Provided by: libtecla1-dev_1.6.1-5_amd64 bug

NAME

       tecla, teclarc - The user interface provided by the Tecla library.

DESCRIPTION

       This  man  page describes the command-line editing features that are available to users of
       programs that read keyboard input via the Tecla library. Users of the tcsh shell will find
       the  default  key-bindings  very familiar. Users of the bash shell will also find it quite
       familiar, but with a few minor differences, most  notably  in  how  forward  and  backward
       searches  through  the  list  of  historical  commands  are performed. There are two major
       editing modes, one with emacs-like key-bindings and another with vi-like key-bindings.  By
       default  emacs  mode  is enabled, but vi mode can alternatively be selected via the user's
       configuration file. This file can also be used to change the bindings of  individual  keys
       to suit the user's preferences. By default, tab completion is provided. If the application
       hasn't reconfigured this to complete other types of symbols, then tab completion completes
       file-names.

KEY SEQUENCE NOTATION

       In the rest of this man page, and also in all Tecla configuration files, key-sequences are
       expressed as follows.

       ^A  or  C-a
           This is a control-A, entered by pressing the control key at
           the same time as the A key.

       \E    or   M-
           In key-sequences, both of these notations can be entered
           either by pressing the escape key, then the following key, or by
           pressing the Meta key at the same time as the following key. Thus
           the key sequence M-p can be typed in two ways, by pressing
           the escape key, followed by pressing p, or by pressing the
           Meta key at the same time as p.

       up
           This refers to the up-arrow key.

       down
           This refers to the down-arrow key.

       left
           This refers to the left-arrow key.

       right
           This refers to the right-arrow key.

       a
           This is just a normal A key.

THE TECLA CONFIGURATION FILE

       By default,  Tecla  looks  for  a  file  called  .teclarc  in  your  home  directory  (ie.
       ~/.teclarc).  If it finds this file, it reads it, interpreting each line as defining a new
       key binding or an editing configuration option. Since the emacs keybindings are  installed
       by default, if you want to use the non-default vi editing mode, the most important item to
       go in this file is the following line:

         edit-mode vi

       This will re-configure the default bindings for vi-mode. The  complete  set  of  arguments
       that this command accepts are:

         vi     -  Install key-bindings like those of the vi
                   editor.
         emacs  -  Install key-bindings like those of the emacs
                   editor. This is the default.
         none   -  Use just the native line editing facilities
                   provided by the terminal driver.

       To  prevent  the  terminal  bell  from  being  rung, such as when an unrecognized control-
       sequence is typed, place the following line in the configuration file:

         nobeep

       An example of a key binding line in the configuration file is the following.

         bind M-[2~ insert-mode

       On many keyboards, the above key sequence is generated when one presses the insert key, so
       with  this keybinding, one can toggle between the emacs-mode insert and overwrite modes by
       hitting one key. One could also do it by typing out the above sequence of  characters  one
       by  one.  As explained above, the M- part of this sequence can be typed either by pressing
       the escape key before the following key, or by pressing the Meta key at the same  time  as
       the  following  key. Thus if you had set the above key binding, and the insert key on your
       keyboard didn't generate the above key sequence, you could still type it in either of  the
       following 2 ways.

         1. Hit the escape key momentarily, then press '[', then '2', then
            finally '~'.

         2. Press the meta key at the same time as pressing the '[' key,
            then press '2', then '~'.

       If  you  set  a keybinding for a key-sequence that is already bound to a function, the new
       binding overrides the old one. If in the new binding you omit the name of the new function
       to bind to the key-sequence, the original binding becomes undefined.

       Starting  with  versions  of  libtecla  later  than  1.3.3  it  is  now  possible  to bind
       keysequences that begin with a printable character. Previously key-sequences were required
       to start with a control or meta character.

       Note  that  the special keywords "up", "down", "left" and "right" refer to the arrow keys,
       and are thus not treated as keysequences. So, for example, to rebind the up and down arrow
       keys  to use the history search mechanism instead of the simple history recall method, you
       could place the following in your configuration file:

         bind up history-search-backwards
         bind down history-search-backwards

       To unbind an existing binding, you can do this with the bind command by omitting  to  name
       any  action  to  rebind  the  key  sequence  to.  For example, by not specifying an action
       function, the following command unbinds the default beginning-of-line action from  the  ^A
       key sequence:

         bind ^A

       If  you  create  a  ~/.teclarc configuration file, but it appears to have no effect on the
       program, check the documentation of the program to see if the  author  chose  a  different
       name for this file.

FILENAME AND TILDE COMPLETION

       With  the default key bindings, pressing the TAB key (aka. ^I) results in Tecla attempting
       to complete the incomplete filename that precedes the  cursor.  Tecla  searches  backwards
       from  the  cursor,  looking  for the start of the filename, stopping when it hits either a
       space or the start of the line. If more than one file has the specified prefix, then Tecla
       completes  the  filename  up  to the point at which the ambiguous matches start to differ,
       then lists the possible matches.

