Provided by: postgresql-client-9.1_9.1.3-2_amd64 bug


       CREATE_AGGREGATE - define a new aggregate function


       CREATE AGGREGATE name ( input_data_type [ , ... ] ) (
           SFUNC = sfunc,
           STYPE = state_data_type
           [ , FINALFUNC = ffunc ]
           [ , INITCOND = initial_condition ]
           [ , SORTOP = sort_operator ]

       or the old syntax

       CREATE AGGREGATE name (
           BASETYPE = base_type,
           SFUNC = sfunc,
           STYPE = state_data_type
           [ , FINALFUNC = ffunc ]
           [ , INITCOND = initial_condition ]
           [ , SORTOP = sort_operator ]


       CREATE AGGREGATE defines a new aggregate function. Some basic and commonly-used aggregate
       functions are included with the distribution; they are documented in Section 9.18,
       “Aggregate Functions”, in the documentation. If one defines new types or needs an
       aggregate function not already provided, then CREATE AGGREGATE can be used to provide the
       desired features.

       If a schema name is given (for example, CREATE AGGREGATE myschema.myagg ...) then the
       aggregate function is created in the specified schema. Otherwise it is created in the
       current schema.

       An aggregate function is identified by its name and input data type(s). Two aggregates in
       the same schema can have the same name if they operate on different input types. The name
       and input data type(s) of an aggregate must also be distinct from the name and input data
       type(s) of every ordinary function in the same schema.

       An aggregate function is made from one or two ordinary functions: a state transition
       function sfunc, and an optional final calculation function ffunc. These are used as

           sfunc( internal-state, next-data-values ) ---> next-internal-state
           ffunc( internal-state ) ---> aggregate-value

       PostgreSQL creates a temporary variable of data type stype to hold the current internal
       state of the aggregate. At each input row, the aggregate argument value(s) are calculated
       and the state transition function is invoked with the current state value and the new
       argument value(s) to calculate a new internal state value. After all the rows have been
       processed, the final function is invoked once to calculate the aggregate's return value.
       If there is no final function then the ending state value is returned as-is.

       An aggregate function can provide an initial condition, that is, an initial value for the
       internal state value. This is specified and stored in the database as a value of type
       text, but it must be a valid external representation of a constant of the state value data
       type. If it is not supplied then the state value starts out null.

       If the state transition function is declared “strict”, then it cannot be called with null
       inputs. With such a transition function, aggregate execution behaves as follows. Rows with
       any null input values are ignored (the function is not called and the previous state value
       is retained). If the initial state value is null, then at the first row with all-nonnull
       input values, the first argument value replaces the state value, and the transition
       function is invoked at subsequent rows with all-nonnull input values. This is handy for
       implementing aggregates like max. Note that this behavior is only available when
       state_data_type is the same as the first input_data_type. When these types are different,
       you must supply a nonnull initial condition or use a nonstrict transition function.

       If the state transition function is not strict, then it will be called unconditionally at
       each input row, and must deal with null inputs and null transition values for itself. This
       allows the aggregate author to have full control over the aggregate's handling of null

       If the final function is declared “strict”, then it will not be called when the ending
       state value is null; instead a null result will be returned automatically. (Of course this
       is just the normal behavior of strict functions.) In any case the final function has the
       option of returning a null value. For example, the final function for avg returns null
       when it sees there were zero input rows.

       Aggregates that behave like MIN or MAX can sometimes be optimized by looking into an index
       instead of scanning every input row. If this aggregate can be so optimized, indicate it by
       specifying a sort operator. The basic requirement is that the aggregate must yield the
       first element in the sort ordering induced by the operator; in other words:

           SELECT agg(col) FROM tab;

       must be equivalent to:

           SELECT col FROM tab ORDER BY col USING sortop LIMIT 1;

       Further assumptions are that the aggregate ignores null inputs, and that it delivers a
       null result if and only if there were no non-null inputs. Ordinarily, a data type's <
       operator is the proper sort operator for MIN, and > is the proper sort operator for MAX.
       Note that the optimization will never actually take effect unless the specified operator
       is the “less than” or “greater than” strategy member of a B-tree index operator class.


           The name (optionally schema-qualified) of the aggregate function to create.

           An input data type on which this aggregate function operates. To create a
           zero-argument aggregate function, write * in place of the list of input data types.
           (An example of such an aggregate is count(*).)

           In the old syntax for CREATE AGGREGATE, the input data type is specified by a basetype
           parameter rather than being written next to the aggregate name. Note that this syntax
           allows only one input parameter. To define a zero-argument aggregate function, specify
           the basetype as "ANY" (not *).

           The name of the state transition function to be called for each input row. For an
           N-argument aggregate function, the sfunc must take N+1 arguments, the first being of
           type state_data_type and the rest matching the declared input data type(s) of the
           aggregate. The function must return a value of type state_data_type. This function
           takes the current state value and the current input data value(s), and returns the
           next state value.

           The data type for the aggregate's state value.

           The name of the final function called to compute the aggregate's result after all
           input rows have been traversed. The function must take a single argument of type
           state_data_type. The return data type of the aggregate is defined as the return type
           of this function. If ffunc is not specified, then the ending state value is used as
           the aggregate's result, and the return type is state_data_type.

           The initial setting for the state value. This must be a string constant in the form
           accepted for the data type state_data_type. If not specified, the state value starts
           out null.

           The associated sort operator for a MIN- or MAX-like aggregate. This is just an
           operator name (possibly schema-qualified). The operator is assumed to have the same
           input data types as the aggregate (which must be a single-argument aggregate).

       The parameters of CREATE AGGREGATE can be written in any order, not just the order
       illustrated above.


       See Section 35.10, “User-defined Aggregates”, in the documentation.


       CREATE AGGREGATE is a PostgreSQL language extension. The SQL standard does not provide for
       user-defined aggregate functions.