Provided by: postgresql-client-8.4_8.4.11-1_i386 bug


       DECLARE - define a cursor


       DECLARE name [ BINARY ] [ INSENSITIVE ] [ [ NO ] SCROLL ]
           CURSOR [ { WITH | WITHOUT } HOLD ] FOR query


       DECLARE  allows a user to create cursors, which can be used to retrieve
       a small number of rows at a time out of  a  larger  query.   After  the
       cursor is created, rows are fetched from it using FETCH [fetch(7)].

              Note:  This  page  describes usage of cursors at the SQL command
              level.  If you are trying  to  use  cursors  inside  a  PL/pgSQL
              function, the rules are different — see in the documentation.


       name   The name of the cursor to be created.

       BINARY Causes  the  cursor to return data in binary rather than in text

              Indicates  that  data  retrieved  from  the  cursor  should   be
              unaffected by updates to the table(s) underlying the cursor that
              occur after the cursor is created. In PostgreSQL,  this  is  the
              default  behavior;  so  this  key word has no effect and is only
              accepted for compatibility with the SQL standard.


       NO SCROLL
              SCROLL specifies that the cursor can be used to retrieve rows in
              a  nonsequential  fashion  (e.g.,  backward). Depending upon the
              complexity of the  query's  execution  plan,  specifying  SCROLL
              might  impose  a  performance  penalty  on the query's execution
              time.  NO SCROLL specifies that the cursor  cannot  be  used  to
              retrieve  rows  in  a  nonsequential  fashion. The default is to
              allow  scrolling  in  some  cases;  this  is  not  the  same  as
              specifying SCROLL. See Notes [declare(7)] for details.

       WITH HOLD

              WITH  HOLD  specifies  that  the  cursor can continue to be used
              after the transaction  that  created  it  successfully  commits.
              WITHOUT HOLD specifies that the cursor cannot be used outside of
              the transaction that created it. If  neither  WITHOUT  HOLD  nor
              WITH HOLD is specified, WITHOUT HOLD is the default.

       query  A  SELECT  [select(7)]  or VALUES [values(7)] command which will
              provide the rows to be returned by the cursor.

       The key words BINARY, INSENSITIVE, and SCROLL can appear in any order.


       Normal cursors return data in text format, the same as a  SELECT  would
       produce. The BINARY option specifies that the cursor should return data
       in binary format.  This reduces conversion effort for both  the  server
       and  client,  at  the  cost  of  more  programmer  effort  to deal with
       platform-dependent binary data formats.  As  an  example,  if  a  query
       returns  a  value of one from an integer column, you would get a string
       of 1 with a default cursor, whereas with a binary cursor you would  get
       a  4-byte field containing the internal representation of the value (in
       big-endian byte order).

       Binary cursors should be used carefully. Many  applications,  including
       psql, are not prepared to handle binary cursors and expect data to come
       back in the text format.

              Note: When the client application uses  the  ``extended  query''
              protocol  to  issue  a  FETCH command, the Bind protocol message
              specifies whether data is to be  retrieved  in  text  or  binary
              format.   This  choice  overrides  the  way  that  the cursor is
              defined. The concept of a binary cursor as such is thus obsolete
              when  using  extended query protocol — any cursor can be treated
              as either text or binary.

       Unless WITH HOLD is specified, the cursor created by this  command  can
       only be used within the current transaction. Thus, DECLARE without WITH
       HOLD is useless outside a transaction block: the cursor  would  survive
       only  to  the completion of the statement. Therefore PostgreSQL reports
       an error if such a command is used outside a  transaction  block.   Use
       BEGIN  [begin(7)] and COMMIT [commit(7)] (or ROLLBACK [rollback(7)]) to
       define a transaction block.

       If WITH HOLD is specified and the transaction that created  the  cursor
       successfully  commits,  the  cursor  can  continue  to  be  accessed by
       subsequent transactions in the  same  session.  (But  if  the  creating
       transaction  is  aborted, the cursor is removed.) A cursor created with
       WITH HOLD is closed when an explicit CLOSE command is issued on it,  or
       the  session  ends. In the current implementation, the rows represented
       by a held cursor are copied into a temporary file  or  memory  area  so
       that they remain available for subsequent transactions.

