Provided by: libmarkdown2-dev_2.1.3-1_amd64 bug

NAME

     Markdown — The Markdown text formatting syntax

DESCRIPTION

   Philosophy
     Markdown is intended to be as easy-to-read and easy-to-write as is feasible.

     Readability, however, is emphasized above all else. A Markdown-formatted document should be
     publishable as-is, as plain text, without looking like it's been marked up with tags or
     formatting instructions. While Markdown's syntax has been influenced by several existing
     text-to-HTML filters -- including Setext, atx, Textile, reStructuredText, Grutatext, and
     EtText -- the single biggest source of inspiration for Markdown's syntax is the format of
     plain text email.

     To this end, Markdown's syntax is comprised entirely of punctuation characters, which
     punctuation characters have been carefully chosen so as to look like what they mean. E.g.,
     asterisks around a word actually look like *emphasis*. Markdown lists look like, well,
     lists. Even blockquotes look like quoted passages of text, assuming you've ever used email.

   Inline HTML
     Markdown's syntax is intended for one purpose: to be used as a format for writing for the
     web.

     Markdown is not a replacement for HTML, or even close to it. Its syntax is very small,
     corresponding only to a very small subset of HTML tags. The idea is not to create a syntax
     that makes it easier to insert HTML tags. In my opinion, HTML tags are already easy to
     insert. The idea for Markdown is to make it easy to read, write, and edit prose. HTML is a
     publishing format; Markdown is a writing format. Thus, Markdown's formatting syntax only
     addresses issues that can be conveyed in plain text.

     For any markup that is not covered by Markdown's syntax, you simply use HTML itself. There's
     no need to preface it or delimit it to indicate that you're switching from Markdown to HTML;
     you just use the tags.

     The only restrictions are that block-level HTML elements -- e.g.  <div>, <table>, <pre>,
     <p>, etc. -- must be separated from surrounding content by blank lines, and the start and
     end tags of the block should not be indented with tabs or spaces. Markdown is smart enough
     not to add extra (unwanted) <p> tags around HTML block-level tags.

     For example, to add an HTML table to a Markdown article:

               This is a regular paragraph.

               <table>
                   <tr>
                       <td>Foo</td>
                   </tr>
               </table>

               This is another regular paragraph.

     Note that Markdown formatting syntax is not processed within block-level HTML tags. E.g.,
     you can't use Markdown-style *emphasis* inside an HTML block.

     Span-level HTML tags -- e.g.  <span>, <cite>, or <del> -- can be used anywhere in a Markdown
     paragraph, list item, or header. If you want, you can even use HTML tags instead of Markdown
     formatting; e.g. if you'd prefer to use HTML <a> or <img> tags instead of Markdown's link or
     image syntax, go right ahead.

     Unlike block-level HTML tags, Markdown syntax *is* processed within span-level tags.

   Automatic Escaping for Special Characters
     In HTML, there are two characters that demand special treatment: `<` and `&`. Left angle
     brackets are used to start tags; ampersands are used to denote HTML entities. If you want to
     use them as literal characters, you must escape them as entities, e.g. `&lt;`, and `&amp;`.

     Ampersands in particular are bedeviling for web writers. If you want to write about 'AT&T',
     you need to write '`AT&amp;T`'. You even need to escape ampersands within URLs. Thus, if you
     want to link to:

               http://images.google.com/images?num=30&q=larry+bird

     you need to encode the URL as:

               http://images.google.com/images?num=30&amp;q=larry+bird

     in your anchor tag `href` attribute. Needless to say, this is easy to forget, and is
     probably the single most common source of HTML validation errors in otherwise well-marked-up
     web sites.

     Markdown allows you to use these characters naturally, taking care of all the necessary
     escaping for you. If you use an ampersand as part of an HTML entity, it remains unchanged;
     otherwise it will be translated into `&amp;`.

