Provided by: groff_1.21-7_i386 bug


       groff_hdtbl - groff `hdtbl' macros for generation of tables


       The  hdtbl  macros  consist  of  four  base  and three optional macros,
       controlled by about twenty arguments.  The syntax is simple and similar
       to the HTML table model and nearly as flexible: You can write sequences
       of  tokens  (macro  calls  with  their  arguments  and  content  data),
       separated by blanks and beginning with a macro call, into the same line
       to get compact and cleanly arrranged input.  An advantage of  hdtbl  is
       that  the  tables  are constructed without calling a preprocessor; this
       means that groff's full macro capabilities are available.  On the other
       hand,  table processing with hdtbl is much slower than using the tbl(1)
       preprocessor.  A further advantage is  that  the  HTML-like  syntax  of
       hdtbl will be easily converted to HTML; this is not implemented yet.


       The  simplest  well-formed  table  consists of just single calls to the
       four base table macros in the right order.  Here we construct  a  table
       with only one cell.

              contents of the table cell

       Equivalent to the above is the following notation.

              .TBL .TR .TD contents of the table cell .ETB

       By  default,  the formatted table is inserted into the surrounding text
       at  the  place  of  its  definition.   If  the  vertical  space   isn't
       sufficient,  it is placed at the top of the next page.  Tables can also
       be stored for later insertion.

       Using ‘row-number*column-number’ as the data for  the  table  cells,  a
       table with two rows and two columns can be written as

              .TBL cols=2
              .  TR .TD 1*1 .TD 1*2
              .  TR .TD 2*1 .TD 2*2

       Here  we see a difference to HTML tables: The number of columns must be
       explicitly specified using the ‘cols=m’ argument (or indirectly via the
       ‘width’ argument, see below).

       The  contents  of  a  table  cell  is arbitrary; for example, it can be
       another table, without restriction to the nesting depth.  A given table
       layout  can  be  either constructed with suitably nested tables or with
       proper arguments to .TD and .TH, controlling column and  row  spanning.
       Note, however, that this table

              .  TR
              .    TD
              .      nop 1*1 1*2
              .  TR
              .    TD
              .      TBL cols=2 border=
              .        TR
              .          TD
              .            nop 2*1
              .          TD
              .            nop 2*2
              .      ETB

       and this table

              .TBL cols=2
              .  TR
              .    TD colspan=2
              .      nop 1*1 1*2
              .  TR
              .    TD
              .      nop 2*1
              .    TD
              .      nop 2*2

       are similar but not identical.

       Here the latter table in a more compact form.

              .TBL cols=2 .TR ".TD colspan=2" 1*1 1*2
              .            TR .TD 2*1 .TD 2*2 .ETB

       If a macro has one or more arguments, and it is not starting a line, it
       must be enclosed in double quotes.


       The order of macro calls and other tokens follows the HTML  model.   In
       the  following  list,  valid  predecessors  and successors of all hdtbl
       macros are given, together with the possible arguments.

       Macro arguments are separated by blanks.  The  order  of  arguments  is
       arbitrary; they are of the form



              key='value1 [value2 [...]]'

       with  the  only  exception  of the optional argument of the macro .ETB,
       which is the string ‘hold’.  Another possible form is

              "key=value1 [value2 [...]]"

       However, this is limited to the case where the macro is the  first  one
       in the line and not already enclosed in double quotes.

       Argument  values specified below as c are colors predefined by groff or
       colors defined by  the  user  with  the  .defcolor  request.   Argument
       values  d  are decimal numbers with or without decimal point.  Argument
       values m are natural numbers.  Argument values n are  numerical  values
       with  the  usual  groff  scaling indicators.  Some of the arguments are
       specific to one or two macros, but most of them can be  specified  with
       .TBL,  .TR,  .TD, and .TH.  These common arguments are explained in the
       next subsection.

       Most of the argument default values can  be  changed  by  the  user  by
       setting corresponding default registers or strings, as listed below.

