More  contemporary  authors  include  C.S.
       Forester and Alexander Kent.

       Fighting ships came in several sizes classed by armament.  The mainstays of any fleet were
       its "Ships of the Line", or "Line of Battle Ships".  They  were  so  named  because  these
       ships  fought  together  in  great  lines.  They were close enough for mutual support, yet
       every ship could fire both its broadsides.  We get the  modern  words  "ocean  liner,"  or
       "liner,"  and  "battleship"  from "ship of the line."  The most common size was the 74 gun
       two decked ship of the line.  The two gun decks usually mounted 18 and 24 pounder guns.

       The pride of the fleet were the first rates.  These were huge three decked  ships  of  the
       line  mounting  80  to  136 guns.  The guns in the three tiers were usually 18, 24, and 32
       pounders in that order from top to bottom.

       Various other ships came next.  They were almost all "razees," or ships of the  line  with
       one deck sawed off.  They mounted 40-64 guns and were a poor cross between a frigate and a
       line of battle ship.  They neither had the speed of the former nor the  firepower  of  the
       latter.

       Next  came the "eyes of the fleet."  Frigates came in many sizes mounting anywhere from 32
       to 44 guns.  They were very  handy  vessels.   They  could  outsail  anything  bigger  and
       outshoot  anything  smaller.   Frigates didn't fight in lines of battle as the much bigger
       74's did.  Instead, they harassed the enemy's rear or captured crippled ships.  They  were
       much  more useful in missions away from the fleet, such as cutting out expeditions or boat
       actions.  They could hit hard and get away fast.

       Lastly, there were the corvettes, sloops, and brigs.  These were  smaller  ships  mounting
       typically fewer than 20 guns.  A corvette was only slightly smaller than a frigate, so one
       might have up to 30 guns.  Sloops were used for carrying dispatches or passengers.   Brigs
       were something you built for land-locked lakes.

SAIL PARTICULARS

       Ships  in Sail are represented by two characters.  One character represents the bow of the
       ship, and the other represents the stern.  Ships  have  nationalities  and  numbers.   The
       first  ship  of a nationality is number 0, the second number 1, etc.  Therefore, the first
       British ship in a game would be printed as "b0".  The second Brit would be "b1",  and  the
       fifth Don would be "s4".

       Ships  can  set  normal  sails,  called  Battle Sails, or bend on extra canvas called Full
       Sails.  A ship under full sail is a beautiful sight indeed, and it can  move  much  faster
       than  a  ship  under  Battle Sails.  The only trouble is, with full sails set, there is so
       much tension on sail and rigging that a well aimed  round  shot  can  burst  a  sail  into
       ribbons where it would only cause a little hole in a loose sail.  For this reason, rigging
       damage is doubled on a ship with full sails set.  Don't let that discourage you from using
       full sails.  I like to keep them up right into the heat of battle.  A ship with full sails
       set has a capital letter for its nationality.  E.g., a Frog, "f0",  with  full  sails  set
       would be printed as "F0".

       When  a  ship  is  battered into a listing hulk, the last man aboard "strikes the colors."
       This ceremony is the ship's formal surrender.  The nationality character of a  surrendered
       ship is printed as "!".  E.g., the Frog of our last example would soon be "!0".

       A  ship  has  a  random  chance  of  catching fire or sinking when it reaches the stage of
       listing hulk.  A sinking ship has a "~" printed for its nationality, and a  ship  on  fire
       and about to explode has a "#" printed.

       Captured  ships  become the nationality of the prize crew.  Therefore, if an American ship
       captures a British ship, the British ship will have an "a" printed  for  its  nationality.
       In  addition,  the ship number is changed to "","'", "(", ,")", "*", or "+" depending upon
       the original number, be it 0,1,2,3,4, or 5.   E.g.,  the  "b0"  captured  by  an  American
       becomes the "a".  The "s4" captured by a Frog becomes the "f*".

       The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit captured by an American: "#".

MOVEMENT

       Movement is the most confusing part of Sail to many.  Ships can head in 8 directions:

                                        0      0      0
               b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
               0        0                                             0

       The  stern  of  a ship moves when it turns.  The bow remains stationary.  Ships can always
       turn, regardless of the wind (unless they are becalmed).  All ships drift when  they  lose
       headway.  If a ship doesn't move forward at all for two turns, it will begin to drift.  If
       a ship has begun to drift, then it must move forward before it turns, if it  plans  to  do
       more than make a right or left turn, which is always possible.

