Provided by: sox_14.3.2-3_amd64 bug


       SoX - Sound eXchange, the Swiss Army knife of audio manipulation


       This  manual  describes  SoX supported file formats and audio device types; the SoX manual
       set starts with sox(1).

       Format types that can SoX can determine by a filename  extension  are  listed  with  their
       names  preceded  by  a  dot.   Format  types that are optionally built into SoX are marked

       Format types that can be handled by an external library via an optional pseudo  file  type
       (currently  sndfile  or  ffmpeg)  are marked e.g. `(also with -t sndfile)'.  This might be
       useful if you have a file that doesn't work with SoX's default format readers and writers,
       and there's an external reader or writer for that format.

       To  see if SoX has support for an optional format or device, enter sox -h and look for its
       name under the list: `AUDIO FILE FORMATS' or `AUDIO DEVICE DRIVERS'.

       .raw (also with -t sndfile), .f32, .f64, .s8, .s16, .s24, .s32,
       .u8, .u16, .u24, .u32, .ul, .al, .lu, .la
              Raw (headerless) audio files.  For raw, the sample rate and the data encoding  must
              be  given using command-line format options; for the other listed types, the sample
              rate defaults to 8kHz (but may be overridden), and the data encoding is defined  by
              the  given  suffix.  Thus f32 and f64 indicate files encoded as 32 and 64-bit (IEEE
              single and double precision) floating point PCM respectively; s8, s16, s24, and s32
              indicate  8,  16, 24, and 32-bit signed integer PCM respectively; u8, u16, u24, and
              u32 indicate 8, 16, 24, and 32-bit unsigned integer PCM respectively; ul  indicates
              `μ-law'  (8-bit), al indicates `A-law' (8-bit), and lu and la are inverse bit order
              `μ-law' and inverse bit order `A-law'  respectively.   For  all  raw  formats,  the
              number of channels defaults to 1 (but may be overridden).

              Headerless  audio  files  on  a SPARC computer are likely to be of format ul;  on a
              Mac, they're likely to be u8 but with a sample rate of 11025 or 22050 Hz.

              See .ima and .vox for raw ADPCM formats, and .cdda for raw CD digital audio.

       .f4, .f8, .s1, .s2, .s3, .s4,
       .u1, .u2, .u3, .u4, .sb, .sw, .sl, .ub, .uw
              Deprecated aliases for f32, f64, s8, s16, s24, s32,
              u8, u16, u24, u32, s8, s16, s32, u8, and u16 respectively.

       .8svx (also with -t sndfile)
              Amiga 8SVX musical instrument description format.

       .aiff, .aif (also with -t sndfile)
              AIFF files as used on old Apple Macs, Apple IIc/IIgs and SGI.  SoX's  AIFF  support
              does  not include multiple audio chunks, or the 8SVX musical instrument description
              format.  AIFF files are multimedia archives and can have multiple audio and picture
              chunks  -  you may need a separate archiver to work with them.  With Mac OS X, AIFF
              has been superseded by CAF.

       .aiffc, .aifc (also with -t sndfile)
              AIFF-C is a format based on AIFF that was  created  to  allow  handling  compressed
              audio.   It  can  also  handle little endian uncompressed linear data that is often
              referred to as sowt encoding.  This encoding has also  become  the  defacto  format
              produced  by  modern Macs as well as iTunes on any platform.  AIFF-C files produced
              by other applications typically have the file extension .aif and require looking at
              its  header to detect the true format.  The sowt encoding is the only encoding that
              SoX can handle with this format.

              AIFF-C is defined in DAVIC 1.4 Part 9 Annex B.  This format is referred  from  ARIB
              STD-B24, which is specified for Japanese data broadcasting.  Any private chunks are
              not supported.

       alsa (optional)
              Advanced  Linux  Sound  Architecture  device  driver;  supports  both  playing  and
              recording  audio.  ALSA is only used in Linux-based operating systems, though these
              often support OSS (see below) as well.  Examples:
                   sox infile -t alsa
                   sox infile -t alsa default
                   sox infile -t alsa plughw:0,0
                   sox -2 -t alsa hw:1 outfile
              See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.

       .amb   Ambisonic B-Format: a specialisation of .wav with between  3  and  16  channels  of
              audio       for       use       with      an      Ambisonic      decoder.       See
     for  details.   It
              is  up  to  the  user  to  get  the channels together in the right order and at the
              correct amplitude.