     So, if you want to include a copyright symbol in your article, you can write:

               &copy;

     and Markdown will leave it alone. But if you write:

               AT&T

     Markdown will translate it to:

               AT&amp;T

     Similarly, because Markdown supports inline HTML, if you use angle brackets as delimiters
     for HTML tags, Markdown will treat them as such. But if you write:

               4 < 5

     Markdown will translate it to:

               4 &lt; 5

     However, inside Markdown code spans and blocks, angle brackets and ampersands are *always*
     encoded automatically. This makes it easy to use Markdown to write about HTML code. (As
     opposed to raw HTML, which is a terrible format for writing about HTML syntax, because every
     single `<` and `&` in your example code needs to be escaped.)

Block Elements

   Paragraphs and Line Breaks
     A paragraph is simply one or more consecutive lines of text, separated by one or more blank
     lines. (A blank line is any line that looks like a blank line -- a line containing nothing
     but spaces or tabs is considered blank.) Normal paragraphs should not be indented with
     spaces or tabs.

     The implication of the "one or more consecutive lines of text" rule is that Markdown
     supports "hard-wrapped" Dtext paragraphs. This differs significantly from most other text-
     to-HTML formatters (including Movable Type's "Convert Line Breaks" option) which translate
     every line break character in a paragraph into a `<br />` tag.

     When you *do* want to insert a `<br />` break tag using Markdown, you end a line with two or
     more spaces, then type return.

     Yes, this takes a tad more effort to create a `<br />`, but a simplistic "every line break
     is a `<br />`" rule wouldn't work for Markdown.  Markdown's email-style blockquoting
      and multi-paragraph list items work best -- and look better -- when you format them with
     hard breaks.

   Headers
     Markdown supports two styles of headers, Setext and atx.

     Setext-style headers are ‘underlined’ using equal signs (for first-level headers) and dashes
     (for second-level headers). For example:

               This is an H1
               =============

               This is an H2
               -------------

     Any number of underlining `=`'s or `-`'s will work.

     Atx-style headers use 1-6 hash characters at the start of the line, corresponding to header
     levels 1-6. For example:

               # This is an H1

               ## This is an H2

               ###### This is an H6

     Optionally, you may "close" atx-style headers. This is purely cosmetic -- you can use this
     if you think it looks better. The closing hashes don't even need to match the number of
     hashes used to open the header. (The number of opening hashes determines the header level.)
     :

               # This is an H1 #

               ## This is an H2 ##

               ### This is an H3 ######

   Blockquotes
     Markdown uses email-style `>` characters for blockquoting. If you're familiar with quoting
     passages of text in an email message, then you know how to create a blockquote in Markdown.
     It looks best if you hard wrap the text and put a `>` before every line:

               > This is a blockquote with two paragraphs. Lorem ipsum
               > dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aliquam
               > hendrerit mi posuere lectus. Vestibulum enim wisi,
               > viverra nec, fringilla in, laoreet vitae, risus.
               >
               > Donec sit amet nisl. Aliquam semper ipsum sit amet
               > velit. Suspendisse id sem consectetuer libero luctus
               > adipiscing.

     Markdown allows you to be lazy and only put the `>` before the first line of a hard-wrapped
     paragraph:

               > This is a blockquote with two paragraphs. Lorem ipsum
               dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aliquam
               hendrerit mi posuere lectus. Vestibulum enim wisi,
               viverra nec, fringilla in, laoreet vitae, risus.

               > Donec sit amet nisl. Aliquam semper ipsum sit amet
                velit. Suspendisse id sem consectetuer libero luctus
                 adipiscing.

     Blockquotes can be nested (i.e. a blockquote-in-a-blockquote) by adding additional levels of
     `>`:

               > This is the first level of quoting.
               >
               > > This is nested blockquote.
               >
               > Back to the first level.

     Blockquotes can contain other Markdown elements, including headers, lists, and code blocks:

                   > ## This is a header.
                   >
                   > 1.   This is the first list item.
                   > 2.   This is the second list item.
                   >
                   > Here's some example code:
                   >
                   >     return shell_exec("echo $input | $markdown_script");

     Any decent text editor should make email-style quoting easy. For example, with BBEdit, you
     can make a selection and choose Increase Quote Level from the Text menu.

   Lists
     Markdown supports ordered (numbered) and unordered (bulleted) lists.

