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       ip - Linux IPv4 protocol implementation


       #include <sys/socket.h>
       #include <netinet/in.h>
       #include <netinet/ip.h> /* superset of previous */

       tcp_socket = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
       udp_socket = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);
       raw_socket = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, protocol);


       Linux implements the Internet Protocol, version 4, described in RFC 791
       and RFC 1122.   ip  contains  a  level  2  multicasting  implementation
       conforming  to  RFC 1112.   It  also  contains an IP router including a
       packet filter.

       The  programming  interface  is  BSD-sockets  compatible.    For   more
       information on sockets, see socket(7).

       An   IP  socket  is  created  by  calling  the  socket(2)  function  as
       socket(AF_INET,  socket_type,  protocol).   Valid  socket   types   are
       SOCK_STREAM  to  open  a  tcp(7)  socket,  SOCK_DGRAM  to open a udp(7)
       socket, or SOCK_RAW to open a raw(7) socket to access the  IP  protocol
       directly.   protocol is the IP protocol in the IP header to be received
       or sent.  The only valid values for protocol are 0 and IPPROTO_TCP  for
       TCP  sockets,  and 0 and IPPROTO_UDP for UDP sockets.  For SOCK_RAW you
       may specify a valid IANA  IP  protocol  defined  in  RFC 1700  assigned

       When a process wants to receive new incoming packets or connections, it
       should bind a socket to a local interface address using bind(2).   Only
       one  IP  socket  may  be bound to any given local (address, port) pair.
       When INADDR_ANY is specified in the bind call, the socket will be bound
       to all local interfaces.  When listen(2) or connect(2) are called on an
       unbound socket, it is automatically bound to a random  free  port  with
       the local address set to INADDR_ANY.

       A  TCP local socket address that has been bound is unavailable for some
       time after closing, unless the SO_REUSEADDR flag has  been  set.   Care
       should be taken when using this flag as it makes TCP less reliable.

   Address Format
       An  IP  socket  address  is defined as a combination of an IP interface
       address and a 16-bit port number.   The  basic  IP  protocol  does  not
       supply  port  numbers,  they  are implemented by higher level protocols
       like udp(7) and tcp(7).  On raw sockets  sin_port  is  set  to  the  IP

           struct sockaddr_in {
               sa_family_t    sin_family; /* address family: AF_INET */
               in_port_t      sin_port;   /* port in network byte order */
               struct in_addr sin_addr;   /* internet address */

           /* Internet address. */
           struct in_addr {
               uint32_t       s_addr;     /* address in network byte order */

       sin_family  is  always  set to AF_INET.  This is required; in Linux 2.2
       most networking functions return EINVAL when this setting  is  missing.
       sin_port  contains  the  port  in network byte order.  The port numbers
       below 1024 are called privileged ports (or sometimes: reserved  ports).
       Only  privileged processes (i.e., those having the CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE
       capability) may bind(2) to these  sockets.   Note  that  the  raw  IPv4
       protocol as such has no concept of a port, they are only implemented by
       higher protocols like tcp(7) and udp(7).

       sin_addr is the IP host address.  The s_addr member of  struct  in_addr
       contains  the  host  interface  address in network byte order.  in_addr
       should be assigned one of the INADDR_* values (e.g., INADDR_ANY) or set
       using   the   inet_aton(3),   inet_addr(3),   inet_makeaddr(3)  library
       functions or directly with the name resolver (see gethostbyname(3)).

       IPv4 addresses  are  divided  into  unicast,  broadcast  and  multicast
       addresses.   Unicast  addresses  specify  a single interface of a host,
       broadcast addresses specify  all  hosts  on  a  network  and  multicast
       addresses  address  all  hosts  in  a  multicast  group.   Datagrams to
       broadcast addresses can be only sent or received when the  SO_BROADCAST
       socket flag is set.  In the current implementation, connection-oriented
       sockets are only allowed to use unicast addresses.