       .amr-nb (optional)
              Adaptive Multi Rate - Narrow  Band  speech  codec;  a  lossy  format  used  in  3rd
              generation mobile telephony and defined in 3GPP TS 26.071 et al.

              AMR-NB  audio  has  a  fixed  sampling  rate  of 8 kHz and supports encoding to the
              following bit-rates (as selected by the -C option): 0  =  4.75  kbit/s,  1  =  5.15
              kbit/s,  2  =  5.9 kbit/s, 3 = 6.7 kbit/s, 4 = 7.4 kbit/s 5 = 7.95 kbit/s, 6 = 10.2
              kbit/s, 7 = 12.2 kbit/s.

       .amr-wb (optional)
              Adaptive Multi Rate - Wide Band speech codec; a lossy format used in 3rd generation
              mobile telephony and defined in 3GPP TS 26.171 et al.

              AMR-WB  audio  has  a  fixed  sampling  rate of 16 kHz and supports encoding to the
              following bit-rates (as selected by the -C option):  0  =  6.6  kbit/s,  1  =  8.85
              kbit/s,  2 = 12.65 kbit/s, 3 = 14.25 kbit/s, 4 = 15.85 kbit/s 5 = 18.25 kbit/s, 6 =
              19.85 kbit/s, 7 = 23.05 kbit/s, 8 = 23.85 kbit/s.

       ao (optional)
    's Audio Output device driver; works only for playing audio.  It supports a
              wide range of devices and sound systems - see its documentation for the full range.
              For the most part, SoX's use of libao cannot be configured directly; instead, libao
              configuration files must be used.

              The  filename  specified is used to determine which libao plugin to use.  Normally,
              you should specify `default' as the filename.  If that  doesn't  give  the  desired
              behavior  then you can specify the short name for a given plugin (such as pulse for
              pulse audio plugin).  Examples:
                   sox infile -t ao
                   sox infile -t ao default
                   sox infile -t ao pulse
              See also play(1) and sox(1) -d.

       .au, .snd (also with -t sndfile)
              Sun Microsystems AU files.  There are many types of AU file; DEC has  invented  its
              own  with a different magic number and byte order.  To write a DEC file, use the -L
              option with the output file options.

              Some .au files are known to have invalid AU headers; these  are  probably  original
              Sun μ-law 8000 Hz files and can be dealt with using the .ul format (see below).

              It  is  possible to override AU file header information with the -r and -c options,
              in which case SoX will issue a warning to that effect.

       .avr   Audio Visual Research format; used by a number of commercial packages on the Mac.

       .caf (optional)
              Apple's Core Audio File format.

       .cdda, .cdr
              `Red Book' Compact Disc Digital Audio (raw audio).  CDDA  has  two  audio  channels
              formatted  as 16-bit signed integers (big endian)at a sample rate of 44.1 kHz.  The
              number of (stereo) samples in each CDDA track is always a multiple of 588.

       coreaudio (optional)
              Mac OSX CoreAudio device driver: supports both playing and recording audio.   If  a
              filename  is not specific or if the name is "default" then the default audio device
              is selected.  Any other name will be used to select a specific device.   The  valid
              names  can  be seen in the System Preferences->Sound menu and then under the Output
              and Input tabs.

                   sox infile -t coreaudio
                   sox infile -t coreaudio default
                   sox infile -t coreaudio "Internal Speakers"
              See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.

       .cvsd, .cvs
              Continuously Variable Slope Delta modulation.  A headerless format used to compress
              speech  audio  for  applications such as voice mail.  This format is sometimes used
              with bit-reversed samples - the -X format option can be used to set the bit-order.

       .cvu   Continuously Variable Slope Delta modulation (unfiltered).  This is an  alternative
              handler for CVSD that is unfiltered but can be used with any bit-rate.  E.g.
                   sox infile outfile.cvu rate 28k
                   play -r 28k outfile.cvu sinc -3.4k

       .dat   Text  Data files.  These files contain a textual representation of the sample data.
              There is one line at the beginning that contains the sample rate.  Subsequent lines
              contain  two  numeric  data items: the time since the beginning of the first sample
              and the sample value.  Values are normalized so that the maximum and minimum are  1
              and  -1.   This  file format can be used to create data files for external programs
              such as FFT analysers or graph routines.  SoX can  also  convert  a  file  in  this
              format back into one of the other file formats.