       WITH  HOLD  may  not be specified when the query includes FOR UPDATE or
       FOR SHARE.

       The SCROLL option should be specified when defining a cursor that  will
       be  used  to  fetch  backwards.  This  is required by the SQL standard.
       However, for compatibility with earlier versions, PostgreSQL will allow
       backward  fetches  without SCROLL, if the cursor's query plan is simple
       enough that no  extra  overhead  is  needed  to  support  it.  However,
       application  developers  are  advised  not  to  rely  on using backward
       fetches from a cursor that has not been  created  with  SCROLL.  If  NO
       SCROLL is specified, then backward fetches are disallowed in any case.

       Backward fetches are also disallowed when the query includes FOR UPDATE
       or FOR SHARE; therefore SCROLL may not be specified in this case.

              Caution: Scrollable and WITH HOLD cursors  may  give  unexpected
              results  if  they  invoke  any  volatile  functions  (see in the
              documentation). When a previously fetched row is re-fetched, the
              functions  might  be  re-executed,  perhaps  leading  to results
              different from the first time. One workaround for such cases  is
              to  declare  the  cursor  WITH  HOLD  and commit the transaction
              before reading any rows from it.  This  will  force  the  entire
              output of the cursor to be materialized in temporary storage, so
              that volatile functions are executed exactly once for each row.

       If the cursor's query includes FOR UPDATE or FOR SHARE,  then  returned
       rows  are locked at the time they are first fetched, in the same way as
       for a regular  SELECT  [select(7)]  command  with  these  options.   In
       addition,  the  returned  rows  will  be  the most up-to-date versions;
       therefore these options provide the equivalent of what the SQL standard
       calls a ``sensitive cursor''. (Specifying INSENSITIVE together with FOR
       UPDATE or FOR SHARE is an error.)


              It is generally recommended to use FOR UPDATE if the  cursor  is
              intended  to  be used with UPDATE ... WHERE CURRENT OF or DELETE
              ... WHERE CURRENT OF. Using FOR UPDATE prevents  other  sessions
              from changing the rows between the time they are fetched and the
              time they are updated. Without FOR UPDATE,  a  subsequent  WHERE
              CURRENT  OF  command  will have no effect if the row was changed
              since the cursor was created.

              Another  reason  to  use  FOR  UPDATE  is  that  without  it,  a
              subsequent  WHERE CURRENT OF might fail if the cursor query does
              not meet the SQL standard's rules for being ``simply updatable''
              (in particular, the cursor must reference just one table and not
              use grouping or ORDER BY). Cursors that are not simply updatable
              might  work,  or might not, depending on plan choice details; so
              in the worst case, an application might work in testing and then
              fail in production.

              The  main  reason not to use FOR UPDATE with WHERE CURRENT OF is
              if you need the cursor to be scrollable, or to be insensitive to
              the subsequent updates (that is, continue to show the old data).
              If this is a requirement, pay close heed to  the  caveats  shown

       The SQL standard only makes provisions for cursors in embedded SQL. The
       PostgreSQL server does not implement an OPEN statement for  cursors;  a
       cursor  is  considered  to be open when it is declared.  However, ECPG,
       the embedded SQL preprocessor for PostgreSQL, supports the standard SQL
       cursor   conventions,   including  those  involving  DECLARE  and  OPEN

       You can see all available cursors by  querying  the  pg_cursors  system


       To declare a cursor:

       DECLARE liahona CURSOR FOR SELECT * FROM films;

       See FETCH [fetch(7)] for more examples of cursor usage.


       The  SQL  standard  says  that  it  is implementation-dependent whether
       cursors are sensitive to concurrent updates of the underlying  data  by
       default.  In PostgreSQL, cursors are insensitive by default, and can be
       made sensitive by  specifying  FOR  UPDATE.  Other  products  may  work

       The  SQL  standard  allows cursors only in embedded SQL and in modules.
       PostgreSQL permits cursors to be used interactively.

       Binary cursors are a PostgreSQL extension.


       CLOSE [close(7)], FETCH [fetch(7)], MOVE [move(7)]