     Unordered lists use asterisks, pluses, and hyphens -- interchangably -- as list markers:

               *   Red
               *   Green
               *   Blue

     is equivalent to:

               +   Red
               +   Green
               +   Blue

     and:

               -   Red
               -   Green
               -   Blue

     Ordered lists use numbers followed by periods:

               1.  Bird
               2.  McHale
               3.  Parish

     It's important to note that the actual numbers you use to mark the list have no effect on
     the HTML output Markdown produces. The HTML Markdown produces from the above list is:

               <ol>
               <li>Bird</li>
               <li>McHale</li>
               <li>Parish</li>
               </ol>

     If you instead wrote the list in Markdown like this:

               1.  Bird
               1.  McHale
               1.  Parish

     or even:

               3. Bird
               1. McHale
               8. Parish

     you'd get the exact same HTML output. The point is, if you want to, you can use ordinal
     numbers in your ordered Markdown lists, so that the numbers in your source match the numbers
     in your published HTML.  But if you want to be lazy, you don't have to.

     If you do use lazy list numbering, however, you should still start the list with the number
     1. At some point in the future, Markdown may support starting ordered lists at an arbitrary
     number.

     List markers typically start at the left margin, but may be indented by up to three spaces.
     List markers must be followed by one or more spaces or a tab.

     To make lists look nice, you can wrap items with hanging indents:

               *   Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing
                   elit. Aliquam hendrerit mi posuere lectus. Vestibulum
                   enim wisi, viverra nec, fringilla in, laoreet vitae,
                   risus.
               *   Donec sit amet nisl. Aliquam semper ipsum sit amet
                   velit. Suspendisse id sem consectetuer libero luctus
                   adipiscing.

     But if you want to be lazy, you don't have to:

               *   Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing
               elit. Aliquam hendrerit mi posuere lectus. Vestibulum
               enim wisi, viverra nec, fringilla in, laoreet vitae,
               risus.
               *   Donec sit amet nisl. Aliquam semper ipsum sit amet
               velit. Suspendisse id sem consectetuer libero luctus
               adipiscing.

     If list items are separated by blank lines, Markdown will wrap the items in `<p>` tags in
     the HTML output. For example, this input:

               *   Bird
               *   Magic

     will turn into:

               <ul>
               <li>Bird</li>
               <li>Magic</li>
               </ul>

     But this:

               *   Bird

               *   Magic

     will turn into:

               <ul>
               <li><p>Bird</p></li>
               <li><p>Magic</p></li>
               </ul>

     List items may consist of multiple paragraphs. Each subsequent paragraph in a list item must
     be intended by either 4 spaces or one tab:

               1.  This is a list item with two paragraphs. Lorem ipsum
                   dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aliquam
                   hendrerit mi posuere lectus.

                   Vestibulum enim wisi, viverra nec, fringilla in,
                   laoreet vitae, risus. Donec sit amet nisl. Aliquam
                   semper ipsum sit amet velit.

               2.  Suspendisse id sem consectetuer libero luctus
                   adipiscing.

     It looks nice if you indent every line of the subsequent paragraphs, but here again,
     Markdown will allow you to be lazy:

               *   This is a list item with two paragraphs.

                   This is the second paragraph in the list item.
                   You're only required to indent the first line. Lorem
                   ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit.

               *   Another item in the same list.

     To put a blockquote within a list item, the blockquote's `>` delimiters need to be indented:

               *   A list item with a blockquote:

                   > This is a blockquote
                   > inside a list item.

     To put a code block within a list item, the code block needs to be indented *twice* -- 8
     spaces or two tabs:

               *   A list item with a code block:

                       <code goes here>

     It's worth noting that it's possible to trigger an ordered list by accident, by writing
     something like this:

               1986. What a great season.

     In other words, a *number-period-space* sequence at the beginning of a line. To avoid this,
     you can backslash-escape the period:

               1986\. What a great season.

   Code Blocks
     Pre-formatted code blocks are used for writing about programming or markup source code.
     Rather than forming normal paragraphs, the lines of a code block are interpreted literally.
     Markdown wraps a code block in both `<pre>` and `<code>` tags.

     To produce a code block in Markdown, simply indent every line of the block by at least 4
     spaces or 1 tab. For example, given this input:

               This is a normal paragraph:

                   This is a code block.