       Movement  commands  to  Sail are a string of forward moves and turns.  An example is "l3".
       It will turn a ship left and then move it ahead 3 spaces.  In the drawing above, the  "b0"
       made  7  successive  left  turns.   When  Sail  prompts  you  for  a move, it prints three
       characters of import.  E.g.,
            move (7, 4):
       The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make, including turns.  The second
       number  is  the  maximum  number  of turns you can make.  Between the numbers is sometimes
       printed a quote "'".  If the quote is present, it means that your ship has been  drifting,
       and  you  must move ahead to regain headway before you turn (see note above).  Some of the
       possible moves for the example above are as follows:

            move (7, 4): 7
            move (7, 4): 1
            move (7, 4): d      /* drift, or do nothing */
            move (7, 4): 6r
            move (7, 4): 5r1
            move (7, 4): 4r1r
            move (7, 4): l1r1r2
            move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

       Because square riggers performed so poorly sailing into the wind, if at  any  point  in  a
       movement command you turn into the wind, the movement stops there.  E.g.,

            move (7, 4): l1l4
            Movement Error;
            Helm: l1l

       Moreover, whenever you make a turn, your movement allowance drops to min(what's left, what
       you would have at the new attitude).  In short, if you turn closer to the wind,  you  most
       likely won't be able to sail the full allowance printed in the "move" prompt.

       Old  sailing  captains had to keep an eye constantly on the wind.  Captains in Sail are no
       different.  A ship's ability to move depends on its attitude to the wind.  The best  angle
       possible is to have the wind off your quarter, that is, just off the stern.  The direction
       rose on the side of the screen gives the possible movements for your ship at all positions
       to  the  wind.   Battle  sail  speeds  are  given first, and full sail speeds are given in
       parenthesis.

                            0 1(2)
                           \|/
                           -^-3(6)
                           /|\
                            | 4(7)
                           3(6)

       Pretend the bow of your ship (the "^") is pointing upward and the wind is blowing from the
       bottom  to the top of the page.  The numbers at the bottom "3(6)" will be your speed under
       battle or full sails in such a situation.  If the wind is off your quarter, then  you  can
       move "4(7)".  If the wind is off your beam, "3(6)".  If the wind is off your bow, then you
       can only move "1(2)".  Facing into the wind, you can't move at all.  Ships facing into the
       wind were said to be "in irons".

WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION

       The  windspeed  and  direction  is  displayed  as a little weather vane on the side of the
       screen.  The number in the middle of the vane indicates the wind speed, and  the  +  to  -
       indicates  the  wind  direction.   The wind blows from the + sign (high pressure) to the -
       sign (low pressure).  E.g.,

                           |
                           3
                           +

       The wind speeds are 0 = becalmed, 1 = light breeze, 2 = moderate breeze, 3 = fresh breeze,
       4  =  strong breeze, 5 = gale, 6 = full gale, 7 = hurricane.  If a hurricane shows up, all
       ships are destroyed.

GRAPPLING AND FOULING

       If two ships collide, they run the risk of becoming  tangled  together.   This  is  called
       "fouling."   Fouled  ships are stuck together, and neither can move.  They can unfoul each
       other if they want to.  Boarding parties can  only  be  sent  across  to  ships  when  the
       antagonists are either fouled or grappled.

       Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the rigging of the other.

       The number of fouls and grapples you have are displayed on the upper right of the screen.

BOARDING

       Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of human life.  Boarding parties may be formed
       in Sail to either board an enemy ship or to defend your  own  ship  against  attack.   Men
       organized as Defensive Boarding Parties fight twice as hard to save their ship as men left
       unorganized.

       The boarding strength of a crew depends upon its quality and upon the number of men sent.

CREW QUALITY

       The British seaman was world  renowned  for  his  sailing  abilities.   American  sailors,
       however,  were  actually  the best seamen in the world.  Because the American Navy offered
       twice the wages of the Royal Navy, British seamen who liked the sea defected to America by
       the thousands.

       In  Sail,  crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels.  "Elite" crews can outshoot and
       outfight all other sailors.  "Crack" crews are next.  "Mundane"  crews  are  average,  and
       "Green"  and  "Mutinous" crews are below average.  A good rule of thumb is that "Crack" or
       "Elite" crews get one extra hit per broadside compared to "Mundane" crews.   Don't  expect
       too much from "Green" crews.

