Provided by: debhelper_9.20120115ubuntu3_all bug

NAME

       debhelper - the debhelper tool suite

SYNOPSIS

       dh_* [-v] [-a] [-i] [-s] [--no-act] [-ppackage] [-Npackage] [-Ptmpdir]

DESCRIPTION

       Debhelper is used to help you build a Debian package. The philosophy behind debhelper is
       to provide a collection of small, simple, and easily understood tools that are used in
       debian/rules to automate various common aspects of building a package. This means less
       work for you, the packager.  It also, to some degree means that these tools can be changed
       if Debian policy changes, and packages that use them will require only a rebuild to comply
       with the new policy.

       A typical debian/rules file that uses debhelper will call several debhelper commands in
       sequence, or use dh(1) to automate this process. Examples of rules files that use
       debhelper are in /usr/share/doc/debhelper/examples/

       To create a new Debian package using debhelper, you can just copy one of the sample rules
       files and edit it by hand. Or you can try the dh-make package, which contains a dh_make
       command that partially automates the process. For a more gentle introduction, the maint-
       guide Debian package contains a tutorial about making your first package using debhelper.

DEBHELPER COMMANDS

       Here is the list of debhelper commands you can use. See their man pages for additional
       documentation.

       dh_auto_build(1)
           automatically builds a package

       dh_auto_clean(1)
           automatically cleans up after a build

       dh_auto_configure(1)
           automatically configure a package prior to building

       dh_auto_install(1)
           automatically runs make install or similar

       dh_auto_test(1)
           automatically runs a package's test suites

       dh_bugfiles(1)
           install bug reporting customization files into package build directories

       dh_builddeb(1)
           build Debian binary packages

       dh_clean(1)
           clean up package build directories

       dh_compress(1)
           compress files and fix symlinks in package build directories

       dh_fixperms(1)
           fix permissions of files in package build directories

       dh_gconf(1)
           install GConf defaults files and register schemas

       dh_gencontrol(1)
           generate and install control file

       dh_icons(1)
           Update Freedesktop icon caches

       dh_install(1)
           install files into package build directories

       dh_installcatalogs(1)
           install and register SGML Catalogs

       dh_installchangelogs(1)
           install changelogs into package build directories

       dh_installcron(1)
           install cron scripts into etc/cron.*

       dh_installdeb(1)
           install files into the DEBIAN directory

       dh_installdebconf(1)
           install files used by debconf in package build directories

       dh_installdirs(1)
           create subdirectories in package build directories

       dh_installdocs(1)
           install documentation into package build directories

       dh_installemacsen(1)
           register an Emacs add on package

       dh_installexamples(1)
           install example files into package build directories

       dh_installgsettings(1)
           install GSettings overrides and set dependencies

       dh_installifupdown(1)
           install if-up and if-down hooks

       dh_installinfo(1)
           install info files

       dh_installinit(1)
           install upstart jobs or init scripts into package build directories

       dh_installlogcheck(1)
           install logcheck rulefiles into etc/logcheck/

       dh_installlogrotate(1)
           install logrotate config files

       dh_installman(1)
           install man pages into package build directories

       dh_installmenu(1)
           install Debian menu files into package build directories

       dh_installmime(1)
           install mime files into package build directories

       dh_installmodules(1)
           register modules with modutils

       dh_installpam(1)
           install pam support files

       dh_installppp(1)
           install ppp ip-up and ip-down files

       dh_installudev(1)
           install udev rules files

       dh_installwm(1)
           register a window manager

       dh_installxfonts(1)
           register X fonts

       dh_link(1)
           create symlinks in package build directories

       dh_lintian(1)
           install lintian override files into package build directories

       dh_listpackages(1)
           list binary packages debhelper will act on

       dh_makeshlibs(1)
           automatically create shlibs file and call dpkg-gensymbols

       dh_md5sums(1)
           generate DEBIAN/md5sums file

       dh_movefiles(1)
           move files out of debian/tmp into subpackages

       dh_perl(1)
           calculates Perl dependencies and cleans up after MakeMaker

       dh_prep(1)
           perform cleanups in preparation for building a binary package

       dh_shlibdeps(1)
           calculate shared library dependencies

       dh_strip(1)
           strip executables, shared libraries, and some static libraries

       dh_testdir(1)
           test directory before building Debian package

       dh_testroot(1)
           ensure that a package is built as root

       dh_ucf(1)
           register configuration files with ucf

       dh_usrlocal(1)
           migrate usr/local directories to maintainer scripts

   Deprecated Commands
       A few debhelper commands are deprecated and should not be used.