     Markdown will generate:

               <p>This is a normal paragraph:</p>

               <pre><code>This is a code block.
               </code></pre>

     One level of indentation -- 4 spaces or 1 tab -- is removed from each line of the code
     block. For example, this:

               Here is an example of AppleScript:

                   tell application "Foo"
                       beep
                   end tell

     will turn into:

               <p>Here is an example of AppleScript:</p>

               <pre><code>tell application "Foo"
                   beep
               end tell
               </code></pre>

     A code block continues until it reaches a line that is not indented (or the end of the
     article).

     Within a code block, ampersands (`&`) and angle brackets (`<` and `>`) are automatically
     converted into HTML entities. This makes it very easy to include example HTML source code
     using Markdown -- just paste it and indent it, and Markdown will handle the hassle of
     encoding the ampersands and angle brackets. For example, this:

                   <div class="footer">
                       &copy; 2004 Foo Corporation
                   </div>

     will turn into:

               <pre><code>&lt;div class="footer"&gt;
                   &amp;copy; 2004 Foo Corporation
               &lt;/div&gt;
               </code></pre>

     Regular Markdown syntax is not processed within code blocks. E.g., asterisks are just
     literal asterisks within a code block. This means it's also easy to use Markdown to write
     about Markdown's own syntax.

   Horizontal Rules
     You can produce a horizontal rule tag (`<hr />`) by placing three or more hyphens,
     asterisks, or underscores on a line by themselves. If you wish, you may use spaces between
     the hyphens or asterisks. Each of the following lines will produce a horizontal rule:

               * * *

               ***

               *****

               - - -

               ---------------------------------------

Span Elements

   Links
     Markdown supports two style of links: inline and reference.

     In both styles, the link text is delimited by [square brackets].

     To create an inline link, use a set of regular parentheses immediately after the link text's
     closing square bracket. Inside the parentheses, put the URL where you want the link to
     point, along with an *optional* title for the link, surrounded in quotes. For example:

               This is [an example](http://example.com/ "Title") inline link.

               [This link](http://example.net/) has no title attribute.

     Will produce:

               <p>This is <a href="http://example.com/" title="Title">
               an example</a> inline link.</p>

               <p><a href="http://example.net/">This link</a> has no
               title attribute.</p>

     If you're referring to a local resource on the same server, you can use relative paths:

               See my [About](/about/) page for details.

     Reference-style links use a second set of square brackets, inside which you place a label of
     your choosing to identify the link:

               This is [an example][id] reference-style link.

     You can optionally use a space to separate the sets of brackets:

               This is [an example] [id] reference-style link.

     Then, anywhere in the document, you define your link label like this, on a line by itself:

               [id]: http://example.com/  "Optional Title Here"

     That is:

     ·   Square brackets containing the link identifier (optionally indented from the left margin
         using up to three spaces);

     ·   followed by a colon;

     ·   followed by one or more spaces (or tabs);

     ·   followed by the URL for the link;

     ·   optionally followed by a title attribute for the link, enclosed in double or single
         quotes, or enclosed in parentheses.

     The following three link definitions are equivalent:

                   [foo]: http://example.com/  "Optional Title Here"
                   [foo]: http://example.com/  'Optional Title Here'
                   [foo]: http://example.com/  (Optional Title Here)

     Note: There is a known bug in Markdown.pl 1.0.1 which prevents single quotes from being used
     to delimit link titles.

     The link URL may, optionally, be surrounded by angle brackets:

               [id]: <http://example.com/>  "Optional Title Here"

     You can put the title attribute on the next line and use extra spaces or tabs for padding,
     which tends to look better with longer URLs:

               [id]: http://example.com/longish/path/to/resource/here
                   "Optional Title Here"

     Link definitions are only used for creating links during Markdown processing, and are
     stripped from your document in the HTML output.

     Link definition names may constist of letters, numbers, spaces, and punctuation -- but they
     are not case sensitive. E.g. these two links:

                   [link text][a]
                   [link text][A]

     are equivalent.