       .dvms, .vms
              Used in Germany to compress speech audio for voice mail.  A self-describing variant
              of cvsd.

       .fap (optional)
              See .paf.

       ffmpeg (optional)
              This is a pseudo-type that forces ffmpeg to  be  used.  The  actual  file  type  is
              deduced  from the file name (it cannot be used on stdio).  It can read a wide range
              of audio files, not all of which are documented here, and also the audio  track  of
              many  video  files  (including  AVI, WMV and MPEG). At present only the first audio
              track of a file can be read.

       .flac (optional; also with -t sndfile)
    's Free Lossless Audio CODEC compressed audio.  FLAC is  an  open,  patent-
              free  CODEC  designed  for compressing music.  It is similar to MP3 and Ogg Vorbis,
              but lossless, meaning that audio is compressed in FLAC without any loss in quality.

              SoX can read native FLAC files (.flac) but not Ogg FLAC  files  (.ogg).   [But  see
              .ogg below for information relating to support for Ogg Vorbis files.]

              SoX  can write native FLAC files according to a given or default compression level.
              8 is the default compression level and gives the best (but slowest) compression;  0
              gives the least (but fastest) compression.  The compression level is selected using
              the -C option [see sox(1)] with a whole number from 0 to 8.

       .fssd  An alias for the .u8 format.

       .gsrt  Grandstream ring-tone files.  Whilst this file format  can  contain  A-Law,  μ-law,
              GSM,  G.722,  G.723,  G.726, G.728, or iLBC encoded audio, SoX supports reading and
              writing only A-Law and μ-law.  E.g.
                 sox music.wav -t gsrt ring.bin
                 play ring.bin

       .gsm (optional; also with -t sndfile)
              GSM 06.10 Lossy Speech Compression.  A lossy format for compressing speech which is
              used in the Global Standard for Mobile telecommunications (GSM).  It's good for its
              purpose, shrinking audio data size, but it will introduce  lots  of  noise  when  a
              given  audio  signal is encoded and decoded multiple times.  This format is used by
              some voice mail applications.  It is rather CPU intensive.

       .hcom  Macintosh HCOM files.  These are Mac FSSD files with Huffman compression.

       .htk   Single channel 16-bit PCM format used by HTK, a toolkit for building Hidden  Markov
              Model speech processing tools.

       .ircam (also with -t sndfile)
              Another name for .sf.

       .ima (also with -t sndfile)
              A headerless file of IMA ADPCM audio data. IMA ADPCM claims 16-bit precision packed
              into only 4 bits, but in fact sounds no better than .vox.

       .lpc, .lpc10
              LPC-10 is a compression scheme for speech  developed  in  the  United  States.  See
     for details. There is no associated file format,
              so SoX's implementation is headerless.

       .mat, .mat4, .mat5 (optional)
              Matlab 4.2/5.0 (respectively GNU Octave  2.0/2.1)  format  (.mat  is  the  same  as

       .m3u   A  playlist  format;  contains  a list of audio files.  SoX can read, but not write
              this file format.  See [1] for details of this format.

       .maud  An IFF-conforming audio file type, registered  by  MS  MacroSystem  Computer  GmbH,
              published  along  with  the `Toccata' sound-card on the Amiga.  Allows 8bit linear,
              16bit linear, A-Law, μ-law in mono and stereo.

       .mp3, .mp2 (optional read, optional write)
              MP3 compressed audio; MP3 (MPEG Layer 3) is a part of  the  patent-encumbered  MPEG
              standards  for  audio and video compression.  It is a lossy compression format that
              achieves good compression rates with little quality loss.

              Because MP3 is patented,  SoX  cannot  be  distributed  with  MP3  support  without
              incurring  the  patent  holder's fees.  Users who require SoX with MP3 support must
              currently compile and build SoX with the MP3 libraries (LAME  &  MAD)  from  source
              code, or, in some cases, obtain pre-built dynamically loadable libraries.