       dh_desktop(1)
           deprecated no-op

       dh_installmanpages(1)
           old-style man page installer (deprecated)

       dh_python(1)
           calculates Python dependencies and adds postinst and prerm Python scripts (deprecated)

       dh_scrollkeeper(1)
           deprecated no-op

       dh_suidregister(1)
           suid registration program (deprecated)

       dh_undocumented(1)
           undocumented.7 symlink program (deprecated no-op)

   Other Commands
       If a program's name starts with dh_, and the program is not on the above lists, then it is
       not part of the debhelper package, but it should still work like the other programs
       described on this page.

DEBHELPER CONFIG FILES

       Many debhelper commands make use of files in debian/ to control what they do. Besides the
       common debian/changelog and debian/control, which are in all packages, not just those
       using debhelper, some additional files can be used to configure the behavior of specific
       debhelper commands. These files are typically named debian/package.foo (where package of
       course, is replaced with the package that is being acted on).

       For example, dh_installdocs uses files named debian/package.docs to list the documentation
       files it will install. See the man pages of individual commands for details about the
       names and formats of the files they use.  Generally, these files will list files to act
       on, one file per line. Some programs in debhelper use pairs of files and destinations or
       slightly more complicated formats.

       Note for the first (or only) binary package listed in debian/control, debhelper will use
       debian/foo when there's no debian/package.foo file.

       In some rare cases, you may want to have different versions of these files for different
       architectures or OSes. If files named debian/package.foo.ARCH or debian/package.foo.OS
       exist, where ARCH and OS are the same as the output of "dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_ARCH"
       / "dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_ARCH_OS", then they will be used in preference to other,
       more general files.

       Mostly, these config files are used to specify lists of various types of files.
       Documentation or example files to install, files to move, and so on.  When appropriate, in
       cases like these, you can use standard shell wildcard characters (? and * and [..]
       character classes) in the files.  You can also put comments in these files; lines
       beginning with # are ignored.

       The syntax of these files is intentionally kept very simple to make then easy to read,
       understand, and modify. If you prefer power and complexity, you can make the file
       executable, and write a program that outputs whatever content is appropriate for a given
       situation. When you do so, the output is not further processed to expand wildcards or
       strip comments.

SHARED DEBHELPER OPTIONS

       The following command line options are supported by all debhelper programs.

       -v, --verbose
           Verbose mode: show all commands that modify the package build directory.

       --no-act
           Do not really do anything. If used with -v, the result is that the command will output
           what it would have done.

       -a, --arch
           Act on architecture dependent packages that should be built for the build
           architecture.

       -i, --indep
           Act on all architecture independent packages.

       -ppackage, --package=package
           Act on the package named package. This option may be specified multiple times to make
           debhelper operate on a given set of packages.

       -s, --same-arch
           This used to be a smarter version of the -a flag, but the -a flag is now equally
           smart.

       -Npackage, --no-package=package
           Do not act on the specified package even if an -a, -i, or -p option lists the package
           as one that should be acted on.

       --remaining-packages
           Do not act on the packages which have already been acted on by this debhelper command
           earlier (i.e. if the command is present in the package debhelper log).  For example,
           if you need to call the command with special options only for a couple of binary
           packages, pass this option to the last call of the command to process the rest of
           packages with default settings.

       --ignore=file
           Ignore the specified file. This can be used if debian/ contains a debhelper config
           file that a debhelper command should not act on. Note that debian/compat,
           debian/control, and debian/changelog can't be ignored, but then, there should never be
           a reason to ignore those files.

           For example, if upstream ships a debian/init that you don't want dh_installinit to
           install, use --ignore=debian/init

       -Ptmpdir, --tmpdir=tmpdir
           Use tmpdir for package build directory. The default is debian/package

       --mainpackage=package
           This little-used option changes the package which debhelper considers the "main
           package", that is, the first one listed in debian/control, and the one for which
           debian/foo files can be used instead of the usual debian/package.foo files.

