Provided by: postgresql-client-9.1_9.1.3-2_i386 bug

NAME

       GRANT - define access privileges

SYNOPSIS

       GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | TRUNCATE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }
           [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON { [ TABLE ] table_name [, ...]
                | ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA schema_name [, ...] }
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | REFERENCES } ( column [, ...] )
           [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] ( column [, ...] ) }
           ON [ TABLE ] table_name [, ...]
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { { USAGE | SELECT | UPDATE }
           [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON { SEQUENCE sequence_name [, ...]
                | ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA schema_name [, ...] }
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { { CREATE | CONNECT | TEMPORARY | TEMP } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON DATABASE database_name [, ...]
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER fdw_name [, ...]
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON FOREIGN SERVER server_name [, ...]
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { EXECUTE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON { FUNCTION function_name ( [ [ argmode ] [ arg_name ] arg_type [, ...] ] ) [, ...]
                | ALL FUNCTIONS IN SCHEMA schema_name [, ...] }
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON LANGUAGE lang_name [, ...]
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { { SELECT | UPDATE } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON LARGE OBJECT loid [, ...]
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { { CREATE | USAGE } [, ...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON SCHEMA schema_name [, ...]
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT { CREATE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
           ON TABLESPACE tablespace_name [, ...]
           TO { [ GROUP ] role_name | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

       GRANT role_name [, ...] TO role_name [, ...] [ WITH ADMIN OPTION ]

DESCRIPTION

       The GRANT command has two basic variants: one that grants privileges on
       a database object (table, column, view, foreign table, sequence,
       database, foreign-data wrapper, foreign server, function, procedural
       language, schema, or tablespace), and one that grants membership in a
       role. These variants are similar in many ways, but they are different
       enough to be described separately.

   GRANT on Database Objects
       This variant of the GRANT command gives specific privileges on a
       database object to one or more roles. These privileges are added to
       those already granted, if any.

       There is also an option to grant privileges on all objects of the same
       type within one or more schemas. This functionality is currently
       supported only for tables, sequences, and functions (but note that ALL
       TABLES is considered to include views and foreign tables).

       The key word PUBLIC indicates that the privileges are to be granted to
       all roles, including those that might be created later.  PUBLIC can be
       thought of as an implicitly defined group that always includes all
       roles. Any particular role will have the sum of privileges granted
       directly to it, privileges granted to any role it is presently a member
       of, and privileges granted to PUBLIC.

       If WITH GRANT OPTION is specified, the recipient of the privilege can
       in turn grant it to others. Without a grant option, the recipient
       cannot do that. Grant options cannot be granted to PUBLIC.

       There is no need to grant privileges to the owner of an object (usually
       the user that created it), as the owner has all privileges by default.
       (The owner could, however, choose to revoke some of his own privileges
       for safety.)

       The right to drop an object, or to alter its definition in any way, is
       not treated as a grantable privilege; it is inherent in the owner, and
       cannot be granted or revoked. (However, a similar effect can be
       obtained by granting or revoking membership in the role that owns the
       object; see below.) The owner implicitly has all grant options for the
       object, too.

       Depending on the type of object, the initial default privileges might
       include granting some privileges to PUBLIC. The default is no public
       access for tables, columns, schemas, and tablespaces; CONNECT privilege
       and TEMP table creation privilege for databases; EXECUTE privilege for
       functions; and USAGE privilege for languages. The object owner can of
       course revoke these privileges. (For maximum security, issue the REVOKE
       in the same transaction that creates the object; then there is no
       window in which another user can use the object.) Also, these initial
       default privilege settings can be changed using the ALTER DEFAULT
       PRIVILEGES (ALTER_DEFAULT_PRIVILEGES(7)) command.

       The possible privileges are:

       SELECT
           Allows SELECT(7) from any column, or the specific columns listed,
           of the specified table, view, or sequence. Also allows the use of
           COPY(7) TO. This privilege is also needed to reference existing
           column values in UPDATE(7) or DELETE(7). For sequences, this
           privilege also allows the use of the currval function. For large
           objects, this privilege allows the object to be read.

       INSERT
           Allows INSERT(7) of a new row into the specified table. If specific
           columns are listed, only those columns may be assigned to in the
           INSERT command (other columns will therefore receive default
           values). Also allows COPY(7) FROM.

       UPDATE
           Allows UPDATE(7) of any column, or the specific columns listed, of
           the specified table. (In practice, any nontrivial UPDATE command
           will require SELECT privilege as well, since it must reference
           table columns to determine which rows to update, and/or to compute
           new values for columns.)  SELECT ... FOR UPDATE and SELECT ... FOR
           SHARE also require this privilege on at least one column, in
           addition to the SELECT privilege. For sequences, this privilege
           allows the use of the nextval and setval functions. For large
           objects, this privilege allows writing or truncating the object.