       .TBL [args]
              Begin a new table.

              predecessor: .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
              successor: .CPTN, .TR
                            Thickness   of   the   surrounding   box   border.
                            ‘border=’ (no value) means neither  a  surrounding
                            box   border   nor   any  horizontal  or  vertical
                            separator lines between the table rows and  cells.
                            ‘border=0’  suppresses the surrounding box border,
                            but still allows separator lines between cells and
                            Default: ‘border=.1n’ (register ‘t*b’).
                     bc=c   Border color.
                            Default: ‘bc=red4’ (string ‘t*bc’).
                     cols=m Number   of   table  columns.   This  argument  is
                            necessary if more than one column is in the  table
                            and no ‘width’ arguments are present.
                            Default: ‘cols=1’ (register ‘t*cols’).
                     cpd=n  Cell  padding,  i.e.,  the extra space between the
                            cell space border and the cell contents.
                            Default: ‘cpd=.5n’ (register ‘t*cpd’).
                     csp=n  Cell spacing, i.e., the extra  space  between  the
                            table  border  or  vertical  or  horizontal  lines
                            between cells and the cellspace.
                            Default: ‘csp=.5n’ (register ‘t*csp’).
                            Horizontal  alignment  of  the  table,  if  it  is
                            smaller   than  the  line  width.   ‘tal=l’:  left
                            alignment.  ‘tal=c’: centered alignment.  ‘tal=r’:
                            right alignment.
                            Default: ‘tal=l’ (register ‘t*tal’).
                     width='w1 [w2 [...]]'
                            Widths  of  table  cells.   w1, w2, ... are either
                            numbers of type n  or  natural  numbers  with  the
                            pseudo-scaling  indicator  ‘%’,  with  the meaning
                            “percent of the  actual  line  length  (or  column
                            length for inner tables, respectively)”.  If there
                            are less width values than table columns, the last
                            width  value is used for the remaining cells.  The

                                   width='1.5i 10%'

                            for example indicates that  the  first  column  is
                            1.5inches wide; the remaining columns take 1/10 of
                            the column length each.
                            Default: The table width  equals  the  outer  line
                            length  or  column  length; the columns have equal
                            Height of  the  table.   If  the  table  with  its
                            contents   is  lower  than  n,  the  last  row  is
                            stretched to this value.

       .CPTN [args]
              Text of caption.

              The (optionally numbered) table caption.  .CPTN is optional.

              predecessor: .TBL
              successor: .TR
                            Vertical alignment of the table caption.  ‘val=t’:
                            The  caption  is placed above the table.  ‘val=b’:
                            The caption is placed below the table.
                            Default: ‘val=t’ (string ‘t*cptn’).

       .TR [args]
              Begin a new table row.

              predecessor: .TBL, .CPTN, .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
              successor: .TD, .TH
                            The height of the row.  If a cell in  the  row  is
                            higher than n this value is ignored; otherwise the
                            row height is stretched to n.

       .TD [args [cell contents]]
              Begin a table data cell.
       .TH [args [cell contents]]
              Begin a table header cell.

              Arguments and cell contents can be mixed.  The macro .TH is  not
              really  necessary  and  differs  from  .TD only in three default
              settings, similar to the <TH> and <TD> HTML tags:  The  contents
              of  .TH  is  horizontally and vertically centered and typeset in

              predecessor: .TR, .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
              successor: .TD, .TH, .TR, .ETB, cell contents
                            The width of this cell is the sum of the widths of
                            the m cells above and below this row.
                            The  height of this cell is the sum of the heights
                            of the m cells left and right of this column.

                            Remark: Overlapping of column and row spanning, as
                            in  the  following table fragment (the overlapping
                            happens in the second cell in the second row),  is
                            invalid and causes incorrect results.

                                   .TR .TD 1*1 ".TD 1*2 rowspan=2" .TD 1*3
                                   .TR ".TD 2*1 colspan=2"         .TD 2*3

       .ETB [hold]
              End of the table.

              This  macro  finishes  a  table.  It causes one of the following

              ·  If the argument ‘hold’ is given, the table is held  until  it
                 is  freed  by calling the macro .t*free, which in turn prints
                 the table immediately, either at the current position  or  at
                 the  top  of  the  next page if its height is larger than the
                 remaining space on the page.

              ·  Otherwise, if the table is higher than the remaining space on
                 the page, it is printed at the top of the next page.

              ·  If  none  of  the  two  above  constraints hold, the table is
                 printed immediately at the place of its definition.

              predecessor: .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
              successor: .TBL, .TR, .TD, .TH, .ETB, cell contents
                     hold   Prevent the table from being printed until  it  is
                            freed by calling the macro .t*free.  This argument
                            is ignored for inner (nested) tables.

       .t*free [n]
              Free the next held table or n held tables.   Call  this  utility
              macro  to  print  tables  which  are  held  by  using the ‘hold’
              argument of the .ETB macro.