       In addition to literally written filenames, Tecla can complete files that  start  with  ~/
       and ~user/ expressions and that contain $envvar expressions. In particular, if you hit TAB
       within an incomplete ~user, expression, Tecla  will  attempt  to  complete  the  username,
       listing any ambiguous matches.

       The  completion binding is implemented using the cpl_word_completions() function, which is
       also available separately to users of this library. See  the  cpl_word_completions(3)  man
       page for more details.

FILENAME EXPANSION

       With  the  default  key  bindings,  pressing  ^X* causes Tecla to expand the filename that
       precedes the cursor, replacing ~/ and  ~user/  expressions  with  the  corresponding  home
       directories, and replacing $envvar expressions with the value of the specified environment
       variable, then if there are any wildcards, replacing the so far expanded filename  with  a
       space-separated list of the files which match the wild cards.

       The  expansion  binding  is  implemented  using  the  ef_expand_file()  function.  See the
       ef_expand_file(3) man page for more details.

RECALLING PREVIOUSLY TYPED LINES

       Every time that a new line is entered by the user, it is appended to a list of  historical
       input  lines  maintained  within the GetLine resource object. You can traverse up and down
       this list using the up and down arrow keys. Alternatively, you can do the  same  with  the
       ^P,  and ^N keys, and in vi command mode you can alternatively use the k and j characters.
       Thus pressing up-arrow once, replaces the current input line with the  previously  entered
       line.  Pressing  up-arrow  again,  replaces this with the line that was entered before it,
       etc.. Having gone back one or more lines into the history list, one can  return  to  newer
       lines  by pressing down-arrow one or more times. If you do this sufficient times, you will
       return to the original line that you were entering when you first hit up-arrow.

       Note that in vi mode, all of the history recall functions switch the library into  command
       mode.

       In  emacs  mode  the  M-p and M-n keys work just like the ^P and ^N keys, except that they
       skip all but those historical lines which share the prefix that precedes the cursor. In vi
       command  mode  the upper case K and J characters do the same thing, except that the string
       that they search for includes the character under the cursor as well as what precedes it.

       Thus for example, suppose that you were in emacs  mode,  and  you  had  just  entered  the
       following list of commands in the order shown:

         ls ~/tecla/
         cd ~/tecla
         ls -l getline.c
         emacs ~/tecla/getline.c

       If you next typed:

         ls

       and  then  hit  M-p,  then  rather  than  returning the previously typed emacs line, which
       doesn't start with "ls", Tecla would recall the "ls -l getline.c" line. Pressing M-p again
       would recall the "ls ~/tecla/" line.

       Note  that  if  the  string  that  you  are  searching  for,  contains  any of the special
       characters, *, ?, or '[', then it is interpretted  as  a  pattern  to  be  matched.  Thus,
       cotinuing  with the above example, after typing in the list of commands shown, if you then
       typed:

         *tecla*

       and hit M-p, then the "emacs ~/tecla/getline.c" line would be  recalled  first,  since  it
       contains  the word tecla somewhere in the line, Similarly, hitting M-p again, would recall
       the "ls ~/tecla/" line, and hitting it once more would recall the "ls ~/tecla/" line.  The
       pattern   syntax   is   the  same  as  that  described  for  filename  expansion,  in  the
       ef_expand_file(3 man page.

HISTORY FILES

       Authors of programs that use the Tecla  library  have  the  option  of  saving  historical
       command-lines  in  a  file before exiting, and subsequently reading them back in from this
       file when the program is next started. There is no standard name for this file,  since  it
       makes  sense  for  each  application  to  use  its own history file, so that commands from
       different applications don't get mixed up.

INTERNATIONAL CHARACTER SETS

       Since libtecla version 1.4.0, Tecla has been  8-bit  clean.  This  means  that  all  8-bit
       characters  that are printable in the user's current locale are now displayed verbatim and
       included in the returned input line.  Assuming that the calling program correctly contains
       a call like the following,

         setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "");

       then  the current locale is determined by the first of the environment variables LC_CTYPE,
       LC_ALL, and LANG, that is found to contain a valid locale name. If none of these variables
       are defined, or the program neglects to call setlocale, then the default C locale is used,
       which is US 7-bit ASCII. On most unix-like platforms, you can get a list of valid  locales
       by typing the command:

         locale -a

       at the shell prompt.

   Meta keys and locales
       Beware  that  in  most  locales  other  than  the default C locale, meta characters become
       printable, and they are then no longer considered to match M-c style  key  bindings.  This
       allows  international  characters  to be entered with the compose key without unexpectedly
       triggering meta key bindings. You can still invoke meta bindings, since there are actually
       two  ways  to  do  this.  For  example the binding M-c can also be invoked by pressing the
       escape key momentarily, then pressing the c key, and this will work regardless of  locale.
       Moreover,  many  modern  terminal  emulators,  such  as gnome's gnome-terminal's and KDE's
       konsole terminals, already generate escape pairs like this when  you  use  the  meta  key,
       rather  than a real meta character, and other emulators usually have a way to request this
       behavior, so you can continue to use the meta key on most systems.