     The implicit link name shortcut allows you to omit the name of the link, in which case the
     link text itself is used as the name.  Just use an empty set of square brackets -- e.g., to
     link the word "Google" to the google.com web site, you could simply write:

                   [Google][]

     And then define the link:

                   [Google]: http://google.com/

     Because link names may contain spaces, this shortcut even works for multiple words in the
     link text:

                   Visit [Daring Fireball][] for more information.

     And then define the link:

                   [Daring Fireball]: http://daringfireball.net/

     Link definitions can be placed anywhere in your Markdown document. I tend to put them
     immediately after each paragraph in which they're used, but if you want, you can put them
     all at the end of your document, sort of like footnotes.

     Here's an example of reference links in action:

               I get 10 times more traffic from [Google] [1] than from
               [Yahoo] [2] or [MSN] [3].

                 [1]: http://google.com/        "Google"
                 [2]: http://search.yahoo.com/  "Yahoo Search"
                 [3]: http://search.msn.com/    "MSN Search"

     Using the implicit link name shortcut, you could instead write:

               I get 10 times more traffic from [Google][] than from
               [Yahoo][] or [MSN][].

                 [google]: http://google.com/        "Google"
                 [yahoo]:  http://search.yahoo.com/  "Yahoo Search"
                 [msn]:    http://search.msn.com/    "MSN Search"

     Both of the above examples will produce the following HTML output:

               <p>I get 10 times more traffic from <a href="http://google.com/"
               title="Google">Google</a> than from
               <a href="http://search.yahoo.com/" title="Yahoo Search">Yahoo</a>
               or
               <a href="http://search.msn.com/" title="MSN Search">MSN</a>.</p>

     For comparison, here is the same paragraph written using Markdown's inline link style:

               I get 10 times more traffic from
               [Google](http://google.com/ "Google") than from
               [Yahoo](http://search.yahoo.com/ "Yahoo Search") or
               [MSN](http://search.msn.com/ "MSN Search").

     The point of reference-style links is not that they're easier to write. The point is that
     with reference-style links, your document source is vastly more readable. Compare the above
     examples: using reference-style links, the paragraph itself is only 81 characters long; with
     inline-style links, it's 176 characters; and as raw HTML, it's 234 characters. In the raw
     HTML, there's more markup than there is text.

     With Markdown's reference-style links, a source document much more closely resembles the
     final output, as rendered in a browser. By allowing you to move the markup-related metadata
     out of the paragraph, you can add links without interrupting the narrative flow of your
     prose.

   Emphasis
     Markdown treats asterisks (`*`) and underscores (`_`) as indicators of emphasis. Text
     wrapped with one `*` or `_` will be wrapped with an HTML `<em>` tag; double `*`'s or `_`'s
     will be wrapped with an HTML `<strong>` tag. E.g., this input:

               *single asterisks*

               _single underscores_

               **double asterisks**

               __double underscores__

     will produce:

               <em>single asterisks</em>

               <em>single underscores</em>

               <strong>double asterisks</strong>

               <strong>double underscores</strong>

     You can use whichever style you prefer; the lone restriction is that the same character must
     be used to open and close an emphasis span.

     Emphasis can be used in the middle of a word:

               un*fucking*believable

     But if you surround an `*` or `_` with spaces, it'll be treated as a literal asterisk or
     underscore.

     To produce a literal asterisk or underscore at a position where it would otherwise be used
     as an emphasis delimiter, you can backslash escape it:

               \*this text is surrounded by literal asterisks\*

   Code
     To indicate a span of code, wrap it with backtick quotes (`` ` ``).  Unlike a pre-formatted
     code block, a code span indicates code within a normal paragraph. For example:

               Use the `printf()` function.

     will produce:

               <p>Use the <code>printf()</code> function.</p>

     To include a literal backtick character within a code span, you can use multiple backticks
     as the opening and closing delimiters:

               ``There is a literal backtick (`) here.``

     which will produce this:

               <p><code>There is a literal backtick (`) here.</code></p>

     The backtick delimiters surrounding a code span may include spaces -- one after the opening,
     one before the closing. This allows you to place literal backtick characters at the
     beginning or end of a code span:

                   A single backtick in a code span: `` ` ``

                   A backtick-delimited string in a code span: `` `foo` ``

     will produce:

