Provided by: postgresql-client-9.1_9.1.3-2_i386 bug


       CREATE_LANGUAGE - define a new procedural language


           HANDLER call_handler [ INLINE inline_handler ] [ VALIDATOR valfunction ]


       CREATE LANGUAGE registers a new procedural language with a PostgreSQL
       database. Subsequently, functions and trigger procedures can be defined
       in this new language.

           As of PostgreSQL 9.1, most procedural languages have been made into
           “extensions”, and should therefore be installed with CREATE
           CREATE LANGUAGE should now be confined to extension installation
           scripts. If you have a “bare” language in your database, perhaps as
           a result of an upgrade, you can convert it to an extension using
           CREATE EXTENSION langname FROM unpackaged.

       CREATE LANGUAGE effectively associates the language name with handler
       function(s) that are responsible for executing functions written in the
       language. Refer to Chapter 49, Writing A Procedural Language Handler,
       in the documentation for more information about language handlers.

       There are two forms of the CREATE LANGUAGE command. In the first form,
       the user supplies just the name of the desired language, and the
       PostgreSQL server consults the pg_pltemplate system catalog to
       determine the correct parameters. In the second form, the user supplies
       the language parameters along with the language name. The second form
       can be used to create a language that is not defined in pg_pltemplate,
       but this approach is considered obsolescent.

       When the server finds an entry in the pg_pltemplate catalog for the
       given language name, it will use the catalog data even if the command
       includes language parameters. This behavior simplifies loading of old
       dump files, which are likely to contain out-of-date information about
       language support functions.

       Ordinarily, the user must have the PostgreSQL superuser privilege to
       register a new language. However, the owner of a database can register
       a new language within that database if the language is listed in the
       pg_pltemplate catalog and is marked as allowed to be created by
       database owners (tmpldbacreate is true). The default is that trusted
       languages can be created by database owners, but this can be adjusted
       by superusers by modifying the contents of pg_pltemplate. The creator
       of a language becomes its owner and can later drop it, rename it, or
       assign it to a new owner.

       CREATE OR REPLACE LANGUAGE will either create a new language, or
       replace an existing definition. If the language already exists, its
       parameters are updated according to the values specified or taken from
       pg_pltemplate, but the language's ownership and permissions settings do
       not change, and any existing functions written in the language are
       assumed to still be valid. In addition to the normal privilege
       requirements for creating a language, the user must be superuser or
       owner of the existing language. The REPLACE case is mainly meant to be
       used to ensure that the language exists. If the language has a
       pg_pltemplate entry then REPLACE will not actually change anything
       about an existing definition, except in the unusual case where the
       pg_pltemplate entry has been modified since the language was created.


           TRUSTED specifies that the language does not grant access to data
           that the user would not otherwise have. If this key word is omitted
           when registering the language, only users with the PostgreSQL
           superuser privilege can use this language to create new functions.

           This is a noise word.

           The name of the new procedural language. The language name is case
           insensitive. The name must be unique among the languages in the

           For backward compatibility, the name can be enclosed by single

       HANDLER call_handler
           call_handler is the name of a previously registered function that
           will be called to execute the procedural language's functions. The
           call handler for a procedural language must be written in a
           compiled language such as C with version 1 call convention and
           registered with PostgreSQL as a function taking no arguments and
           returning the language_handler type, a placeholder type that is
           simply used to identify the function as a call handler.

       INLINE inline_handler
           inline_handler is the name of a previously registered function that
           will be called to execute an anonymous code block (DO(7) command)
           in this language. If no inline_handler function is specified, the
           language does not support anonymous code blocks. The handler
           function must take one argument of type internal, which will be the
           DO command's internal representation, and it will typically return
           void. The return value of the handler is ignored.

       VALIDATOR valfunction
           valfunction is the name of a previously registered function that
           will be called when a new function in the language is created, to
           validate the new function. If no validator function is specified,
           then a new function will not be checked when it is created. The
           validator function must take one argument of type oid, which will
           be the OID of the to-be-created function, and will typically return

           A validator function would typically inspect the function body for
           syntactical correctness, but it can also look at other properties
           of the function, for example if the language cannot handle certain
           argument types. To signal an error, the validator function should
           use the ereport() function. The return value of the function is

       The TRUSTED option and the support function name(s) are ignored if the
       server has an entry for the specified language name in pg_pltemplate.


       The createlang(1) program is a simple wrapper around the CREATE
       LANGUAGE command. It eases installation of procedural languages from
       the shell command line.

       Use DROP LANGUAGE (DROP_LANGUAGE(7)), or better yet the droplang(1)
       program, to drop procedural languages.

       The system catalog pg_language (see Section 45.27, “pg_language”, in
       the documentation) records information about the currently installed
       languages. Also, createlang has an option to list the installed

       To create functions in a procedural language, a user must have the
       USAGE privilege for the language. By default, USAGE is granted to
       PUBLIC (i.e., everyone) for trusted languages. This can be revoked if

       Procedural languages are local to individual databases. However, a
       language can be installed into the template1 database, which will cause
       it to be available automatically in all subsequently-created databases.

       The call handler function, the inline handler function (if any), and
       the validator function (if any) must already exist if the server does
       not have an entry for the language in pg_pltemplate. But when there is
       an entry, the functions need not already exist; they will be
       automatically defined if not present in the database. (This might
       result in CREATE LANGUAGE failing, if the shared library that
       implements the language is not available in the installation.)

       In PostgreSQL versions before 7.3, it was necessary to declare handler
       functions as returning the placeholder type opaque, rather than
       language_handler. To support loading of old dump files, CREATE LANGUAGE
       will accept a function declared as returning opaque, but it will issue
       a notice and change the function's declared return type to


       The preferred way of creating any of the standard procedural languages
       is just:

           CREATE LANGUAGE plperl;

       For a language not known in the pg_pltemplate catalog, a sequence such
       as this is needed:

           CREATE FUNCTION plsample_call_handler() RETURNS language_handler
               AS '$libdir/plsample'
               LANGUAGE C;
           CREATE LANGUAGE plsample
               HANDLER plsample_call_handler;


       CREATE LANGUAGE is a PostgreSQL extension.


       REVOKE(7), createlang(1), droplang(1)