       Note that the address and the port are always stored  in  network  byte
       order.  In particular, this means that you need to call htons(3) on the
       number that is assigned  to  a  port.   All  address/port  manipulation
       functions in the standard library work in network byte order.

       There are several special addresses: INADDR_LOOPBACK ( always
       refers to the local host via the loopback device; INADDR_ANY  (
       means any address for binding; INADDR_BROADCAST ( means
       any host and has the same effect on bind as INADDR_ANY  for  historical

   Socket Options
       IP  supports some protocol-specific socket options that can be set with
       setsockopt(2) and read with getsockopt(2).  The socket option level for
       IP  is  IPPROTO_IP.   A  boolean integer flag is zero when it is false,
       otherwise true.

       IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP (since Linux 1.2)
              Join a multicast group.  Argument is an ip_mreqn structure.

                  struct ip_mreqn {
                      struct in_addr imr_multiaddr; /* IP multicast group
                                                       address */
                      struct in_addr imr_address;   /* IP address of local
                                                       interface */
                      int            imr_ifindex;   /* interface index */

              imr_multiaddr contains the address of the  multicast  group  the
              application  wants  to  join  or  leave.   It  must  be  a valid
              multicast  address  (or  setsockopt(2)  fails  with  the   error
              EINVAL).  imr_address is the address of the local interface with
              which the system should join the multicast group; if it is equal
              to  INADDR_ANY an appropriate interface is chosen by the system.
              imr_ifindex is the interface index of the interface that  should
              join/leave  the  imr_multiaddr  group,  or  0  to  indicate  any

              The ip_mreqn structure is available only since Linux  2.2.   For
              compatibility,  the  old  ip_mreq structure (present since Linux
              1.2) is still supported; it differs from ip_mreqn  only  by  not
              including the imr_ifindex field.  Only valid as a setsockopt(2).

       IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP (since Linux 1.2)
              Leave  a  multicast  group.   Argument is an ip_mreqn or ip_mreq
              structure similar to IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP.

       IP_FREEBIND (since Linux 2.4)
              If enabled, this boolean option allows binding to an IP  address
              that  is  nonlocal  or  does  not  (yet)  exist.   This  permits
              listening on a socket, without requiring the underlying  network
              interface  or  the  specified dynamic IP address to be up at the
              time that the application is trying to bind to it.  This  option
              is  the  per-socket  equivalent  of  the  ip_nonlocal_bind /proc
              interface described below.

       IP_HDRINCL (since Linux 2.0)
              If enabled, the user supplies an IP header in front of the  user
              data.   Only  valid  for  SOCK_RAW sockets.  See raw(7) for more
              information.  When this  flag  is  enabled  the  values  set  by
              IP_OPTIONS, IP_TTL and IP_TOS are ignored.

       IP_MTU (since Linux 2.2)
              Retrieve the current known path MTU of the current socket.  Only
              valid when the socket has been connected.  Returns  an  integer.
              Only valid as a getsockopt(2).

       IP_MTU_DISCOVER (since Linux 2.2)
              Set  or  receive  the  Path  MTU Discovery setting for a socket.
              When enabled, Linux will perform Path MTU Discovery  as  defined
              in   RFC 1191   on  SOCK_STREAM  sockets.   For  non-SOCK_STREAM
              sockets, IP_PMTUDISC_DO forces the don't-fragment flag to be set
              on  all  outgoing  packets.   It is the user's responsibility to
              packetize the data in MTU-sized chunks and to do the retransmits
              if  necessary.  The kernel will reject (with EMSGSIZE) datagrams
              that are bigger than the known path MTU.  IP_PMTUDISC_WANT  will
              fragment a datagram if needed according to the path MTU, or will
              set the don't-fragment flag otherwise.

              The system-wide default can be toggled between  IP_PMTUDISC_WANT
              and  IP_PMTUDISC_DONT by writing (respectively, zero and nonzero
              values) to the /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_no_pmtu_disc file.