       DELETE
           Allows DELETE(7) of a row from the specified table. (In practice,
           any nontrivial DELETE command will require SELECT privilege as
           well, since it must reference table columns to determine which rows
           to delete.)

       TRUNCATE
           Allows TRUNCATE(7) on the specified table.

       REFERENCES
           To create a foreign key constraint, it is necessary to have this
           privilege on both the referencing and referenced columns. The
           privilege may be granted for all columns of a table, or just
           specific columns.

       TRIGGER
           Allows the creation of a trigger on the specified table. (See the
           CREATE TRIGGER (CREATE_TRIGGER(7)) statement.)

       CREATE
           For databases, allows new schemas to be created within the
           database.

           For schemas, allows new objects to be created within the schema. To
           rename an existing object, you must own the object and have this
           privilege for the containing schema.

           For tablespaces, allows tables, indexes, and temporary files to be
           created within the tablespace, and allows databases to be created
           that have the tablespace as their default tablespace. (Note that
           revoking this privilege will not alter the placement of existing
           objects.)

       CONNECT
           Allows the user to connect to the specified database. This
           privilege is checked at connection startup (in addition to checking
           any restrictions imposed by pg_hba.conf).

       TEMPORARY, TEMP
           Allows temporary tables to be created while using the specified
           database.

       EXECUTE
           Allows the use of the specified function and the use of any
           operators that are implemented on top of the function. This is the
           only type of privilege that is applicable to functions. (This
           syntax works for aggregate functions, as well.)

       USAGE
           For procedural languages, allows the use of the specified language
           for the creation of functions in that language. This is the only
           type of privilege that is applicable to procedural languages.

           For schemas, allows access to objects contained in the specified
           schema (assuming that the objects' own privilege requirements are
           also met). Essentially this allows the grantee to "look up" objects
           within the schema. Without this permission, it is still possible to
           see the object names, e.g. by querying the system tables. Also,
           after revoking this permission, existing backends might have
           statements that have previously performed this lookup, so this is
           not a completely secure way to prevent object access.

           For sequences, this privilege allows the use of the currval and
           nextval functions.

           For foreign-data wrappers, this privilege enables the grantee to
           create new servers using that foreign-data wrapper.

           For servers, this privilege enables the grantee to create, alter,
           and drop his own user's user mappings associated with that server.
           Also, it enables the grantee to query the options of the server and
           associated user mappings.

       ALL PRIVILEGES
           Grant all of the available privileges at once. The PRIVILEGES key
           word is optional in PostgreSQL, though it is required by strict
           SQL.
       The privileges required by other commands are listed on the reference
       page of the respective command.

   GRANT on Roles
       This variant of the GRANT command grants membership in a role to one or
       more other roles. Membership in a role is significant because it
       conveys the privileges granted to a role to each of its members.

       If WITH ADMIN OPTION is specified, the member can in turn grant
       membership in the role to others, and revoke membership in the role as
       well. Without the admin option, ordinary users cannot do that. However,
       database superusers can grant or revoke membership in any role to
       anyone. Roles having CREATEROLE privilege can grant or revoke
       membership in any role that is not a superuser.

       Unlike the case with privileges, membership in a role cannot be granted
       to PUBLIC. Note also that this form of the command does not allow the
       noise word GROUP.

NOTES

       The REVOKE(7) command is used to revoke access privileges.

       Since PostgreSQL 8.1, the concepts of users and groups have been
       unified into a single kind of entity called a role. It is therefore no
       longer necessary to use the keyword GROUP to identify whether a grantee
       is a user or a group.  GROUP is still allowed in the command, but it is
       a noise word.

       A user may perform SELECT, INSERT, etc. on a column if he holds that
       privilege for either the specific column or its whole table. Granting
       the privilege at the table level and then revoking it for one column
       will not do what you might wish: the table-level grant is unaffected by
       a column-level operation.

       When a non-owner of an object attempts to GRANT privileges on the
       object, the command will fail outright if the user has no privileges
       whatsoever on the object. As long as some privilege is available, the
       command will proceed, but it will grant only those privileges for which
       the user has grant options. The GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES forms will issue a
       warning message if no grant options are held, while the other forms
       will issue a warning if grant options for any of the privileges
       specifically named in the command are not held. (In principle these
       statements apply to the object owner as well, but since the owner is
       always treated as holding all grant options, the cases can never
       occur.)

       It should be noted that database superusers can access all objects
       regardless of object privilege settings. This is comparable to the
       rights of root in a Unix system. As with root, it's unwise to operate
       as a superuser except when absolutely necessary.

       If a superuser chooses to issue a GRANT or REVOKE command, the command
       is performed as though it were issued by the owner of the affected
       object. In particular, privileges granted via such a command will
       appear to have been granted by the object owner. (For role membership,
       the membership appears to have been granted by the containing role
       itself.)