       For example, although xterm terminal emulators generate  real  8-bit  meta  characters  by
       default  when you use the meta key, they can be configured to output the equivalent escape
       pair by setting their EightBitInput X resource to False. You can either do this by placing
       a line like the following in your ~/.Xdefaults file,

         XTerm*EightBitInput: False

       or  by  starting  an  xterm with an -xrm '*EightBitInput: False' command-line argument. In
       recent versions of xterm you can toggle this feature on  and  off  with  the  "Meta  Sends
       Escape"  option in the menu that is displayed when you press the left mouse button and the
       control key within an xterm window. In CDE, dtterms can be similarly coerced  to  generate
       escape pairs in place of meta characters, by setting the Dtterm*KshMode resource to True.

   Entering international characters
       If  you  don't have a keyboard that generates all of the international characters that you
       need, there is usually a compose key that will allow you to enter special characters, or a
       way  to  create  one.  For example, under X windows on unix-like systems, if your keyboard
       doesn't have a compose key, you can designate a redundant key to serve this  purpose  with
       the  xmodmap  command. For example, on many PC keyboards there is a microsoft-windows key,
       which is otherwise useless under Linux. On my laptop the xev program reports that pressing
       this  key  generates  keycode  115,  so  to  turn  this  key  into a compose key, I do the
       following:

         xmodmap -e 'keycode 115 = Multi_key'

       I can then enter an i with a umlaut over it by typing this key, followed by ", followed by
       i.

THE AVAILABLE KEY BINDING FUNCTIONS

       The  following is a list of the editing functions provided by the Tecla library. The names
       in the leftmost column of the list can be used in configuration  files  to  specify  which
       function  a given key or combination of keys should invoke. They are also used in the next
       two sections to list the default key-bindings in emacs and vi modes.