              Path MTU discovery value   Meaning
              IP_PMTUDISC_WANT           Use per-route settings.
              IP_PMTUDISC_DONT           Never do Path MTU Discovery.
              IP_PMTUDISC_DO             Always do Path MTU Discovery.
              IP_PMTUDISC_PROBE          Set DF but ignore Path MTU.

              When PMTU discovery is enabled, the kernel  automatically  keeps
              track  of  the  path  MTU  per  destination  host.   When  it is
              connected to a specific  peer  with  connect(2),  the  currently
              known  path  MTU  can be retrieved conveniently using the IP_MTU
              socket option (e.g., after an  EMSGSIZE  error  occurred).   The
              path  MTU may change over time.  For connectionless sockets with
              many destinations, the new MTU for a given destination can  also
              be accessed using the error queue (see IP_RECVERR).  A new error
              will be queued for every incoming MTU update.

              While  MTU  discovery  is  in  progress,  initial  packets  from
              datagram  sockets may be dropped.  Applications using UDP should
              be aware of this and not take it into account for  their  packet
              retransmit strategy.

              To  bootstrap  the  path  MTU  discovery  process on unconnected
              sockets, it is possible to start with a big datagram size (up to
              64K-headers bytes long) and let it shrink by updates of the path

              To get an initial estimate of the path MTU, connect  a  datagram
              socket  to the destination address using connect(2) and retrieve
              the MTU by calling getsockopt(2) with the IP_MTU option.

              It is possible to implement RFC 4821 MTU probing with SOCK_DGRAM
              or  SOCK_RAW  sockets  by  setting  a value of IP_PMTUDISC_PROBE
              (available since  Linux  2.6.22).   This  is  also  particularly
              useful  for  diagnostic  tools such as tracepath(8) that wish to
              deliberately send probe packets larger than  the  observed  Path

       IP_MULTICAST_IF (since Linux 1.2)
              Set  the  local  device  for a multicast socket.  Argument is an
              ip_mreqn or ip_mreq structure similar to IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP.

              When  an  invalid  socket  option  is  passed,  ENOPROTOOPT   is

       IP_MULTICAST_LOOP (since Linux 1.2)
              Set  or  read a boolean integer argument that determines whether
              sent multicast packets  should  be  looped  back  to  the  local

       IP_MULTICAST_TTL (since Linux 1.2)
              Set or read the time-to-live value of outgoing multicast packets
              for this socket.  It is very important for multicast packets  to
              set  the  smallest  TTL  possible.  The default is 1 which means
              that multicast packets don't leave the local network unless  the
              user program explicitly requests it.  Argument is an integer.

       IP_NODEFRAG (since Linux 2.6.36)
              If  enabled  (argument  is  nonzero), the reassembly of outgoing
              packets is disabled in the netfilter layer.  This option is only
              valid for SOCK_RAW sockets.  The argument is an integer.

       IP_OPTIONS (since Linux 2.0)
              Set or get the IP options to be sent with every packet from this
              socket.   The  arguments  are  a  pointer  to  a  memory  buffer
              containing the options and the option length.  The setsockopt(2)
              call sets the IP options associated with a socket.  The  maximum
              option  size  for IPv4 is 40 bytes.  See RFC 791 for the allowed
              options.  When the  initial  connection  request  packet  for  a
              SOCK_STREAM  socket  contains IP options, the IP options will be
              set automatically to the options from the  initial  packet  with
              routing  headers  reversed.  Incoming packets are not allowed to
              change  options  after  the  connection  is  established.    The
              processing of all incoming source routing options is disabled by
              default and can be  enabled  by  using  the  accept_source_route
              /proc  interface.   Other  options  like  timestamps  are  still
              handled.  For datagram sockets, IP options can be  only  set  by
              the  local user.  Calling getsockopt(2) with IP_OPTIONS puts the
              current IP options used for sending into the supplied buffer.