                   <p>A single backtick in a code span: <code>`</code></p>

                   <p>A backtick-delimited string in a code span: <code>`foo`</code></p>

     With a code span, ampersands and angle brackets are encoded as HTML entities automatically,
     which makes it easy to include example HTML tags. Markdown will turn this:

               Please don't use any `<blink>` tags.

     into:

               <p>Please don't use any <code>&lt;blink&gt;</code> tags.</p>

     You can write this:

               `&#8212;` is the decimal-encoded equivalent of `&mdash;`.

     to produce:

               <p><code>&amp;#8212;</code> is the decimal-encoded
               equivalent of <code>&amp;mdash;</code>.</p>

   Images
     Admittedly, it's fairly difficult to devise a "natural" syntax for placing images into a
     plain text document format.

     Markdown uses an image syntax that is intended to resemble the syntax for links, allowing
     for two styles: inline and reference.

     Inline image syntax looks like this:

               ![Alt text](/path/to/img.jpg)

               ![Alt text](/path/to/img.jpg =Optional size "Optional title")

     That is:

     ·   An exclamation mark: `!`;

     ·   followed by a set of square brackets, containing the `alt` attribute text for the image;

     ·   followed by a set of parentheses, containing the URL or path to the image, an optional
         `size` attribute (in width c height format) prefixed with a `=`, and an optional `title`
         attribute enclosed in double or single quotes.

     Reference-style image syntax looks like this:

               ![Alt text][id]

     Where "id" is the name of a defined image reference. Image references are defined using
     syntax identical to link references:

               [id]: url/to/image  =Optional size "Optional title attribute"

Miscellaneous

   Automatic Links
     Markdown supports a shortcut style for creating "automatic" links for URLs and email
     addresses: simply surround the URL or email address with angle brackets. What this means is
     that if you want to
      show the actual text of a URL or email address, and also have it be
       a clickable link, you can do this:

               <http://example.com/>

     Markdown will turn this into:

               <a href="http://example.com/">http://example.com/</a>

     Automatic links for email addresses work similarly, except that Markdown will also perform a
     bit of randomized decimal and hex entity-encoding to help obscure your address from address-
     harvesting spambots. For example, Markdown will turn this:

               <address@example.com>

     into something like this:

               <a href="&#x6D;&#x61;i&#x6C;&#x74;&#x6F;:&#x61;&#x64;&#x64;&#x72;&#x65;
               &#115;&#115;&#64;&#101;&#120;&#x61;&#109;&#x70;&#x6C;e&#x2E;&#99;&#111;
               &#109;">&#x61;&#x64;&#x64;&#x72;&#x65;&#115;&#115;&#64;&#101;&#120;&#x61;
               &#109;&#x70;&#x6C;e&#x2E;&#99;&#111;&#109;</a>

     which will render in a browser as a clickable link to "address@example.com".

     (This sort of entity-encoding trick will indeed fool many, if not most, address-harvesting
     bots, but it definitely won't fool all of them. It's better than nothing, but an address
     published in this way will probably eventually start receiving spam.)

   Backslash Escapes
     Markdown allows you to use backslash escapes to generate literal characters which would
     otherwise have special meaning in Markdown's formatting syntax. For example, if you wanted
     to surround a word with literal asterisks (instead of an HTML `<em>` tag), you add
     backslashes before the asterisks, like this:

               \*literal asterisks\*

     Markdown provides backslash escapes for the following characters:
     backslash
     `             backtick
     *             asterisk
     _             underscore
                   curly braces
     []            square brackets
     ()            parentheses
     #             hash mark
     +             plus sign
     -             minus sign (hyphen)
     .             dot
                   exclamation mark

BUGS

     Markdown assumes that tabs are set to 4 spaces.

AUTHOR

     John Gruber http://daringfireball.net/

SEE ALSO

     markdown(1), markdown(3), mkd-callbacks(3), mkd-functions(3), mkd-extensions(7).

     http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown
     http://docutils.sourceforge.net/mirror/setext.html
     http://www.aaronsw.com/2002/atx/
     http://textism.com/tools/textile/
     http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html
     http://www.triptico.com/software/grutatxt.html
     http://ettext.taint.org/doc/