         user-interrupt           -  Send a SIGINT signal to the
                                     parent process.
         abort                    -  Send a SIGABRT signal to the
                                     parent process.
         suspend                  -  Suspend the parent process.
         stop-output              -  Pause terminal output.
         start-output             -  Resume paused terminal output.
         literal-next             -  Arrange for the next character
                                     to be treated as a normal
                                     character. This allows control
                                     characters to be entered.
         cursor-right             -  Move the cursor one character
                                     right.
         cursor-left              -  Move the cursor one character
                                     left.
         insert-mode              -  Toggle between insert mode and
                                     overwrite mode.
         beginning-of-line        -  Move the cursor to the
                                     beginning of the line.
         end-of-line              -  Move the cursor to the end of
                                     the line.
         delete-line              -  Delete the contents of the
                                     current line.
         kill-line                -  Delete everything that follows
                                     the cursor.
         backward-kill-line       -  Delete all characters between
                                     the cursor and the start of the
                                     line.
         forward-word             -  Move to the end of the word
                                     which follows the cursor.
         forward-to-word          -  Move the cursor to the start of
                                     the word that follows the
                                     cursor.
         backward-word            -  Move to the start of the word
                                     which precedes the cursor.
         goto-column              -  Move the cursor to the
                                     1-relative column in the line
                                     specified by any preceding
                                     digit-argument sequences (see
                                     ENTERING REPEAT COUNTS below).
         find-parenthesis         -  If the cursor is currently
                                     over a parenthesis character,
                                     move it to the matching
                                     parenthesis character. If not
                                     over a parenthesis character
                                     move right to the next close
                                     parenthesis.
         forward-delete-char      -  Delete the character under the
                                     cursor.
         backward-delete-char     -  Delete the character which
                                     precedes the cursor.
         list-or-eof              -  This is intended for binding
                                     to ^D. When invoked when the
                                     cursor is within the line it
                                     displays all possible
                                     completions then redisplays
                                     the line unchanged. When
                                     invoked on an empty line, it
                                     signals end-of-input (EOF) to
                                     the caller of gl_get_line().
         del-char-or-list-or-eof  -  This is intended for binding
                                     to ^D. When invoked when the
                                     cursor is within the line it
                                     invokes forward-delete-char.
                                     When invoked at the end of the
                                     line it displays all possible
                                     completions then redisplays
                                     the line unchanged. When
                                     invoked on an empty line, it
                                     signals end-of-input (EOF) to
                                     the caller of gl_get_line().
         forward-delete-word      -  Delete the word which follows
                                     the cursor.
         backward-delete-word     -  Delete the word which precedes
                                     the cursor.
         upcase-word              -  Convert all of the characters
                                     of the word which follows the
                                     cursor, to upper case.
         downcase-word            -  Convert all of the characters
                                     of the word which follows the
                                     cursor, to lower case.
         capitalize-word          -  Capitalize the word which
                                     follows the cursor.
         change-case              -  If the next character is upper
                                     case, toggle it to lower case
                                     and vice versa.
         redisplay                -  Redisplay the line.
         clear-screen             -  Clear the terminal, then
                                     redisplay the current line.
         transpose-chars          -  Swap the character under the
                                     cursor with the character just
                                     before the cursor.
         set-mark                 -  Set a mark at the position of
                                     the cursor.
         exchange-point-and-mark  -  Move the cursor to the last
                                     mark that was set, and move
                                     the mark to where the cursor
                                     used to be.
         kill-region              -  Delete the characters that lie
                                     between the last mark that was
                                     set, and the cursor.
         copy-region-as-kill      -  Copy the text between the mark
                                     and the cursor to the cut
                                     buffer, without deleting the
                                     original text.
         yank                     -  Insert the text that was last
                                     deleted, just before the
                                     current position of the cursor.
         append-yank              -  Paste the current contents of
                                     the cut buffer, after the
                                     cursor.
         up-history               -  Recall the next oldest line
                                     that was entered. Note that
                                     in vi mode you are left in
                                     command mode.
         down-history             -  Recall the next most recent
                                     line that was entered. If no
                                     history recall session is
                                     currently active, the next
                                     line from a previous recall
                                     session is recalled. Note that
                                     in vi mode you are left in
                                     command mode.
         history-search-backward  -  Recall the next oldest line
                                     who's prefix matches the string
                                     which currently precedes the
                                     cursor (in vi command-mode the
                                     character under the cursor is
                                     also included in the search
                                     string).  Note that in vi mode
                                     you are left in command mode.
         history-search-forward   -  Recall the next newest line
                                     who's prefix matches the string
                                     which currently precedes the
                                     cursor (in vi command-mode the
                                     character under the cursor is
                                     also included in the search
                                     string).  Note that in vi mode
                                     you are left in command mode.
         history-re-search-backward -Recall the next oldest line
                                     who's prefix matches that
                                     established by the last
                                     invocation of either
                                     history-search-forward or
                                     history-search-backward.
         history-re-search-forward - Recall the next newest line
                                     who's prefix matches that
                                     established by the last
                                     invocation of either
                                     history-search-forward or
                                     history-search-backward.
         complete-word            -  Attempt to complete the
                                     incomplete word which
                                     precedes the cursor. Unless
                                     the host program has customized
                                     word completion, filename
                                     completion is attempted. In vi
                                     commmand mode the character
                                     under the cursor is also
                                     included in the word being
                                     completed, and you are left in
                                     vi insert mode.
         expand-filename          -  Within the command line, expand
                                     wild cards, tilde expressions
                                     and dollar expressions in the
                                     filename which immediately
                                     precedes the cursor. In vi
                                     commmand mode the character
                                     under the cursor is also
                                     included in the filename being
                                     expanded, and you are left in
                                     vi insert mode.
         list-glob                -  List any filenames which match
                                     the wild-card, tilde and dollar
                                     expressions in the filename
                                     which immediately precedes the
                                     cursor, then redraw the input
                                     line unchanged.
         list-history             -  Display the contents of the
                                     history list for the current
                                     history group. If a repeat
                                     count of > 1 is specified,
                                     only that many of the most
                                     recent lines are displayed.
                                     See the "ENTERING REPEAT
                                     COUNTS" section.
         read-from-file           -  Temporarily switch to reading
                                     input from the file who's
                                     name precedes the cursor.
         read-init-files          -  Re-read teclarc configuration
                                     files.
         beginning-of-history     -  Move to the oldest line in the
                                     history list. Note that in vi
                                     mode you are left in command
                                     mode.
         end-of-history           -  Move to the newest line in the
                                     history list (ie. the current
                                     line). Note that in vi mode
                                     this leaves you in command
                                     mode.
         digit-argument           -  Enter a repeat count for the
                                     next key-binding function.