       IP_PKTINFO (since Linux 2.2)
              Pass an IP_PKTINFO ancillary message  that  contains  a  pktinfo
              structure  that  supplies  some  information  about the incoming
              packet.  This only works for  datagram  oriented  sockets.   The
              argument  is a flag that tells the socket whether the IP_PKTINFO
              message should be passed or not.  The message itself can only be
              sent/retrieved as control message with a packet using recvmsg(2)
              or sendmsg(2).

                  struct in_pktinfo {
                      unsigned int   ipi_ifindex;  /* Interface index */
                      struct in_addr ipi_spec_dst; /* Local address */
                      struct in_addr ipi_addr;     /* Header Destination
                                                      address */

              ipi_ifindex is the unique index of the interface the packet  was
              received  on.   ipi_spec_dst  is the local address of the packet
              and ipi_addr is the destination address in  the  packet  header.
              If  IP_PKTINFO  is  passed to sendmsg(2) and ipi_spec_dst is not
              zero, then it is used  as  the  local  source  address  for  the
              routing table lookup and for setting up IP source route options.
              When ipi_ifindex is not zero, the primary local address  of  the
              interface specified by the index overwrites ipi_spec_dst for the
              routing table lookup.

       IP_RECVERR (since Linux 2.2)
              Enable extended reliable error message passing.  When enabled on
              a datagram socket, all generated errors will be queued in a per-
              socket error queue.  When the user  receives  an  error  from  a
              socket   operation,  the  errors  can  be  received  by  calling
              recvmsg(2)   with    the    MSG_ERRQUEUE    flag    set.     The
              sock_extended_err  structure describing the error will be passed
              in an ancillary message with the type IP_RECVERR and  the  level
              IPPROTO_IP.   This  is  useful  for  reliable  error handling on
              unconnected sockets.  The received data  portion  of  the  error
              queue contains the error packet.

              The  IP_RECVERR  control  message  contains  a sock_extended_err

                  #define SO_EE_ORIGIN_NONE    0
                  #define SO_EE_ORIGIN_LOCAL   1
                  #define SO_EE_ORIGIN_ICMP    2
                  #define SO_EE_ORIGIN_ICMP6   3

                  struct sock_extended_err {
                      uint32_t ee_errno;   /* error number */
                      uint8_t  ee_origin;  /* where the error originated */
                      uint8_t  ee_type;    /* type */
                      uint8_t  ee_code;    /* code */
                      uint8_t  ee_pad;
                      uint32_t ee_info;    /* additional information */
                      uint32_t ee_data;    /* other data */
                      /* More data may follow */

                  struct sockaddr *SO_EE_OFFENDER(struct sock_extended_err *);

              ee_errno  contains  the  errno  number  of  the  queued   error.
              ee_origin is the origin code of where the error originated.  The
              other fields are protocol-specific.   The  macro  SO_EE_OFFENDER
              returns a pointer to the address of the network object where the
              error originated from given a pointer to the ancillary  message.
              If  this  address  is  not  known,  the  sa_family member of the
              sockaddr contains AF_UNSPEC and the other fields of the sockaddr
              are undefined.

              IP uses the sock_extended_err structure as follows: ee_origin is
              set to SO_EE_ORIGIN_ICMP for errors received as an ICMP  packet,
              or  SO_EE_ORIGIN_LOCAL  for  locally  generated errors.  Unknown
              values should be ignored.  ee_type and ee_code are set from  the
              type  and  code fields of the ICMP header.  ee_info contains the
              discovered MTU for EMSGSIZE errors.  The message  also  contains
              the  sockaddr_in  of  the  node  caused  the error, which can be
              accessed with the SO_EE_OFFENDER macro.  The sin_family field of
              the  SO_EE_OFFENDER  address  is  AF_UNSPEC  when the source was
              unknown.  When the error originated from  the  network,  all  IP
              options  (IP_OPTIONS,  IP_TTL,  etc.)  enabled on the socket and
              contained in the error packet are passed  as  control  messages.
              The  payload  of  the  packet  causing  the error is returned as
              normal payload.  Note that TCP has no error queue;  MSG_ERRQUEUE
              is  not  permitted  on SOCK_STREAM sockets.  IP_RECVERR is valid
              for TCP, but all errors are returned by socket  function  return
              or SO_ERROR only.

