Provided by: postgresql-client-8.4_8.4.11-1_amd64 bug


       SET - change a run-time parameter


       SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] configuration_parameter { TO | = } { value | 'value' | DEFAULT }
       SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] TIME ZONE { timezone | LOCAL | DEFAULT }


       The SET command changes run-time configuration parameters. Many of the run-time parameters
       listed in in the documentation can be changed on-the-fly  with  SET.   (But  some  require
       superuser  privileges  to  change,  and  others  cannot be changed after server or session
       start.)  SET only affects the value used by the current session.

       If SET (or equivalently SET SESSION) is issued within a transaction that is later aborted,
       the  effects  of  the  SET command disappear when the transaction is rolled back. Once the
       surrounding transaction is committed, the effects  will  persist  until  the  end  of  the
       session, unless overridden by another SET.

       The  effects  of  SET  LOCAL  last  only  till the end of the current transaction, whether
       committed or not. A special case is SET followed by SET LOCAL within a single transaction:
       the  SET LOCAL value will be seen until the end of the transaction, but afterwards (if the
       transaction is committed) the SET value will take effect.

       The effects of SET or SET LOCAL are also canceled by rolling back to a savepoint  that  is
       earlier than the command.

       If  SET  LOCAL  is used within a function that has a SET option for the same variable (see
       CREATE FUNCTION [create_function(7)]), the effects of the SET LOCAL command  disappear  at
       function  exit;  that  is,  the  value  in effect when the function was called is restored
       anyway. This allows SET LOCAL to be used for dynamic or repeated changes  of  a  parameter
       within  a function, while still having the convenience of using the SET option to save and
       restore the caller's value. However, a  regular  SET  command  overrides  any  surrounding
       function's SET option; its effects will persist unless rolled back.

              Note:  In  PostgreSQL versions 8.0 through 8.2, the effects of a SET LOCAL would be
              canceled by releasing an earlier savepoint, or by successful exit from  a  PL/pgSQL
              exception block. This behavior has been changed because it was deemed unintuitive.


              Specifies  that  the  command  takes  effect for the current session.  (This is the
              default if neither SESSION nor LOCAL appears.)

       LOCAL  Specifies that the command takes effect for only  the  current  transaction.  After
              COMMIT  or  ROLLBACK,  the  session-level setting takes effect again. Note that SET
              LOCAL will appear to have no effect if it is executed outside a BEGIN block,  since
              the transaction will end immediately.

              Name  of  a  settable run-time parameter. Available parameters are documented in in
              the documentation and below.

       value  New value of parameter. Values can be specified as string  constants,  identifiers,
              numbers,  or  comma-separated  lists  of  these,  as appropriate for the particular
              parameter.  DEFAULT can be written  to  specify  resetting  the  parameter  to  its
              default  value  (that  is,  whatever  value  it  would  have had if no SET had been
              executed in the current session).

       Besides the configuration parameters documented in in the documentation, there are  a  few
       that can only be adjusted using the SET command or that have a special syntax:

       SCHEMA SET SCHEMA 'value' is an alias for SET search_path TO value. Only one schema can be
              specified using this syntax.

       NAMES  SET NAMES value is an alias for SET client_encoding TO value.

       SEED   Sets the internal seed for the  random  number  generator  (the  function  random).
              Allowed  values  are  floating-point  numbers  between  -1  and  1,  which are then
              multiplied by 231-1.

              The seed can also be set by invoking the function setseed:

              SELECT setseed(value);

       TIME ZONE
              SET TIME ZONE value is an alias for SET timezone TO value. The syntax SET TIME ZONE
              allows  special  syntax for the time zone specification. Here are examples of valid

                     The time zone for Berkeley, California.

                     The time zone for Italy.

              -7     The time zone 7 hours west from UTC (equivalent to PDT). Positive values are
                     east from UTC.

              INTERVAL '-08:00' HOUR TO MINUTE
                     The time zone 8 hours west from UTC (equivalent to PST).


                     Set  the  time  zone  to your local time zone (that is, the server's default
                     value of timezone; if this has not been explicitly set anywhere, it will  be
                     the zone that the server's operating system defaults to).

       See in the documentation for more information about time zones.


       The  function  set_config  provides  equivalent  functionality;  see in the documentation.
       Also, it is possible to UPDATE the pg_settings system view to perform  the  equivalent  of


       Set the schema search path:

       SET search_path TO my_schema, public;

       Set the style of date to traditional POSTGRES with ``day before month'' input convention:

       SET datestyle TO postgres, dmy;

       Set the time zone for Berkeley, California:


       Set the time zone for Italy:

       SET TIME ZONE 'Europe/Rome';


       SET TIME ZONE extends syntax defined in the SQL standard. The standard allows only numeric
       time zone offsets while PostgreSQL allows  more  flexible  time-zone  specifications.  All
       other SET features are PostgreSQL extensions.


       RESET [reset(7)], SHOW [show(7)]