                                     For details, see the ENTERING
                                     REPEAT COUNTS section.
         newline                  -  Terminate and return the
                                     current contents of the
                                     line, after appending a
                                     newline character. The newline
                                     character is normally '\n',
                                     but will be the first
                                     character of the key-sequence
                                     that invoked the newline
                                     action, if this happens to be
                                     a printable character. If the
                                     action was invoked by the
                                     '\n' newline character or the
                                     '\r' carriage return
                                     character, the line is
                                     appended to the history
                                     buffer.
         repeat-history           -  Return the line that is being
                                     edited, then arrange for the
                                     next most recent entry in the
                                     history buffer to be recalled
                                     when Tecla is next called.
                                     Repeatedly invoking this
                                     action causes successive
                                     historical input lines to be
                                     re-executed. Note that this
                                     action is equivalent to the
                                     'Operate' action in ksh.
         ring-bell                -  Ring the terminal bell, unless
                                     the bell has been silenced via
                                     the nobeep configuration
                                     option (see the THE TECLA
                                     CONFIGURATION FILE section).
         forward-copy-char        -  Copy the next character into
                                     the cut buffer (NB. use repeat
                                     counts to copy more than one).
         backward-copy-char       -  Copy the previous character
                                     into the cut buffer.
         forward-copy-word        -  Copy the next word into the cut
                                     buffer.
         backward-copy-word       -  Copy the previous word into the
                                     cut buffer.
         forward-find-char        -  Move the cursor to the next
                                     occurrence of the next
                                     character that you type.
         backward-find-char       -  Move the cursor to the last
                                     occurrence of the next
                                     character that you type.
         forward-to-char          -  Move the cursor to the
                                     character just before the next
                                     occurrence of the next
                                     character that the user types.
         backward-to-char         -  Move the cursor to the
                                     character just after the last
                                     occurrence before the cursor
                                     of the next character that the
                                     user types.
         repeat-find-char         -  Repeat the last
                                     backward-find-char,
                                     forward-find-char,
                                     backward-to-char or
                                     forward-to-char.
         invert-refind-char       -  Repeat the last
                                     backward-find-char,
                                     forward-find-char,
                                     backward-to-char, or
                                     forward-to-char in the
                                     opposite direction.
         delete-to-column         -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to the column that
                                     is specified by the repeat
                                     count.
         delete-to-parenthesis    -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including
                                     the matching parenthesis, or
                                     next close parenthesis.
         forward-delete-find      -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     following occurence of the
                                     next character typed.
         backward-delete-find     -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     preceding occurence of the
                                     next character typed.
         forward-delete-to        -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the following
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed.
         backward-delete-to       -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the preceding
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed.
         delete-refind            -  Repeat the last *-delete-find
                                     or *-delete-to action.
         delete-invert-refind     -  Repeat the last *-delete-find
                                     or *-delete-to action, in the
                                     opposite direction.
         copy-to-column           -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to the column that
                                     is specified by the repeat
                                     count, into the cut buffer.
         copy-to-parenthesis      -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including
                                     the matching parenthesis, or
                                     next close parenthesis, into
                                     the cut buffer.
         forward-copy-find        -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     following occurence of the
                                     next character typed, into the
                                     cut buffer.
         backward-copy-find       -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     preceding occurence of the
                                     next character typed, into the
                                     cut buffer.
         forward-copy-to          -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the following
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed, into the cut
                                     buffer.
         backward-copy-to         -  Copy the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the preceding
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed, into the cut
                                     buffer.
         copy-refind              -  Repeat the last *-copy-find
                                     or *-copy-to action.
         copy-invert-refind       -  Repeat the last *-copy-find
                                     or *-copy-to action, in the
                                     opposite direction.
         vi-mode                  -  Switch to vi mode from emacs
                                     mode.
         emacs-mode               -  Switch to emacs mode from vi
                                     mode.
         vi-insert                -  From vi command mode, switch to
                                     insert mode.
         vi-overwrite             -  From vi command mode, switch to
                                     overwrite mode.
         vi-insert-at-bol         -  From vi command mode, move the
                                     cursor to the start of the line
                                     and switch to insert mode.
         vi-append-at-eol         -  From vi command mode, move the
                                     cursor to the end of the line
                                     and switch to append mode.
         vi-append                -  From vi command mode, move the
                                     cursor one position right, and
                                     switch to insert mode.
         vi-replace-char          -  From vi command mode, replace
                                     the character under the cursor
                                     with the the next character
                                     entered.
         vi-forward-change-char   -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the next character then enter
                                     insert mode.
         vi-backward-change-char  -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the preceding character then
                                     enter insert mode.
         vi-forward-change-word   -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the next word then enter
                                     insert mode.
         vi-backward-change-word  -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the preceding word then
                                     enter insert mode.
         vi-change-rest-of-line   -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     from the cursor to the end of
                                     the line, then enter insert
                                     mode.
         vi-change-line           -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the current line, then enter
                                     insert mode.
         vi-change-to-bol         -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     all characters between the
                                     cursor and the beginning of
                                     the line, then enter insert
                                     mode.
         vi-change-to-column      -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the characters from the cursor
                                     up to the column that is
                                     specified by the repeat count,
                                     then enter insert mode.
         vi-change-to-parenthesis -  Delete the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including
                                     the matching parenthesis, or
                                     next close parenthesis, then
                                     enter vi insert mode.
         vi-forward-change-find   -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     following occurence of the
                                     next character typed, then
                                     enter insert mode.
         vi-backward-change-find  -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the characters from the
                                     cursor up to and including the
                                     preceding occurence of the
                                     next character typed, then
                                     enter insert mode.
         vi-forward-change-to     -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the following
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed, then enter
                                     insert mode.
         vi-backward-change-to    -  From vi command mode, delete
                                     the characters from the
                                     cursor up to, but not
                                     including, the preceding
                                     occurence of the next
                                     character typed, then enter
                                     insert mode.
         vi-change-refind         -  Repeat the last
                                     vi-*-change-find or
                                     vi-*-change-to action.
         vi-change-invert-refind  -  Repeat the last
                                     vi-*-change-find or
                                     vi-*-change-to action, in the
                                     opposite direction.
         vi-undo                  -  In vi mode, undo the last
                                     editing operation.
         vi-repeat-change         -  In vi command mode, repeat the
                                     last command that modified the
                                     line.

DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS IN EMACS MODE

       The following default key bindings, which can be  overriden  by  the  Tecla  configuration
       file,  are  designed  to  mimic most of the bindings of the unix tcsh shell, when it is in
       emacs editing mode.

       This is the default editing mode of the Tecla library.

       Under UNIX the terminal driver sets a number of special keys for  certain  functions.  The
       tecla  library  attempts  to  use  the  same  keybindings to maintain consistency. The key
       sequences shown for the following 6 bindings are thus just  examples  of  what  they  will
       probably  be  set  to.  If  you  have used the stty command to change these keys, then the
       default bindings should match.

         ^C     ->   user-interrupt
         ^\     ->   abort
         ^Z     ->   suspend
         ^Q     ->   start-output
         ^S     ->   stop-output
         ^V     ->   literal-next

       The cursor keys are refered to by name, as follows. This is  necessary  because  different
       types of terminals generate different key sequences when their cursor keys are pressed.

         right  ->   cursor-right
         left   ->   cursor-left
         up     ->   up-history
         down   ->   down-history

       The remaining bindings don't depend on the terminal setttings.

         ^F     ->   cursor-right
         ^B     ->   cursor-left
         M-i    ->   insert-mode
         ^A     ->   beginning-of-line
         ^E     ->   end-of-line
         ^U     ->   delete-line
         ^K     ->   kill-line
         M-f    ->   forward-word
         M-b    ->   backward-word
         ^D     ->   del-char-or-list-or-eof
         ^H     ->   backward-delete-char
         ^?     ->   backward-delete-char
         M-d    ->   forward-delete-word
         M-^H   ->   backward-delete-word
         M-^?   ->   backward-delete-word
         M-u    ->   upcase-word
         M-l    ->   downcase-word
         M-c    ->   capitalize-word
         ^R     ->   redisplay
         ^L     ->   clear-screen
         ^T     ->   transpose-chars
         ^@     ->   set-mark
         ^X^X   ->   exchange-point-and-mark
         ^W     ->   kill-region
         M-w    ->   copy-region-as-kill
         ^Y     ->   yank
         ^P     ->   up-history
         ^N     ->   down-history
         M-p    ->   history-search-backward
         M-n    ->   history-search-forward
         ^I     ->   complete-word
         ^X*    ->   expand-filename
         ^X^F   ->   read-from-file
         ^X^R   ->   read-init-files
         ^Xg    ->   list-glob
         ^Xh    ->   list-history
         M-<    ->   beginning-of-history
         M->    ->   end-of-history
         \n     ->   newline
         \r     ->   newline
         M-o    ->   repeat-history
         M-^V   ->   vi-mode

         M-0, M-1, ... M-9  ->  digit-argument  (see below)

       Note  that  ^I  is  what  the  TAB key generates, and that ^@ can be generated not only by
       pressing the control key and the @ key simultaneously, but also by  pressing  the  control
       key and the space bar at the same time.

DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS IN VI MODE

       The  following  default  key  bindings  are  designed  to mimic the vi style of editing as
       closely as possible. This means that very  few  editing  functions  are  provided  in  the
       initial  character  input mode, editing functions instead being provided by the vi command
       mode. Vi command mode is entered whenever the escape character is pressed, or  whenever  a
       key-sequence  that  starts  with  a meta character is entered. In addition to mimicing vi,
       libtecla provides bindings for tab completion, wild-card  expansion  of  file  names,  and
       historical line recall.

       To learn how to tell the Tecla library to use vi mode instead of the default emacs editing
       mode, see the earlier section entitled THE TECLA CONFIGURATION FILE.

       Under UNIX the terminal driver sets a number of special keys for  certain  functions.  The
       Tecla  library  attempts to use the same keybindings to maintain consistency, binding them
       both in input mode and in command mode. The  key  sequences  shown  for  the  following  6
       bindings are thus just examples of what they will probably be set to. If you have used the
       stty command to change these keys, then the default bindings should match.