BROADSIDES

       Your  two  broadsides  may  be  loaded  with  four kinds of shot: grape, chain, round, and
       double.  You  have  guns  and  carronades  in  both  the  port  and  starboard  batteries.
       Carronades  only have a range of two, so you have to get in close to be able to fire them.
       You have the choice of firing at the hull or rigging of another ship.  If the range of the
       ship is greater than 6, then you may only shoot at the rigging.

       The types of shot and their advantages are:

ROUND

       Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.

DOUBLE

       Range of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging hits.  Double takes two turns to load.

CHAIN

       Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.  Cannot damage hull or guns, though.

GRAPE

       Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

       On the side of the screen is displayed some vital information about your ship:

                      Load  D! R!
                      Hull  9
                      Crew  4  4  2
                      Guns  4  4
                      Carr  2  2
                      Rigg  5 5 5 5

       "Load"  shows  what  your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are loaded with.  A
       "!" after the type of shot indicates that it is an initial broadside.   Initial  broadside
       were  loaded  with  care  before  battle  and  before  the decks ran red with blood.  As a
       consequence, initial broadsides are a little more effective than broadsides loaded  later.
       A  "*"  after  the type of shot indicates that the gun crews are still loading it, and you
       cannot fire yet.  "Hull" shows how much hull you  have  left.   "Crew"  shows  your  three
       sections  of  crew.   As  your  crew dies off, your ability to fire decreases.  "Guns" and
       "Carr" show your port and starboard  guns.   As  you  lose  guns,  your  ability  to  fire
       decreases.   "Rigg"  shows  how much rigging you have on your 3 or 4 masts.  As rigging is
       shot away, you lose mobility.

EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE

       It is very dramatic when a ship fires its thunderous broadsides, but the mere  opportunity
       to fire them does not guarantee any hits.  Many factors influence the destructive force of
       a broadside.  First of all, and the chief factor, is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship
       at  range  ten than it is to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next is raking.  Raking fire, as
       mentioned before, can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten.  Next, crew size and  quality
       affects  the  damage  done  by  a  broadside.  The number of guns firing also bears on the
       point, so to speak.  Lastly, weather affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the seas are
       high  (5  or  6), then the lower gunports of ships of the line can't even be opened to run
       out the guns.  This gives frigates and other flush decked vessels an advantage in a storm.
       The  scenario  Pellew  vs.  The  Droits  de  L'Homme  takes  advantage  of  this  peculiar
       circumstance.

REPAIRS

       Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate  of  two  points  per
       three  turns.   The  message "Repairs Completed" will be printed if no more repairs can be
       made.

PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS

       Computer ships in Sail follow all the rules above with a few exceptions.   Computer  ships
       never  repair  damage.   If  they  did, the players could never beat them.  They play well
       enough as it is.  As a consolation, the computer ships can fire double  shot  every  turn.
       That  fluke  is  a good reason to keep your distance.  The Driver figures out the moves of
       the computer ships.  It computes them with a typical A.I. distance function  and  a  depth
       first  search to find the maximum "score."  It seems to work fairly well, although I'll be
       the first to admit it isn't perfect.

HOW TO PLAY

       Commands are given to Sail by typing a single character.  You will then  be  prompted  for
       further input.  A brief summary of the commands follows.

COMMAND SUMMARY

           'f'  Fire broadsides if they bear
           'l'  Reload
           'L'  Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
           'm'  Move
           'i'  Print the closest ship
           'I'  Print all ships
           'F'  Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
           's'  Send a message around the fleet
           'b'  Attempt to board an enemy ship
           'B'  Recall boarding parties
           'c'  Change set of sail
           'r'  Repair
           'u'  Attempt to unfoul
           'g'  Grapple/ungrapple
           'v'  Print version number of game
          '^L'  Redraw screen
           'Q'  Quit

           'C'      Center your ship in the window
           'U'        Move window up
           'D','N'  Move window down
           'H'        Move window left
           'J'        Move window right
           'S'      Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is

SCENARIOS

       Here is a summary of the scenarios in Sail:

Ranger vs. Drake:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Ranger            19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Drake             17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

The Battle of Flamborough Head:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This is John Paul Jones' first famous battle.  Aboard the Bonhomme Richard, he was able to
       overcome the Serapis's greater firepower by quickly boarding her.

