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NAME

       INSERT - create new rows in a table

SYNOPSIS

       INSERT INTO table [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
           { DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) [, ...] | query }
           [ RETURNING * | output_expression [ [ AS ] output_name ] [, ...] ]

DESCRIPTION

       INSERT  inserts new rows into a table.  One can insert one or more rows specified by value
       expressions, or zero or more rows resulting from a query.

       The target column names can be listed in any order. If no list of column names is given at
       all,  the  default is all the columns of the table in their declared order; or the first N
       column names, if there are only N columns supplied by the  VALUES  clause  or  query.  The
       values supplied by the VALUES clause or query are associated with the explicit or implicit
       column list left-to-right.

       Each column not present in the explicit or implicit column list  will  be  filled  with  a
       default value, either its declared default value or null if there is none.

       If  the  expression  for  any  column  is  not  of  the  correct data type, automatic type
       conversion will be attempted.

       The optional RETURNING clause causes INSERT to compute and return value(s) based  on  each
       row  actually  inserted.  This is primarily useful for obtaining values that were supplied
       by defaults, such as a serial sequence number. However, any expression using  the  table's
       columns  is  allowed.  The syntax of the RETURNING list is identical to that of the output
       list of SELECT.

       You must have INSERT privilege on a table in order to insert into it. If a column list  is
       specified,  you  only  need  INSERT privilege on the listed columns.  Use of the RETURNING
       clause requires SELECT privilege on all columns mentioned in RETURNING.  If  you  use  the
       query  clause  to insert rows from a query, you of course need to have SELECT privilege on
       any table or column used in the query.

PARAMETERS

       table  The name (optionally schema-qualified) of an existing table.

       column The name of a column in table.  The column name can be qualified  with  a  subfield
              name or array subscript, if needed. (Inserting into only some fields of a composite
              column leaves the other fields null.)

       DEFAULT VALUES
              All columns will be filled with their default values.

       expression
              An expression or value to assign to the corresponding column.

       DEFAULT
              The corresponding column will be filled with its default value.

       query  A query (SELECT statement) that supplies the rows to  be  inserted.  Refer  to  the
              SELECT [select(7)] statement for a description of the syntax.

       output_expression
              An  expression  to be computed and returned by the INSERT command after each row is
              inserted. The expression can use any column names of the table.  Write * to  return
              all columns of the inserted row(s).

       output_name
              A name to use for a returned column.

OUTPUTS

       On successful completion, an INSERT command returns a command tag of the form

       INSERT oid count

       The  count  is  the number of rows inserted. If count is exactly one, and the target table
       has OIDs, then oid is the OID assigned to the inserted row. Otherwise oid is zero.

       If the INSERT command contains a RETURNING clause, the result will be similar to that of a
       SELECT statement containing the columns and values defined in the RETURNING list, computed
       over the row(s) inserted by the command.

EXAMPLES

       Insert a single row into table films:

       INSERT INTO films VALUES
           ('UA502', 'Bananas', 105, '1971-07-13', 'Comedy', '82 minutes');

       In this example, the len column is omitted and therefore it will have the default value:

       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
           VALUES ('T_601', 'Yojimbo', 106, '1961-06-16', 'Drama');

       This example uses the DEFAULT clause for the date columns rather than specifying a value:

       INSERT INTO films VALUES
           ('UA502', 'Bananas', 105, DEFAULT, 'Comedy', '82 minutes');
       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
           VALUES ('T_601', 'Yojimbo', 106, DEFAULT, 'Drama');

       To insert a row consisting entirely of default values:

       INSERT INTO films DEFAULT VALUES;

       To insert multiple rows using the multirow VALUES syntax:

       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind) VALUES
           ('B6717', 'Tampopo', 110, '1985-02-10', 'Comedy'),
           ('HG120', 'The Dinner Game', 140, DEFAULT, 'Comedy');

       This example inserts some rows into table films from  a  table  tmp_films  with  the  same
       column layout as films:

       INSERT INTO films SELECT * FROM tmp_films WHERE date_prod < '2004-05-07';

       This example inserts into array columns:

       -- Create an empty 3x3 gameboard for noughts-and-crosses
       INSERT INTO tictactoe (game, board[1:3][1:3])
           VALUES (1, '{{" "," "," "},{" "," "," "},{" "," "," "}}');
       -- The subscripts in the above example aren't really needed
       INSERT INTO tictactoe (game, board)
           VALUES (2, '{{X," "," "},{" ",O," "},{" ",X," "}}');

       Insert  a  single  row into table distributors, returning the sequence number generated by
       the DEFAULT clause:

       INSERT INTO distributors (did, dname) VALUES (DEFAULT, 'XYZ Widgets')
          RETURNING did;

COMPATIBILITY

       INSERT conforms to the SQL standard, except that the  RETURNING  clause  is  a  PostgreSQL
       extension.  Also, the case in which a column name list is omitted, but not all the columns
       are filled from the VALUES clause or query, is disallowed by the standard.

       Possible limitations of the query clause are documented under SELECT [select(7)].