       -O=option|bundle
           This is used by dh(1) when passing user-specified options to all the commands it runs.
           If the command supports the specified option or option bundle, it will take effect. If
           the command does not support the option (or any part of an option bundle), it will be
           ignored.

COMMON DEBHELPER OPTIONS

       The following command line options are supported by some debhelper programs.  See the man
       page of each program for a complete explanation of what each option does.

       -n  Do not modify postinst, postrm, etc. scripts.

       -Xitem, --exclude=item
           Exclude an item from processing. This option may be used multiple times, to exclude
           more than one thing.

       -A, --all
           Makes files or other items that are specified on the command line take effect in ALL
           packages acted on, not just the first.

BUILD SYSTEM OPTIONS

       The following command line options are supported by all of the dh_auto_* debhelper
       programs. These programs support a variety of build systems, and normally heuristically
       determine which to use, and how to use them.  You can use these command line options to
       override the default behavior.  Typically these are passed to dh(1), which then passes
       them to all the dh_auto_* programs.

       -Sbuildsystem, --buildsystem=buildsystem
           Force use of the specified buildsystem, instead of trying to auto-select one which
           might be applicable for the package.

       -Ddirectory, --sourcedirectory=directory
           Assume that the original package source tree is at the specified directory rather than
           the top level directory of the Debian source package tree.

       -B[directory], --builddirectory=[directory]
           Enable out of source building and use the specified directory as the build directory.
           If directory parameter is omitted, a default build directory will chosen.

           If this option is not specified, building will be done in source by default unless the
           build system requires or prefers out of source tree building.  In such a case, the
           default build directory will be used even if --builddirectory is not specified.

           If the build system prefers out of source tree building but still allows in source
           building, the latter can be re-enabled by passing a build directory path that is the
           same as the source directory path.

       --parallel
           Enable parallel builds if underlying build system supports them.  The number of
           parallel jobs is controlled by the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable ("Debian
           Policy, section 4.9.1") at build time. It might also be subject to a build system
           specific limit.

           If this option is not specified, debhelper currently defaults to not allowing parallel
           package builds.

       --max-parallel=maximum
           This option implies --parallel and allows further limiting the number of jobs that can
           be used in a parallel build. If the package build is known to only work with certain
           levels of concurrency, you can set this to the maximum level that is known to work, or
           that you wish to support.

       --list, -l
           List all build systems supported by debhelper on this system. The list includes both
           default and third party build systems (marked as such). Also shows which build system
           would be automatically selected, or which one is manually specified with the
           --buildsystem option.

COMPATABILITY LEVELS

       From time to time, major non-backwards-compatible changes need to be made to debhelper, to
       keep it clean and well-designed as needs change and its author gains more experience. To
       prevent such major changes from breaking existing packages, the concept of debhelper
       compatibility levels was introduced. You tell debhelper which compatibility level it
       should use, and it modifies its behavior in various ways.

       Tell debhelper what compatibility level to use by writing a number to debian/compat. For
       example, to turn on v9 mode:

         % echo 9 > debian/compat

       Your package will also need a versioned build dependency on a version of debhelper equal
       to (or greater than) the compatibility level your package uses. So for compatibility level
       9, ensure debian/control has:

         Build-Depends: debhelper (>= 9)

       Unless otherwise indicated, all debhelper documentation assumes that you are using the
       most recent compatibility level, and in most cases does not indicate if the behavior is
       different in an earlier compatibility level, so if you are not using the most recent
       compatibility level, you're advised to read below for notes about what is different in
       earlier compatibility levels.

       These are the available compatibility levels:

       v1  This is the original debhelper compatibility level, and so it is the default one. In
           this mode, debhelper will use debian/tmp as the package tree directory for the first
           binary package listed in the control file, while using debian/package for all other
           packages listed in the control file.

           This mode is deprecated.

       v2  In this mode, debhelper will consistently use debian/package as the package tree
           directory for every package that is built.

           This mode is deprecated.

       v3  This mode works like v2, with the following additions:

           -       Debhelper config files support globbing via * and ?, when appropriate. To turn
                   this off and use those characters raw, just prefix with a backslash.

           -       dh_makeshlibs makes the postinst and postrm scripts call ldconfig.

           -       Every file in etc/ is automatically flagged as a conffile by dh_installdeb.