   Arguments common to .TBL, .TR, .TD, and .TH
       The arguments described in this section can be specified with the  .TBL
       and  .TR  macros, but they are eventually passed on to the table cells.
       If omitted, the defaults take place,  which  the  user  can  change  by
       setting  the  corresponding default registers or strings, as documented
       below.  Setting an argument with the .TBL macro has the same effect  as
       setting  it  for all rows in the table.  Setting an argument with a .TR
       macro has the same effect as setting it for all the .TH or .TD macro in
       this row.

              The background color of the table cells.  This includes the area
              specified with the ‘csp’  argument.   The  argument  ‘bgc=’  (no
              value)  suppresses a background color; this makes the background
              Default: ‘bgc=bisque’ (string ‘t*bgc’).
       fgc=c  The foreground color of the cell contents.
              Default: ‘fgc=red4’ (string ‘t*fgc’).
              The font family for the table.  name is one of  the  groff  font
              families,  for  example  A  for  the  AvantGarde fonts or HN for
              Default: The font family found before the table (string ‘t*ff’).
              The font style for the table.  One of R, I, B, or BI for  roman,
              bold,  italic, or bold italic, respectively.  As with roff's .ft
              request the ‘fst’ argument can  be  used  to  specify  the  font
              family  and  font style together, for example ‘fst=HNBI’ instead
              of ‘ff=HN’ and ‘fst=BI’.
              Default: The font style in use right before  the  table  (string
       fsz='d1 [d2]'
              A  decimal  or fractional factor d1, by which the point size for
              the table is changed, and d2, by which the vertical line spacing
              is changed.  If d2 is omitted, value d1 is taken for both.
              Default: ‘fsz='1.0 1.0'’ (string ‘t*fsz’).
              Horizontal   alignment  of  the  cell  contents  in  the  table.
              ‘hal=l’: left alignment.  ‘hal=c’: centered alignment.  ‘hal=b’:
              both (left and right) alignment.  ‘hal=r’: right alignment.
              Default: ‘hal=b’ (string ‘t*hal’).
              Vertical  alignment  of the cell contents in the table for cells
              lower than the current row.  ‘val=t’: alignment below the top of
              the  cell.   ‘val=m’:  alignment  in  the  middle  of  the cell.
              ‘val=b’: alignment above the cell bottom.
              Default: ‘val=t’ (string ‘t*val’).
              Horizontal line between the rows.  If specified with .TD or  .TH
              this  is  a separator line to the cell below.  ‘hl=’ (no value):
              no separator line.  ‘hl=s’: a single separator line between  the
              rows.  ‘hl=d’: a double separator line.

              The  thickness  of the separator lines is the half of the border
              thickness, but at least 0.1inches.   The  distance  between  the
              double lines is equal to the line thickness.

              Remark: Together with ‘border=0’ for proper formatting the value
              of ‘csp’ must be at least .05inches for single  separator  lines
              and .15inches for double separator lines.
              Default: ‘hl=s’ (string ‘t*hl’).
              Vertical  separator  line  between the cells.  If specified with
              .TD or .TH this is a separator line to the cell  on  the  right.
              ‘vl=s’:  a  single  separator line between the cells.  ‘vl=d’: a
              double separator line.   ‘vl=’  (no  value):  no  vertical  cell
              separator  lines.  For more information see the documentation of
              the ‘hl’ argument above.
              Default: ‘vl=s’ (string ‘t*vl’).


       Before creating the first table, you should configure default values to
       minimize  the  markup needed in each table.  The following example sets
       up defaults suitable for typical papers:

              .ds t*bgc white\" background color
              .ds t*fgc black\" foreground color
              .ds t*bc black\"  border color
              .nr t*cpd 0.1n\"  cell padding

       The file examples/common.roff provides another  example  setup  in  the
       ``minimal Page setup'' section.

       A  table  which  does  not  fit  on  a partially filled page is printed
       automatically on the top of the next page  if  you  append  the  little
       utility  macro  t*hm  to  the page header macro of your document's main
       macro package.  For example, say

              .am pg@top
              .  t*hm

       if you use the ms macro package.

       The macro t*EM checks for held or kept  tables,  and  for  missing  ETB
       macros  (table  not  closed).  You can append this macro to the ``end''
       macro of your document's main macro package.  For example:

              .am pg@end-text
              .  t*EM

       If you use the ms macro package.


       Joachim Walsdorff ⟨


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