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       stdlib.h - standard library definitions


       #include <stdlib.h>


       Some  of  the  functionality  described on this reference page extends the ISO C standard.
       Applications shall define the appropriate feature test macro (see  the  System  Interfaces
       volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Section 2.2, The Compilation Environment) to enable the
       visibility of these symbols in this header.

       The <stdlib.h> header shall define the following macros:

              Unsuccessful termination for exit(); evaluates to a non-zero value.

              Successful termination for exit(); evaluates to 0.

       NULL   Null pointer.

              Maximum value returned by rand(); at least 32767.

              Integer expression whose value is the  maximum  number  of  bytes  in  a  character
              specified by the current locale.

       The following data types shall be defined through typedef:

       div_t  Structure type returned by the div() function.

       ldiv_t Structure type returned by the ldiv() function.

              Structure type returned by the lldiv() function.

       size_t As described in <stddef.h> .

              As described in <stddef.h> .

       In addition, the following symbolic names and macros shall be defined as in <sys/wait.h> ,
       for use in decoding the return value from system():


       The following shall be declared as functions and may also be defined as  macros.  Function
       prototypes shall be provided.

              void          _Exit(int);

              long          a64l(const char *);

              void          abort(void);
              int           abs(int);
              int           atexit(void (*)(void));
              double        atof(const char *);
              int           atoi(const char *);
              long          atol(const char *);
              long long     atoll(const char *);
              void         *bsearch(const void *, const void *, size_t, size_t,
                                int (*)(const void *, const void *));
              void         *calloc(size_t, size_t);
              div_t         div(int, int);

              double        drand48(void);
              char         *ecvt(double, int, int *restrict, int *restrict); (LEGACY )
              double        erand48(unsigned short[3]);

              void          exit(int);

              char         *fcvt(double, int, int *restrict, int *restrict); (LEGACY )

              void          free(void *);

              char         *gcvt(double, int, char *); (LEGACY )

              char         *getenv(const char *);

              int           getsubopt(char **, char *const *, char **);
              int           grantpt(int);
              char         *initstate(unsigned, char *, size_t);
              long          jrand48(unsigned short[3]);
              char         *l64a(long);

              long          labs(long);

              void          lcong48(unsigned short[7]);

              ldiv_t        ldiv(long, long);
              long long     llabs(long long);
              lldiv_t       lldiv(long long, long long);

              long          lrand48(void);

              void         *malloc(size_t);
              int           mblen(const char *, size_t);
              size_t        mbstowcs(wchar_t *restrict, const char *restrict, size_t);
              int           mbtowc(wchar_t *restrict, const char *restrict, size_t);

              char         *mktemp(char *); (LEGACY )
              int           mkstemp(char *);
              long          mrand48(void);
              long          nrand48(unsigned short[3]);

              int           posix_memalign(void **, size_t, size_t);

              int           posix_openpt(int);
              char         *ptsname(int);
              int           putenv(char *);

              void          qsort(void *, size_t, size_t, int (*)(const void *,
                                const void *));
              int           rand(void);

              int           rand_r(unsigned *);

              long          random(void);

              void         *realloc(void *, size_t);

              char         *realpath(const char *restrict, char *restrict);
              unsigned short seed48(unsigned short[3]);

              int           setenv(const char *, const char *, int);

              void          setkey(const char *);
              char         *setstate(const char *);

              void          srand(unsigned);

              void          srand48(long);
              void          srandom(unsigned);

              double        strtod(const char *restrict, char **restrict);
              float         strtof(const char *restrict, char **restrict);
              long          strtol(const char *restrict, char **restrict, int);
              long double   strtold(const char *restrict, char **restrict);
              long long     strtoll(const char *restrict, char **restrict, int);
              unsigned long strtoul(const char *restrict, char **restrict, int);
              unsigned long long
                            strtoull(const char *restrict, char **restrict, int);
              int           system(const char *);

              int           unlockpt(int);

              int           unsetenv(const char *);

              size_t        wcstombs(char *restrict, const wchar_t *restrict, size_t);
              int           wctomb(char *, wchar_t);

       Inclusion  of  the  <stdlib.h>  header  may also make visible all symbols from <stddef.h>,
       <limits.h>, <math.h>, and <sys/wait.h>.

       The following sections are informative.








       <limits.h> , <math.h> , <stddef.h> , <sys/types.h> , <sys/wait.h> , the System  Interfaces
       volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, _Exit(), a64l(), abort(), abs(), atexit(), atof(), atoi(),
       atol(),  atoll(),  bsearch(),  calloc(),  div(),  drand48(),  erand48(),  exit(),  free(),
       getenv(),  getsubopt(),  grantpt(),  initstate(),  jrand48(),  l64a(),  labs(), lcong48(),
       ldiv(), llabs(), lldiv(), lrand48(), malloc(), mblen(), mbstowcs(),  mbtowc(),  mkstemp(),
       mrand48(),  nrand48(),  posix_memalign(), ptsname(), putenv(), qsort(), rand(), realloc(),
       realpath(), setstate(),  srand(),  srand48(),  srandom(),  strtod(),  strtof(),  strtol(),
       strtold(), strtoll(), strtoul(), strtoull(), unlockpt(), wcstombs(), wctomb()


       Portions  of  this  text  are  reprinted  and  reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  --  Portable  Operating  System
       Interface  (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
       the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and  The  Open  Group.  In  the
       event  of  any  discrepancy  between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group  Standard  is  the  referee  document.  The
       original Standard can be obtained online at .