           This mode is deprecated.

       v4  Changes from v3 are:

           -       dh_makeshlibs -V will not include the Debian part of the version number in the
                   generated dependency line in the shlibs file.

           -       You are encouraged to put the new ${misc:Depends} into debian/control to
                   supplement the ${shlibs:Depends} field.

           -       dh_fixperms will make all files in bin/ directories and in etc/init.d
                   executable.

           -       dh_link will correct existing links to conform with policy.

           This mode is deprecated.

       v5  Changes from v4 are:

           -       Comments are ignored in debhelper config files.

           -       dh_strip --dbg-package now specifies the name of a package to put debugging
                   symbols in, not the packages to take the symbols from.

           -       dh_installdocs skips installing empty files.

           -       dh_install errors out if wildcards expand to nothing.

       v6  Changes from v5 are:

           -       Commands that generate maintainer script fragments will order the fragments in
                   reverse order for the prerm and postrm scripts.

           -       dh_installwm will install a slave manpage link for x-window-manager.1.gz, if
                   it sees the man page in usr/share/man/man1 in the package build directory.

           -       dh_builddeb did not previously delete everything matching DH_ALWAYS_EXCLUDE,
                   if it was set to a list of things to exclude, such as CVS:.svn:.git. Now it
                   does.

           -       dh_installman allows overwriting existing man pages in the package build
                   directory. In previous compatibility levels it silently refuses to do this.

       v7  Changes from v6 are:

           -       dh_install, will fall back to looking for files in debian/tmp if it doesn't
                   find them in the current directory (or wherever you tell it look using
                   --sourcedir). This allows dh_install to interoperate with dh_auto_install,
                   which installs to debian/tmp, without needing any special parameters.

           -       dh_clean will read debian/clean and delete files listed there.

           -       dh_clean will delete toplevel *-stamp files.

           -       dh_installchangelogs will guess at what file is the upstream changelog if none
                   is specified.

       v8  Changes from v7 are:

           -       Commands will fail rather than warning when they are passed unknown options.

           -       dh_makeshlibs will run dpkg-gensymbols on all shared libraries that it
                   generates shlibs files for. So -X can be used to exclude libraries.  Also,
                   libraries in unusual locations that dpkg-gensymbols would not have processed
                   before will be passed to it, a behavior change that can cause some packages to
                   fail to build.

           -       dh requires the sequence to run be specified as the first parameter, and any
                   switches come after it. Ie, use "dh $@ --foo", not "dh --foo $@".

           -       dh_auto_* prefer to use Perl's Module::Build in preference to Makefile.PL.

       v9  This is the recommended mode of operation.

           Changes from v8 are:

           -       Multiarch support. In particular, dh_auto_configure passes multiarch
                   directories to autoconf in --libdir and --libexecdir.

           -       dh is aware of the usual dependencies between targets in debian/rules.  So,
                   "dh binary" will run any build, build-arch, build-indep, install, etc targets
                   that exist in the rules file. There's no need to define an explicit binary
                   target with explicit dependencies on the other targets.

           -       dh_strip compresses debugging symbol files to reduce the installed size of
                   -dbg packages.

           -       dh_auto_configure does not include the source package name in --libexecdir
                   when using autoconf.

           -       dh does not default to enabling --with=python-support

           -       All of the dh_auto_* debhelper programs and dh set environment variables
                   listed by dpkg-buildflags, unless they are already set. They support
                   DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS=noopt too.

           -       dh_auto_configure passes CFLAGS to perl Makefile.PL and Build.PL

           -       dh_strip puts separated debug symbols in a location based on their build-id.

           -       Executable debhelper config files are run and their output used as the
                   configuration.

       v10 This compatibility level is still open for development; use with caution.

           Changes from v9 are:

           -       None yet..

NOTES

   Multiple binary package support
       If your source package generates more than one binary package, debhelper programs will
       default to acting on all binary packages when run. If your source package happens to
       generate one architecture dependent package, and another architecture independent package,
       this is not the correct behavior, because you need to generate the architecture dependent
       packages in the binary-arch debian/rules target, and the architecture independent packages
       in the binary-indep debian/rules target.

       To facilitate this, as well as give you more control over which packages are acted on by
       debhelper programs, all debhelper programs accept the -a, -i, -p, and -s parameters. These
       parameters are cumulative.  If none are given, debhelper programs default to acting on all
       packages listed in the control file.