         ^C     ->   user-interrupt
         ^\     ->   abort
         ^Z     ->   suspend
         ^Q     ->   start-output
         ^S     ->   stop-output
         ^V     ->   literal-next
         M-^C   ->   user-interrupt
         M-^\   ->   abort
         M-^Z   ->   suspend
         M-^Q   ->   start-output
         M-^S   ->   stop-output

       Note that above, most of the bindings are defined twice, once as a raw control  code  like
       ^C  and then a second time as a meta character like M-^C. The former is the binding for vi
       input mode, whereas the latter is the binding for vi command mode. Once  in  command  mode
       all key-sequences that the user types that they don't explicitly start with an escape or a
       meta key, have their first key secretly converted to  a  meta  character  before  the  key
       sequence  is looked up in the key binding table. Thus, once in command mode, when you type
       the letter i, for example, the Tecla library actually looks up the binding for M-i.

       The cursor keys are refered to by name, as follows. This is  necessary  because  different
       types of terminals generate different key sequences when their cursor keys are pressed.

         right  ->   cursor-right
         left   ->   cursor-left
         up     ->   up-history
         down   ->   down-history

       The  cursor  keys  normally generate a keysequence that start with an escape character, so
       beware that using the arrow keys will put you into command mode (if you aren't already  in
       command mode).

       The following are the terminal-independent key bindings for vi input mode.

         ^D     ->   list-or-eof
         ^G     ->   list-glob
         ^H     ->   backward-delete-char
         ^I     ->   complete-word
         \r     ->   newline
         \n     ->   newline
         ^L     ->   clear-screen
         ^N     ->   down-history
         ^P     ->   up-history
         ^R     ->   redisplay
         ^U     ->   backward-kill-line
         ^W     ->   backward-delete-word
         ^X*    ->   expand-filename
         ^X^F   ->   read-from-file
         ^X^R   ->   read-init-files
         ^?     ->   backward-delete-char

       The  following  are  the  key  bindings  that  are  defined in vi command mode, this being
       specified by them all starting with a meta character. As mentioned above, once in  command
       mode  the initial meta character is optional. For example, you might enter command mode by
       typing Esc, and then press h twice to move the cursor two positions to the  left.  Both  h
       characters  get  quietly  converted to M-h before being compared to the key-binding table,
       the first one because Escape followed by a character is always converted to the equivalent
       meta character, and the second because command mode was already active.

         M-\     ->   cursor-right     (Meta-space)
         M-$     ->   end-of-line
         M-*     ->   expand-filename
         M-+     ->   down-history
         M--     ->   up-history
         M-<     ->   beginning-of-history
         M->     ->   end-of-history
         M-^     ->   beginning-of-line
         M-;     ->   repeat-find-char
         M-,     ->   invert-refind-char
         M-|     ->   goto-column
         M-~     ->   change-case
         M-.     ->   vi-repeat-change
         M-%     ->   find-parenthesis
         M-a     ->   vi-append
         M-A     ->   vi-append-at-eol
         M-b     ->   backward-word
         M-B     ->   backward-word
         M-C     ->   vi-change-rest-of-line
         M-cb    ->   vi-backward-change-word
         M-cB    ->   vi-backward-change-word
         M-cc    ->   vi-change-line
         M-ce    ->   vi-forward-change-word
         M-cE    ->   vi-forward-change-word
         M-cw    ->   vi-forward-change-word
         M-cW    ->   vi-forward-change-word
         M-cF    ->   vi-backward-change-find
         M-cf    ->   vi-forward-change-find
         M-cT    ->   vi-backward-change-to
         M-ct    ->   vi-forward-change-to
         M-c;    ->   vi-change-refind
         M-c,    ->   vi-change-invert-refind
         M-ch    ->   vi-backward-change-char
         M-c^H   ->   vi-backward-change-char
         M-c^?   ->   vi-backward-change-char
         M-cl    ->   vi-forward-change-char
         M-c\    ->   vi-forward-change-char  (Meta-c-space)
         M-c^    ->   vi-change-to-bol
         M-c0    ->   vi-change-to-bol
         M-c$    ->   vi-change-rest-of-line
         M-c|    ->   vi-change-to-column
         M-c%    ->   vi-change-to-parenthesis
         M-dh    ->   backward-delete-char
         M-d^H   ->   backward-delete-char
         M-d^?   ->   backward-delete-char
         M-dl    ->   forward-delete-char
         M-d     ->   forward-delete-char    (Meta-d-space)
         M-dd    ->   delete-line
         M-db    ->   backward-delete-word
         M-dB    ->   backward-delete-word
         M-de    ->   forward-delete-word
         M-dE    ->   forward-delete-word
         M-dw    ->   forward-delete-word
         M-dW    ->   forward-delete-word
         M-dF    ->   backward-delete-find
         M-df    ->   forward-delete-find
         M-dT    ->   backward-delete-to
         M-dt    ->   forward-delete-to
         M-d;    ->   delete-refind
         M-d,    ->   delete-invert-refind
         M-d^    ->   backward-kill-line
         M-d0    ->   backward-kill-line
         M-d$    ->   kill-line
         M-D     ->   kill-line
         M-d|    ->   delete-to-column
         M-d%    ->   delete-to-parenthesis
         M-e     ->   forward-word
         M-E     ->   forward-word
         M-f     ->   forward-find-char
         M-F     ->   backward-find-char
         M--     ->   up-history
         M-h     ->   cursor-left
         M-H     ->   beginning-of-history
         M-i     ->   vi-insert
         M-I     ->   vi-insert-at-bol
         M-j     ->   down-history
         M-J     ->   history-search-forward
         M-k     ->   up-history
         M-K     ->   history-search-backward
         M-l     ->   cursor-right
         M-L     ->   end-of-history
         M-n     ->   history-re-search-forward
         M-N     ->   history-re-search-backward
         M-p     ->   append-yank
         M-P     ->   yank
         M-r     ->   vi-replace-char
         M-R     ->   vi-overwrite
         M-s     ->   vi-forward-change-char
         M-S     ->   vi-change-line
         M-t     ->   forward-to-char
         M-T     ->   backward-to-char
         M-u     ->   vi-undo
         M-w     ->   forward-to-word
         M-W     ->   forward-to-word
         M-x     ->   forward-delete-char
         M-X     ->   backward-delete-char
         M-yh    ->   backward-copy-char
         M-y^H   ->   backward-copy-char
         M-y^?   ->   backward-copy-char
         M-yl    ->   forward-copy-char
         M-y\    ->   forward-copy-char  (Meta-y-space)
         M-ye    ->   forward-copy-word
         M-yE    ->   forward-copy-word
         M-yw    ->   forward-copy-word
         M-yW    ->   forward-copy-word
         M-yb    ->   backward-copy-word
         M-yB    ->   backward-copy-word
         M-yf    ->   forward-copy-find
         M-yF    ->   backward-copy-find
         M-yt    ->   forward-copy-to
         M-yT    ->   backward-copy-to
         M-y;    ->   copy-refind
         M-y,    ->   copy-invert-refind
         M-y^    ->   copy-to-bol
         M-y0    ->   copy-to-bol
         M-y$    ->   copy-rest-of-line
         M-yy    ->   copy-line
         M-Y     ->   copy-line
         M-y|    ->   copy-to-column
         M-y%    ->   copy-to-parenthesis
         M-^E    ->   emacs-mode
         M-^H    ->   cursor-left
         M-^?    ->   cursor-left
         M-^L    ->   clear-screen
         M-^N    ->   down-history
         M-^P    ->   up-history
         M-^R    ->   redisplay
         M-^D    ->   list-or-eof
         M-^I    ->   complete-word
         M-\r    ->   newline
         M-\n    ->   newline
         M-^X^R  ->   read-init-files
         M-^Xh   ->   list-history