              For raw sockets, IP_RECVERR enables passing of all received ICMP
              errors to the application, otherwise errors are only reported on
              connected sockets

              It  sets  or  retrieves  an  integer  boolean  flag.  IP_RECVERR
              defaults to off.

       IP_RECVOPTS (since Linux 2.2)
              Pass all incoming IP options to the user in a IP_OPTIONS control
              message.   The  routing  header  and  other  options are already
              filled in for the local host.   Not  supported  for  SOCK_STREAM

       IP_RECVORIGDSTADDR (since Linux 2.6.29)
              This boolean option enables the IP_ORIGDSTADDR ancillary message
              in  recvmsg(2),  in  which  the  kernel  returns  the   original
              destination   address  of  the  datagram  being  received.   The
              ancillary message contains a struct sockaddr_in.

       IP_RECVTOS (since Linux 2.2)
              If enabled the IP_TOS ancillary message is passed with  incoming
              packets.   It  contains  a  byte  which  specifies  the  Type of
              Service/Precedence  field  of  the  packet  header.   Expects  a
              boolean integer flag.

       IP_RECVTTL (since Linux 2.2)
              When  this  flag  is set, pass a IP_TTL control message with the
              time to live field of  the  received  packet  as  a  byte.   Not
              supported for SOCK_STREAM sockets.

       IP_RETOPTS (since Linux 2.2)
              Identical  to  IP_RECVOPTS,  but returns raw unprocessed options
              with timestamp and route record options not filled in  for  this

       IP_ROUTER_ALERT (since Linux 2.2)
              Pass all to-be forwarded packets with the IP Router Alert option
              set to this socket.   Only  valid  for  raw  sockets.   This  is
              useful,  for  instance, for user-space RSVP daemons.  The tapped
              packets are not forwarded  by  the  kernel;  it  is  the  user's
              responsibility  to  send  them  out  again.   Socket  binding is
              ignored, such packets are only filtered by protocol.  Expects an
              integer flag.

       IP_TOS (since Linux 1.0)
              Set or receive the Type-Of-Service (TOS) field that is sent with
              every IP packet originating from this socket.   It  is  used  to
              prioritize  packets  on  the network.  TOS is a byte.  There are
              some standard TOS  flags  defined:  IPTOS_LOWDELAY  to  minimize
              delays  for  interactive  traffic,  IPTOS_THROUGHPUT to optimize
              throughput,  IPTOS_RELIABILITY  to  optimize  for   reliability,
              IPTOS_MINCOST  should  be  used  for  "filler  data"  where slow
              transmission doesn't matter.  At most one of  these  TOS  values
              can  be specified.  Other bits are invalid and shall be cleared.
              Linux sends IPTOS_LOWDELAY datagrams first by default,  but  the
              exact  behavior  depends  on the configured queueing discipline.
              Some high priority levels may require superuser privileges  (the
              CAP_NET_ADMIN  capability).   The  priority can also be set in a
              protocol independent way by the (SOL_SOCKET, SO_PRIORITY) socket
              option (see socket(7)).

       IP_TRANSPARENT (since Linux 2.6.24)
              Setting this boolean option enables transparent proxying on this
              socket.  This socket option allows the  calling  application  to
              bind to a nonlocal IP address and operate both as a client and a
              server with the foreign address as the  local  endpoint.   NOTE:
              this requires that routing be set up in a way that packets going
              to the foreign  address  are  routed  through  the  TProxy  box.
              Enabling  this  socket option requires superuser privileges (the
              CAP_NET_ADMIN capability).

              TProxy redirection with the iptables TPROXY target also requires
              that this option be set on the redirected socket.

       IP_TTL (since Linux 1.0)
              Set  or  retrieve the current time-to-live field that is used in
              every packet sent from this socket.