   Automatic generation of Debian install scripts
       Some debhelper commands will automatically generate parts of Debian maintainer scripts. If
       you want these automatically generated things included in your existing Debian maintainer
       scripts, then you need to add #DEBHELPER# to your scripts, in the place the code should be
       added.  #DEBHELPER# will be replaced by any auto-generated code when you run
       dh_installdeb.

       If a script does not exist at all and debhelper needs to add something to it, then
       debhelper will create the complete script.

       All debhelper commands that automatically generate code in this way let it be disabled by
       the -n parameter (see above).

       Note that the inserted code will be shell code, so you cannot directly use it in a Perl
       script. If you would like to embed it into a Perl script, here is one way to do that (note
       that I made sure that $1, $2, etc are set with the set command):

         my $temp="set -e\nset -- @ARGV\n" . << 'EOF';
         #DEBHELPER#
         EOF
         system ($temp) / 256 == 0
               or die "Problem with debhelper scripts: $!";

   Automatic generation of miscellaneous dependencies.
       Some debhelper commands may make the generated package need to depend on some other
       packages. For example, if you use dh_installdebconf(1), your package will generally need
       to depend on debconf. Or if you use dh_installxfonts(1), your package will generally need
       to depend on a particular version of xutils. Keeping track of these miscellaneous
       dependencies can be annoying since they are dependent on how debhelper does things, so
       debhelper offers a way to automate it.

       All commands of this type, besides documenting what dependencies may be needed on their
       man pages, will automatically generate a substvar called ${misc:Depends}. If you put that
       token into your debian/control file, it will be expanded to the dependencies debhelper
       figures you need.

       This is entirely independent of the standard ${shlibs:Depends} generated by
       dh_makeshlibs(1), and the ${perl:Depends} generated by dh_perl(1).  You can choose not to
       use any of these, if debhelper's guesses don't match reality.

   Package build directories
       By default, all debhelper programs assume that the temporary directory used for assembling
       the tree of files in a package is debian/package.

       Sometimes, you might want to use some other temporary directory. This is supported by the
       -P flag. For example, "dh_installdocs -Pdebian/tmp", will use debian/tmp as the temporary
       directory. Note that if you use -P, the debhelper programs can only be acting on a single
       package at a time. So if you have a package that builds many binary packages, you will
       need to also use the -p flag to specify which binary package the debhelper program will
       act on.

   udebs
       Debhelper includes support for udebs. To create a udeb with debhelper, add "Package-Type:
       udeb" to the package's stanza in debian/control.  Debhelper will try to create udebs that
       comply with debian-installer policy, by making the generated package files end in .udeb,
       not installing any documentation into a udeb, skipping over preinst, postrm, prerm, and
       config scripts, etc.

ENVIRONMENT

       DH_VERBOSE
           Set to 1 to enable verbose mode. Debhelper will output every command it runs that
           modifies files on the build system.

       DH_COMPAT
           Temporarily specifies what compatibility level debhelper should run at, overriding any
           value in debian/compat.

       DH_NO_ACT
           Set to 1 to enable no-act mode.

       DH_OPTIONS
           Anything in this variable will be prepended to the command line arguments of all
           debhelper commands.

           When using dh(1), it can be passed options that will be passed on to each debhelper
           command, which is generally better than using DH_OPTIONS.

       DH_ALWAYS_EXCLUDE
           If set, this adds the value the variable is set to to the -X options of all commands
           that support the -X option. Moreover, dh_builddeb will rm -rf anything that matches
           the value in your package build tree.

           This can be useful if you are doing a build from a CVS source tree, in which case
           setting DH_ALWAYS_EXCLUDE=CVS will prevent any CVS directories from sneaking into the
           package you build. Or, if a package has a source tarball that (unwisely) includes CVS
           directories, you might want to export DH_ALWAYS_EXCLUDE=CVS in debian/rules, to make
           it take effect wherever your package is built.

           Multiple things to exclude can be separated with colons, as in
           DH_ALWAYS_EXCLUDE=CVS:.svn

SEE ALSO

       /usr/share/doc/debhelper/examples/
           A set of example debian/rules files that use debhelper.

       <http://kitenet.net/~joey/code/debhelper/>
           Debhelper web site.

AUTHOR

       Joey Hess <joeyh@debian.org>