       (a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Serapis           44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

Arbuthnot and Des Touches:

       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) America           64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Befford           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Adamant           50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) London            98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Royal Oak         74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Neptune           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Conquerant        74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Provence          64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Romulus           44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

Suffren and Hughes:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Monmouth          74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Hero              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Isis              50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Superb            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Burford           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Flamband          50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Annibal           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Severe            64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Brilliant         80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (f) Sphinx            80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Nymphe            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (f) Cleopatre         36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

Mars vs. Hercule:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
       (b) Mars              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Hercule           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Ambuscade         32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Baionnaise        24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

Constellation vs. Insurgent:

       Wind from the S, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Insurgent         36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

Constellation vs. Vengeance:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Vengeance         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

The Battle of Lissa:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Amphion           32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (b) Active            38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
       (b) Volage            22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
       (b) Cerberus          32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (f) Favorite          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Flore             40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (f) Danae             40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (f) Bellona           32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Corona            40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
       (f) Carolina          32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

Constitution vs. Guerriere:

       Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Guerriere         38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

United States vs. Macedonian:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Macedonian        38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

Constitution vs. Java:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Java              38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)

Chesapeake vs. Shannon:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Chesapeake        38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Shannon           38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

The Battle of Lake Erie:

       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Lawrence          20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Niagara           20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Lady Prevost      13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
       (b) Detroit           19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
       (b) Q. Charlotte      17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)

Wasp vs. Reindeer:

       Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

       (a) Wasp              20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
       (b) Reindeer          18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)

Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:

       Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts) (b) Cyane              24  gun
       Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts) (b) Levant            20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (10 pts)

Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:

       Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

       (b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Amazon            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (f) Droits L'Hom      74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Algeciras:

       Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (b) Caesar            80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (b) Pompee            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Spencer           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (b) Hannibal          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (s) Real-Carlos       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (s) San Fernando      96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (s) Argonauta         80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
       (s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
       (f) Indomptable       80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Desaix            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

Lake Champlain:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Saratoga          26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
       (a) Eagle             20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
       (a) Ticonderoga       17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
       (a) Preble            7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
       (b) Confiance         37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
       (b) Linnet            16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
       (b) Chubb             11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

Last Voyage of the USS President:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) President         44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (b) Endymion          40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Pomone            44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
       (b) Tenedos           38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

Hornblower and the Natividad:

       Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

       A  scenario  for  you  Horny fans.  Remember, he sank the Natividad against heavy odds and
       winds.  Hint: don't try to board the Natividad, her crew is much bigger, albeit green.

       (b) Lydia             36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
       (s) Natividad         50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)

Curse of the Flying Dutchman:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

       (s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)

The South Pacific:

       Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) USS Scurvy        136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (b) HMS Tahiti        120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Australian        32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
       (f) Bikini Atoll      7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:

       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       The only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one ship and stern rake  the
       others though.  See if you can do as well.

       (b) Sutherland        74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
       (f) Turenne           80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Nightmare         74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Paris             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Napoleon          74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)

Cape Horn:

       Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

       (a) Concord           80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Berkeley          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
       (b) Thames            120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (s) Madrid            112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (f) Musket            80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)

New Orleans:

       Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

       Watch that little Cypress go!

       (a) Alligator         120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (b) Firefly           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
       (b) Cypress           44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

Botany Bay:

       Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (b) Shark             64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
       (f) Coral Snake       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
       (f) Sea Lion          44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:

       Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

       This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

       (a) Seaview           120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
       (a) Flying Sub        40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
       (b) Mermaid           136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
       (s) Giant Squid       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)

Frigate Action:

       Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Killdeer          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (b) Sandpiper         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
       (s) Curlew            38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

The Battle of Midway:

       Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

       (a) Enterprise        80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
       (a) Yorktown          80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
       (a) Hornet            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Akagi             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
       (j) Kaga              96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
       (j) Soryu             80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)

Star Trek:

       Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

       (a) Enterprise        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Yorktown          450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Reliant           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (a) Galileo           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (k) Klingon II        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Red Orion         450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
       (o) Blue Orion        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

CONCLUSION

       Sail has been a group effort.

AUTHOR

       Dave Riggle

CO-AUTHOR

       Ed Wang

REFITTING

       Craig Leres

CONSULTANTS

       Chris Guthrie
       Captain Happy
       Horatio Nelson
            and many valiant others...

REFERENCES

       Wooden Ships  Iron Men, by Avalon Hill
       Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them) by C.S. Forester
       Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them) by Alexander Kent
       The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20) especially
             Mr. Midshipman Easy
             Peter Simple
             Jacob Faithful
             Japhet in Search of a Father
             Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
             Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

BUGS

       Probably   a   few,   and   please   report   them   to   "riggle@ernie.berkeley.edu"  and
       "edward@ucbarpa.berkeley.edu"