   /proc interfaces
       The IP protocol supports a set of /proc interfaces  to  configure  some
       global  parameters.   The  parameters  can  be  accessed  by reading or
       writing  files  in  the  directory   /proc/sys/net/ipv4/.    Interfaces
       described  as  Boolean  take  an  integer  value,  with a nonzero value
       ("true") meaning that the corresponding option is enabled, and  a  zero
       value ("false") meaning that the option is disabled.

       ip_always_defrag (Boolean; since Linux 2.2.13)
              [New with kernel 2.2.13; in earlier kernel versions this feature
              was controlled at compile time  by  the  CONFIG_IP_ALWAYS_DEFRAG
              option; this option is not present in 2.4.x and later]

              When  this  boolean  flag  is  enabled  (not  equal 0), incoming
              fragments (parts of IP packets that arose when some host between
              origin  and  destination decided that the packets were too large
              and cut them into pieces)  will  be  reassembled  (defragmented)
              before being processed, even if they are about to be forwarded.

              Only  enable  if running either a firewall that is the sole link
              to your network or a transparent proxy; never ever use it for  a
              normal  router  or host.  Otherwise fragmented communication can
              be disturbed if  the  fragments  travel  over  different  links.
              Defragmentation also has a large memory and CPU time cost.

              This is automagically turned on when masquerading or transparent
              proxying are configured.

       ip_autoconfig (since Linux 2.2 to 2.6.17)
              Not documented.

       ip_default_ttl (integer; default: 64; since Linux 2.2)
              Set the default time-to-live value of  outgoing  packets.   This
              can be changed per socket with the IP_TTL option.

       ip_dynaddr (Boolean; default: disabled; since Linux 2.0.31)
              Enable  dynamic  socket address and masquerading entry rewriting
              on  interface  address  change.   This  is  useful  for   dialup
              interface  with  changing IP addresses.  0 means no rewriting, 1
              turns it on and 2 enables verbose mode.

       ip_forward (Boolean; default: disabled; since Linux 1.2)
              Enable IP forwarding with a boolean flag.  IP forwarding can  be
              also set on a per-interface basis.

       ip_local_port_range (since Linux 2.2)
              Contains  two  integers that define the default local port range
              allocated to sockets.  Allocation starts with the  first  number
              and  ends  with  the  second number.  Note that these should not
              conflict with the ports used by masquerading (although the  case
              is  handled).   Also  arbitrary  choices may cause problems with
              some firewall packet filters that  make  assumptions  about  the
              local  ports  in  use.   First number should be at least greater
              than 1024, or better, greater than 4096, to avoid  clashes  with
              well known ports and to minimize firewall problems.

       ip_no_pmtu_disc (Boolean; default: disabled; since Linux 2.2)
              If  enabled,  don't  do  Path  MTU  Discovery for TCP sockets by
              default.  Path MTU discovery may fail if misconfigured firewalls
              (that  drop all ICMP packets) or misconfigured interfaces (e.g.,
              a point-to-point link where the both ends  don't  agree  on  the
              MTU) are on the path.  It is better to fix the broken routers on
              the path than to turn off Path MTU Discovery  globally,  because
              not doing it incurs a high cost to the network.

       ip_nonlocal_bind (Boolean; default: disabled; since Linux 2.4)
              If  set,  allows  processes to bind(2) to nonlocal IP addresses,
              which can be quite useful, but may break some applications.

       ip6frag_time (integer; default: 30)
              Time in seconds to keep an IPv6 fragment in memory.

       ip6frag_secret_interval (integer; default: 600)
              Regeneration interval  (in  seconds)  of  the  hash  secret  (or
              lifetime for the hash secret) for IPv6 fragments.

       ipfrag_high_thresh (integer), ipfrag_low_thresh (integer)
              If the amount of queued IP fragments reaches ipfrag_high_thresh,
              the queue is pruned  down  to  ipfrag_low_thresh.   Contains  an
              integer with the number of bytes.

              See arp(7).

       All ioctls described in socket(7) apply to ip.