         M-0, M-1, ... M-9  ->  digit-argument  (see below)

       Note that ^I is what the TAB key generates.

ENTERING REPEAT COUNTS

       Many  of  the key binding functions described previously, take an optional count, typed in
       before the target keysequence.  This is interpreted as a repeat count by most bindings.  A
       notable  exception  is  the  goto-column  binding,  which interprets the count as a column
       number.

       By default you can specify this count argument by pressing the meta key  while  typing  in
       the  numeric count. This relies on the digit-argument action being bound to Meta-0, Meta-1
       etc.  Once any one of these bindings has been activated,  you  can  optionally  take  your
       finger  off  the  meta  key  to  type in the rest of the number, since every numeric digit
       thereafter is treated as part of the number, unless it is  preceded  by  the  literal-next
       binding.  As  soon  as  a  non-digit,  or literal digit key is pressed the repeat count is
       terminated and either causes the just typed character to be added to the  line  that  many
       times, or causes the next key-binding function to be given that argument.

       For example, in emacs mode, typing:

         M-12a

       causes the letter 'a' to be added to the line 12 times, whereas

         M-4M-c

       Capitalizes the next 4 words.

       In vi command mode the Meta modifier is automatically added to all characters typed in, so
       to enter a count in vi command-mode, just involves typing in the number, just as  it  does
       in the vi editor itself. So for example, in vi command mode, typing:

         4w2x

       moves the cursor four words to the right, then deletes two characters.

       You  can also bind digit-argument to other key sequences. If these end in a numeric digit,
       that digit gets appended to the current repeat count. If  it  doesn't  end  in  a  numeric
       digit,  a new repeat count is started with a value of zero, and can be completed by typing
       in the number, after letting go of the key which triggered the digit-argument action.

FILES

       libtecla.a      -    The Tecla library
       libtecla.h      -    The Tecla header file.
       ~/.teclarc      -    The personal Tecla customization file.

SEE ALSO

       libtecla(3), gl_get_line(3), gl_io_mode(3), ef_expand_file(3),
       cpl_complete_word(3), pca_lookup_file(3)

AUTHOR

       Martin Shepherd  (mcs@astro.caltech.edu)

                                                                                         tecla(7)