              When  reading MP3 files, up to 28 bits of precision is stored although only 16 bits
              is reported to user.  This is to allow default behavior of writing  16  bit  output
              files.   A  user  can  specify  a  higher  precision for the output file to prevent
              lossing this extra information.  MP3 output  files  will  use  up  to  24  bits  of
              precision while encoding.

              MP3  compression  parameters can be selected using SoX's -C option as follows (note
              that the current syntax is subject to change):

              The primary parameter to the LAME encoder is the bit rate. If the value of  the  -C
              value is a positive integer, it's taken as the bitrate in kbps (e.g. if you specify
              128, it uses 128 kbps).

              The second most important parameter is  probably  "quality"  (really  performance),
              which  allows  balancing  encoding speed vs. quality.  In LAME, 0 specifies highest
              quality but is very slow, while 9 selects poor quality, but  is  fast.  (5  is  the
              default and 2 is recommended as a good trade-off for high quality encodes.)

              Because  the  -C  value  is a float, the fractional part is used to select quality.
              128.2 selects 128 kbps encoding with a quality of 2. There is one problem with this
              approach. We need 128 to specify 128 kbps encoding with default quality, so 0 means
              use default. Instead of 0 you have to use .01  (or  .99)  to  specify  the  highest
              quality (128.01 or 128.99).

              LAME uses bitrate to specify a constant bitrate, but higher quality can be achieved
              using Variable Bit Rate (VBR). VBR quality (really size) is selected using a number
              from  0  to  9.  Use a value of 0 for high quality, larger files, and 9 for smaller
              files of lower quality. 4 is the default.

              In order to squeeze the selection of VBR  into  the  the  -C  value  float  we  use
              negative  numbers to select VRR. -4.2 would select default VBR encoding (size) with
              high quality (speed). One special  case  is  0,  which  is  a  valid  VBR  encoding
              parameter  but  not a valid bitrate.  Compression value of 0 is always treated as a
              high quality vbr, as a result both -0.2 and 0.2 are treated as highest quality  VBR
              (size) and high quality (speed).

              See also Ogg Vorbis for a similar format.

       .mp4, .m4a (optional)
              MP4  compressed  audio.   MP3  (MPEG 4) is part of the MPEG standards for audio and
              video compression.  See mp3 for more information.

       .nist (also with -t sndfile)
              See .sph.

       .ogg, .vorbis (optional)
    's Ogg Vorbis compressed audio; an open,  patent-free  CODEC  designed  for
              music and streaming audio.  It is a lossy compression format (similar to MP3, VQF &
              AAC) that achieves good compression rates with a minimum amount of quality loss.

              SoX can decode all  types  of  Ogg  Vorbis  files,  and  can  encode  at  different
              compression  levels/qualities given as a number from -1 (highest compression/lowest
              quality) to 10 (lowest compression, highest  quality).   By  default  the  encoding
              quality  level  is 3 (which gives an encoded rate of approx. 112kbps), but this can
              be changed using the -C option (see above) with a number from -1 to 10;  fractional
              numbers  (e.g.   3.6)  are  also  allowed.   Decoding is somewhat CPU intensive and
              encoding is very CPU intensive.

              See also .mp3 for a similar format.

       oss (optional)
              Open Sound System /dev/dsp device  driver;  supports  both  playing  and  recording
              audio.  OSS support is available in Unix-like operating systems, sometimes together
              with alternative sound systems (such as ALSA).  Examples:
                   sox infile -t oss
                   sox infile -t oss /dev/dsp
                   sox -2 -t oss /dev/dsp outfile
              See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.

       .paf, .fap (optional)
              Ensoniq PARIS file format (big and little-endian respectively).

       .pls   A playlist format; contains a list of audio files.  SoX can  read,  but  not  write
              this file format.  See [2] for details of this format.

              Note:  SoX  support  for  SHOUTcast  PLS  relies  on  wget(1) and is only partially
              supported: it's necessary to specify the audio type manually, e.g.
                   play -t mp3 "http://a.server/pls?rn=265&file=filename.pls"
              and SoX does not know about  alternative  servers  -  hit  Ctrl-C  twice  in  quick
              succession to quit.