       GRANT and REVOKE can also be done by a role that is not the owner of
       the affected object, but is a member of the role that owns the object,
       or is a member of a role that holds privileges WITH GRANT OPTION on the
       object. In this case the privileges will be recorded as having been
       granted by the role that actually owns the object or holds the
       privileges WITH GRANT OPTION. For example, if table t1 is owned by role
       g1, of which role u1 is a member, then u1 can grant privileges on t1 to
       u2, but those privileges will appear to have been granted directly by
       g1. Any other member of role g1 could revoke them later.

       If the role executing GRANT holds the required privileges indirectly
       via more than one role membership path, it is unspecified which
       containing role will be recorded as having done the grant. In such
       cases it is best practice to use SET ROLE to become the specific role
       you want to do the GRANT as.

       Granting permission on a table does not automatically extend
       permissions to any sequences used by the table, including sequences
       tied to SERIAL columns. Permissions on sequences must be set
       separately.

       Use psql(1)'s \dp command to obtain information about existing
       privileges for tables and columns. For example:

           => \dp mytable
                                         Access privileges
            Schema |  Name   | Type  |   Access privileges   | Column access privileges
           --------+---------+-------+-----------------------+--------------------------
            public | mytable | table | miriam=arwdDxt/miriam | col1:
                                     : =r/miriam             :   miriam_rw=rw/miriam
                                     : admin=arw/miriam
           (1 row)

       The entries shown by \dp are interpreted thus:

           rolename=xxxx -- privileges granted to a role
                   =xxxx -- privileges granted to PUBLIC

                       r -- SELECT ("read")
                       w -- UPDATE ("write")
                       a -- INSERT ("append")
                       d -- DELETE
                       D -- TRUNCATE
                       x -- REFERENCES
                       t -- TRIGGER
                       X -- EXECUTE
                       U -- USAGE
                       C -- CREATE
                       c -- CONNECT
                       T -- TEMPORARY
                 arwdDxt -- ALL PRIVILEGES (for tables, varies for other objects)
                       * -- grant option for preceding privilege

                   /yyyy -- role that granted this privilege

       The above example display would be seen by user miriam after creating
       table mytable and doing:

           GRANT SELECT ON mytable TO PUBLIC;
           GRANT SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT ON mytable TO admin;
           GRANT SELECT (col1), UPDATE (col1) ON mytable TO miriam_rw;

       For non-table objects there are other \d commands that can display
       their privileges.

       If the "Access privileges" column is empty for a given object, it means
       the object has default privileges (that is, its privileges column is
       null). Default privileges always include all privileges for the owner,
       and can include some privileges for PUBLIC depending on the object
       type, as explained above. The first GRANT or REVOKE on an object will
       instantiate the default privileges (producing, for example,
       {miriam=arwdDxt/miriam}) and then modify them per the specified
       request. Similarly, entries are shown in "Column access privileges"
       only for columns with nondefault privileges. (Note: for this purpose,
       "default privileges" always means the built-in default privileges for
       the object's type. An object whose privileges have been affected by an
       ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES command will always be shown with an explicit
       privilege entry that includes the effects of the ALTER.)

       Notice that the owner's implicit grant options are not marked in the
       access privileges display. A * will appear only when grant options have
       been explicitly granted to someone.

EXAMPLES

       Grant insert privilege to all users on table films:

           GRANT INSERT ON films TO PUBLIC;

       Grant all available privileges to user manuel on view kinds:

           GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON kinds TO manuel;

       Note that while the above will indeed grant all privileges if executed
       by a superuser or the owner of kinds, when executed by someone else it
       will only grant those permissions for which the someone else has grant
       options.

       Grant membership in role admins to user joe:

           GRANT admins TO joe;

COMPATIBILITY

       According to the SQL standard, the PRIVILEGES key word in ALL
       PRIVILEGES is required. The SQL standard does not support setting the
       privileges on more than one object per command.

       PostgreSQL allows an object owner to revoke his own ordinary
       privileges: for example, a table owner can make the table read-only to
       himself by revoking his own INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and TRUNCATE
       privileges. This is not possible according to the SQL standard. The
       reason is that PostgreSQL treats the owner's privileges as having been
       granted by the owner to himself; therefore he can revoke them too. In
       the SQL standard, the owner's privileges are granted by an assumed
       entity "_SYSTEM". Not being "_SYSTEM", the owner cannot revoke these
       rights.

       The SQL standard provides for a USAGE privilege on other kinds of
       objects: character sets, collations, translations, domains.

       Privileges on databases, tablespaces, schemas, and languages are
       PostgreSQL extensions.

SEE ALSO

       REVOKE(7), ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES (ALTER_DEFAULT_PRIVILEGES(7))