       Ioctls   to  configure  generic  device  parameters  are  described  in


       EACCES The user tried to execute an  operation  without  the  necessary
              permissions.   These  include:  sending  a packet to a broadcast
              address without having the  SO_BROADCAST  flag  set;  sending  a
              packet via a prohibit route; modifying firewall settings without
              superuser privileges (the CAP_NET_ADMIN capability); binding  to
              a    privileged   port   without   superuser   privileges   (the
              CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE capability).

              Tried to bind to an address already in use.

              A nonexistent interface was requested or  the  requested  source
              address was not local.

       EAGAIN Operation on a nonblocking socket would block.

              An  connection  operation  on a nonblocking socket is already in

              A connection was closed during an accept(2).

              No valid routing table entry matches  the  destination  address.
              This  error can be caused by a ICMP message from a remote router
              or for the local routing table.

       EINVAL Invalid argument passed.  For send operations this can be caused
              by sending to a blackhole route.

              connect(2) was called on an already connected socket.

              Datagram  is  bigger  than  an  MTU on the path and it cannot be

              Not enough free  memory.   This  often  means  that  the  memory
              allocation  is  limited  by the socket buffer limits, not by the
              system memory, but this is not 100% consistent.

       ENOENT SIOCGSTAMP was called on a socket where no packet arrived.

       ENOPKG A kernel subsystem was not configured.

              Invalid socket option passed.

              The operation is only defined on a  connected  socket,  but  the
              socket wasn't connected.

       EPERM  User  doesn't  have  permission  to  set  high  priority, change
              configuration, or send  signals  to  the  requested  process  or

       EPIPE  The connection was unexpectedly closed or shut down by the other

              The socket is not configured  or  an  unknown  socket  type  was

       Other  errors may be generated by the overlaying protocols; see tcp(7),
       raw(7), udp(7) and socket(7).


       IP_RECVERR, IP_ROUTER_ALERT, and IP_TRANSPARENT are Linux-specific.

       Be  very careful with the SO_BROADCAST option - it is not privileged in
       Linux.  It is easy to overload the network  with  careless  broadcasts.
       For  new  application  protocols  it is better to use a multicast group
       instead of broadcasting.  Broadcasting is discouraged.

       Some  other  BSD  sockets  implementations  provide  IP_RCVDSTADDR  and
       IP_RECVIF  socket  options  to  get  the  destination  address  and the
       interface of received datagrams.  Linux has the more general IP_PKTINFO
       for the same task.

       Some BSD sockets implementations also provide an IP_RECVTTL option, but
       an ancillary message with type IP_RECVTTL is passed with  the  incoming
       packet.  This is different from the IP_TTL option used in Linux.

       Using  SOL_IP socket options level isn't portable, BSD-based stacks use
       IPPROTO_IP level.

       For  compatibility  with  Linux  2.0,  the   obsolete   socket(AF_INET,
       SOCK_PACKET,  protocol)  syntax  is still supported to open a packet(7)
       socket.  This is deprecated and should be replaced by socket(AF_PACKET,
       SOCK_RAW,   protocol)   instead.    The  main  difference  is  the  new
       sockaddr_ll  address  structure  for  generic  link  layer  information
       instead of the old sockaddr_pkt.


       There are too many inconsistent error values.

       The  ioctls  to  configure IP-specific interface options and ARP tables
       are not described.

       Some versions  of  glibc  forget  to  declare  in_pktinfo.   Workaround
       currently is to copy it into your program from this man page.

       Receiving   the  original  destination  address  with  MSG_ERRQUEUE  in
       msg_name by recvmsg(2) does not work in some 2.2 kernels.


       recvmsg(2),   sendmsg(2),   byteorder(3),   ipfw(4),   capabilities(7),
       netlink(7), raw(7), socket(7), tcp(7), udp(7)

       RFC 791 for the original IP specification.
       RFC 1122 for the IPv4 host requirements.
       RFC 1812 for the IPv4 router requirements.


       This  page  is  part of release 3.35 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at