       .prc   Psion  Record.  Used  in  Psion  EPOC  PDAs (Series 5, Revo and similar) for System
              alarms and recordings made by the built-in Record application.  When  writing,  SoX
              defaults  to  A-law,  which  is recommended; if you must use ADPCM, then use the -i
              switch. The sound quality is poor because Psion Record seems to insist on frames of
              800  samples or fewer, so that the ADPCM CODEC has to be reset at every 800 frames,
              which causes the sound to glitch every tenth of a second.

       pulseaudio (optional)
              PulseAudio driver; supports both playing and recording of audio.  PulseAudio  is  a
              cross  platform  networked  sound  server.   If  a file name is specified with this
              driver, it is ignored.  Examples:
                   sox infile -t pulseaudio
                   sox infile -t pulseaudio default
              See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.

       .pvf (optional)
              Portable Voice Format.

       .sd2 (optional)
              Sound Designer 2 format.

       .sds (optional)
              MIDI Sample Dump Standard.

       .sf (also with -t sndfile)
              IRCAM  SDIF  (Institut  de  Recherche  et  Coordination  Acoustique/Musique   Sound
              Description Interchange Format). Used by academic music software such as the CSound
              package, and the MixView sound sample editor.

       .sph, .nist (also with -t sndfile)
              SPHERE (SPeech HEader Resources)  is  a  file  format  defined  by  NIST  (National
              Institute of Standards and Technology) and is used with speech audio.  SoX can read
              these files when they contain μ-law and  PCM  data.   It  will  ignore  any  header
              information  that  says  the  data is compressed using shorten compression and will
              treat the data as either μ-law or PCM.  This will allow SoX and  the  command  line
              shorten  program  to  be  run together using pipes to encompasses the data and then
              pass the result to SoX for processing.

       .smp   Turtle Beach SampleVision files.  SMP files are for use  with  the  PC-DOS  package
              SampleVision  by  Turtle  Beach  Softworks.   This  package is for communication to
              several MIDI samplers.  All sample rates are supported by the package, although not
              all are supported by the samplers themselves.  Currently loop points are ignored.

       .snd   See .au, .sndr and .sndt.

       sndfile (optional)
              This  is  a  pseudo-type  that forces libsndfile to be used. For writing files, the
              actual file type is then taken from the output file name; for reading them,  it  is
              deduced from the file.

       sndio (optional)
              OpenBSD audio device driver; supports both playing and recording audio.
                   sox infile -t sndio
              See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.

       .sndr  Sounder  files.   An  MS-DOS/Windows  format  from  the  early '90s.  Sounder files
              usually have the extension `.SND'.

       .sndt  SoundTool files.  An MS-DOS/Windows format from the early  '90s.   SoundTool  files
              usually have the extension `.SND'.

       .sou   An alias for the .u8 raw format.

       .sox   SoX's  native  uncompressed  PCM  format, intended for storing (or piping) audio at
              intermediate processing points (i.e. between SoX  invocations).   It  has  much  in
              common  with  the  popular  WAV, AIFF, and AU uncompressed PCM formats, but has the
              following specific characteristics: the PCM samples are always  stored  as  32  bit
              signed  integers,  the  samples are stored (by default) as `native endian', and the
              number of samples in the file is recorded as a 64-bit integer.  Comments  are  also

              See  `Special  Filenames'  in  sox(1)  for  examples  of using the .sox format with

       sunau (optional)
              Sun /dev/audio device driver; supports  both  playing  and  recording  audio.   For
                   sox infile -t sunau /dev/audio
                   sox infile -t sunau -U -c 1 /dev/audio
              for older sun equipment.

              See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.

       .txw   Yamaha  TX-16W  sampler.  A file format from a Yamaha sampling keyboard which wrote
              IBM-PC format 3.5" floppies.  Handles reading of files which do not have the sample
              rate  field  set  to  one  of  the  expected  by looking at some other bytes in the
              attack/loop length fields, and defaulting to 33 kHz if the  sample  rate  is  still

       .vms   See .dvms.

       .voc (also with -t sndfile)
              Sound  Blaster  VOC  files.   VOC  files  are multi-part and contain silence parts,
              looping, and different sample rates for different chunks.  On  input,  the  silence
              parts are filled out, loops are rejected, and sample data with a new sample rate is
              rejected.  Silence with a different sample rate  is  generated  appropriately.   On
              output,  silence  is  not  detected, nor are impossible sample rates.  SoX supports
              reading (but not writing) VOC files with  multiple  blocks,  and  files  containing
              μ-law, A-law, and 2/3/4-bit ADPCM samples.

              See .ogg.

       .vox (also with -t sndfile)
              A  headerless  file  of  Dialogic/OKI  ADPCM  audio  data  commonly  comes with the
              extension .vox.  This ADPCM data has 12-bit precision packed into only 4-bits.

              Note: some early Dialogic hardware does not always reset the ADPCM encoder  at  the
              start of each vox file.  This can result in clipping and/or DC offset problems when
              it comes to decoding the audio.  Whilst little can be done about the clipping, a DC
              offset  can  be  removed  by  passing the decoded audio through a high-pass filter,
                   sox input.vox output.wav highpass 10

       .w64 (optional)
              Sonic Foundry's 64-bit RIFF/WAV format.

       .wav (also with -t sndfile)
              Microsoft .WAV RIFF files.  This is the native audio file format  of  Windows,  and
              widely used for uncompressed audio.

              Normally .wav files have all formatting information in their headers, and so do not
              need any format options specified for  an  input  file.   If  any  are,  they  will
              override  the  file  header, and you will be warned to this effect.  You had better
              know what you are doing! Output format options will cause a format conversion,  and
              the .wav will written appropriately.

              SoX  can read and write linear PCM, μ-law, A-law, MS ADPCM, and IMA (or DVI) ADPCM.
              WAV files can also  contain  audio  encoded  in  many  other  ways  (not  currently
              supported with SoX) e.g. MP3; in some cases such a file can still be read by SoX by
              overriding the file type, e.g.
                 play -t mp3 mp3-encoded.wav
              Big endian versions of RIFF files, called RIFX, are also  supported.   To  write  a
              RIFX file, use the -B option with the output file options.

       waveaudio (optional)
              MS-Windows native audio device driver.  Examples:
                   sox infile -t waveaudio
                   sox infile -t waveaudio default
                   sox infile -t waveaudio 1
                   sox infile -t waveaudio "High Definition Audio Device ("
              If  the  device  name  is omitted, -1, or default, then you get the `Microsoft Wave
              Mapper' device.  Wave Mapper means `use the system default audio devices'.  You can
              control what `default' means via the OS Control Panel.

              If  the device name given is some other number, you get that audio device by index;
              so recording with device name 0 would get  the  first  input  device  (perhaps  the
              microphone),  1 would get the second (perhaps line in), etc.  Playback using 0 will
              get the first output device (usually the only audio device).

              If the device name given is something other than a number, SoX tries  to  match  it
              (maximum 31 characters) against the names of the available devices.

              See also play(1), rec(1), and sox(1) -d.

              A  non-standard, but widely used, variant of .wav.  Some applications cannot read a
              standard WAV file header for PCM-encoded data with sample-size greater than 16-bits
              or  with  more  than  two  channels, but can read a non-standard WAV header.  It is
              likely that such applications will eventually be updated to  support  the  standard
              header,  but in the mean time, this SoX format can be used to create files with the
              non-standard header that should work with these applications.  (Note that SoX  will
              automatically detect and read WAV files with the non-standard header.)

              The most common use of this file-type is likely to be along the following lines:
                   sox infile.any -t wavpcm -s outfile.wav

       .wv (optional)
              WavPack lossless audio compression.  Note that, when converting .wav to this format
              and back again, the RIFF header is not necessarily preserved losslessly (though the
              audio is).

       .wve (also with -t sndfile)
              Psion 8-bit A-law.  Used on Psion SIBO PDAs (Series 3 and similar).  This format is
              deprecated in SoX, but will continue to be used in libsndfile.

       .xa    Maxis XA files.  These are 16-bit ADPCM audio files used by Maxis  games.   Writing
              .xa  files  is currently not supported, although adding write support should not be
              very difficult.

       .xi (optional)
              Fasttracker 2 Extended Instrument format.


       sox(1), soxi(1), libsox(3), octave(1), wget(1)

       The SoX web page at
       SoX scripting examples at

       [1]    Wikipedia, M3U,

       [2]    Wikipedia, PLS,


       Copyright 1998-2011 Chris Bagwell and SoX Contributors.
       Copyright 1991 Lance Norskog and Sundry Contributors.


       Chris Bagwell (  Other authors and contributors are listed
       in the ChangeLog file that is distributed with the source code.